The Migratory Bird Program utilizes a number of different lists to direct U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service actions and priorities to manage and protect migratory birds.
- The Migratory Bird Treaty Act makes it illegal for anyone to take, possess, import, export, transport, sell, purchase, barter, or offer for sale, purchase, or barter, any migratory bird, or the parts, nests, or eggs of such a bird except under the terms of a valid permit issued pursuant to Federal regulations. The migratory bird species protected by the Act are listed in 50 CFR 10.13. View more information and the list at Migratory Bird Treaty Act.
- Focal Species - the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service initiated the Focal Species strategy to better measure its success in achieving its bird conservation priorities and mandates. The Focal Species strategy involves campaigns for selected species to provide explicit, strategic, and adaptive sets of conservation actions required to return the species to healthy and sustainable levels. For more information please see the Birds of Management Concern and Focal Species.
- Birds of Conservation Concern - The 1988 amendment to the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act mandates the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to “identify species, subspecies, and populations of all migratory nongame birds that, without additional conservation actions, are likely to become candidates for listing under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. "Birds of Conservation Concern 2021 (BCC 2021)" is the most recent effort to carry out this mandate. For more information about the list see Birds of Conservation Concern.
- Birds of Management Concern - are a subset of Migratory Bird Treaty Act - protected species which pose special management challenges because of a variety of factors (e.g., too few, too many, conflicts with human interests, societal demands). These species are of concern because of documented or apparent population declines, small or restricted populations, dependence on restricted or vulnerable habitats, or overabundant to the point of causing ecological and economic damage. For more information about the list see Birds of Management Concern.