Seasons of Wildlife

Due to the Central Pacific location of Howland Island National Wildlife Refuge, shore and seabirds can be found nesting year round. Green sea turtle and hawksbill turtles can be seeing foraging for food near Howland. 

Featured Species

Howland Island National Wildlife Refuge is home to numerous species of unique wildlife. The low coral island is vegetated by herbs and grasses tolerant of the arid climate. It is surrounded by beaches on all sides composed of sand or coral shingle. The wildlife found in and around the island is rich with diversity ranging from a variety of birds, marine mammals, various species of reptiles, invertebrates, marine life, and flora.    

Marine Life

Green sea turtles and hawksbill turtles have also been observed foraging offshore. A total of 324 species of fish have been recorded in the surrounding reef that teams with 109 species of stony coral .


Thirteen species of seabirds nest on the island including boobies, frigatebirds, terns, noddies, and red-tailed tropicbirds. Nine shorebirds also reside on the island including bristle-thighed curlews, Pacific golden plovers, wandering tattlers, and ruddy turnstones.