About this Collection

Migratory birds face numerous threats throughout their annual cycles from human-caused sources. The U.S Fish & Wildlife Service is working with governments, conservation organizations, industry, and the public to reduce threats across the North American landscape to preserve our birds for future generations. There also many easy ways anyone in the general public can help protect birds around your communities.

What Are the Threats to Birds?

Many of the 1,093 species of birds protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act are experiencing population declines due to increased threats across the landscape. Of those 1,093 species, 89 bird species are listed as either threatened or endangered under the  U.S. Endangered Species Act. An additional 342 species are listed as Birds of Conservation Concern, in one or more geographic scales (e.g., local, regional, or national). For more information about bird declines in the U.S., visit the State of the Birds webpage.

Human-caused sources of bird mortality contribute cumulative or combined effects to declining bird populations. Millions of acres of bird habitat are lost or degraded every year due to development, agriculture, and forestry practices. These rapidly accelerating impacts can be mitigated only through habitat restoration and protection. In addition, millions of birds are directly killed by human-caused sources such as collisions with man-made structures such as windows and communication towers. 

Human-caused mortality impacts are exacerbated by the landscape alterations resulting from a changing climate. Birds in every habitat will be affected by human-caused sources, so conserving migratory bird populations requires a multi-faceted, coordinated approach by governments, conservation organizations, industry, and the general public.

How Many Birds are Killed?

True estimates of mortality are difficult to determine. However, recent studies have synthesized the best available data to estimated ranges of mortality to bird populations in North America from some of the most common, human-caused sources of bird mortality. These are listed in the table below. This list addresses only human-caused sources, not natural sources. Many additional human-caused threats to birds, both direct (causing immediate injury/death) and indirect (causing delayed negative effects to health or productivity) are not on this list because the extent of their impact is either not currently well researched or easily quantified. For instance, habitat loss is thought to pose by far the greatest threat to birds, both directly and indirectly, however, its overall impact on bird populations is very difficult to directly assess. Other common human-caused and natural threats to birds that are known, but not listed below include various entanglement and entrapment threats e.g., open pipes and nets); predation by other animals besides cats, including humans (e.g., poaching); weather events; starvation; and disease.

Top Threats to Birds (U.S. only. Ordered by Median Estimate of Bird Mortality Annually. As of 2017.)

Hazard/TypeMin RangeMax RangeMedian/Avg. Estimated
Habitat Loss/ConversionN/AN/AN/A
Collision - Building Glass
Loss et al. 2014a
Collisions - Communication towers
Longcore et al. 2012
Collisions - Electrical lines
Loss et al. 2014c
Collision - Vehicles
Loss et al. 2014b
Collisions - Land-based Wind Turbines
Loss et al. 2013b
Collisions - Offshore Wind TurbinesN/AN/AN/A
Collisions - Solar PanelsN/AN/AN/A
Loss et al. 2014c
Burning -Solar TowersN/AN/AN/A
Loss et al. 2013a
Oil Pits
Trail 2006
All (excluding cats)463,540,4381,058,227,586924,184,012
Industry only
(excludes cats and vehicles)

What is the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Doing to Reduce Mortality?

The Fish and Wildlife Service mission includes working with others to conserve natural resources. The many successful bird conservation initiatives the Service is a part of with partners are shining examples of how multi-organization collaborative partnerships can lead to conservation success.

In addition, the Fish and Wildlife Service provides information and assistance to industry and public seeking to develop projects in a manner that reduces impacts on birds and their habitats. Some of the resources the Service provides, and is constantly improving upon, are voluntary guidelines, best practice recommendations, and information and resources for developers for conducting environmental reviews striving for bird-friendly projects. This information empowers the public to understand potential impacts from various activities and provides recommendations on how to avoid or minimize those impacts. In addition, web-based applications are in development to make access to bird data, project planning information, and other decision support tools more easily and readily available to biologists, developers, and others that need them for facilitating decision-making where bird conservation is concerned. Finally, the Migratory Bird Program offers training for industry and partners to help understand their legal responsibilities; know where to go to obtain the information and tools needed for successful bird conservation; and understands the benefits of partnerships and how to more actively take advantage of partnership opportunities.

How Can You Help?

Everyone can help protect migratory birds. Whether it is taking actions around your home or workplace, designing bird-friendly projects, or just taking actions that reduce resource consumption, every action is one step towards protecting migratory birds for future generations. A few simple actions that can be taken include:

  • Participate in citizen science bird monitoring programs (e.g.,  eBird Breeding Bird Survey, Christmas Bird Counts, ; Urban Bird Treaties)
  • Reduce energy and water use
  • Recycle and use recycled products
  • Assess home and office for risk of bird/glass collisions and implement best practices
  • Keep cats indoors, on a leash when outside or in a "catio" to avoid predation
  • Reduce use of chemicals in environment

Migratory birds are among nature's most magnificent resources. Their conservation is a critical and challenging endeavor for the Migratory Bird Program and all who value nature.

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