Urocyon littoralis santacruzae

Santa Cruz Island Fox

FWS Focus


This is the smallest fox species known from the United States. Adult males weigh 2.00 kilograms on average, while adult females weigh 1.88 kilograms. Body length, including head and tail, ranges from 59 to 79 centimeters. Tail length alone ranges from 11 to 29 centimeters. Height at the shoulder is from 12 to 15 centimeters. Fur is greyish-white and black with cinnamon underfur on the dorsal side, and with pale white, yellow, and rusty-brown on the ventral surface. The chin, lips, nose, and areas around the eyes are lined in black while the sides of the rostrum are grey. The ears, neck, and sides of the limbs are cinnamon-colored. The tail has a contrasting thin black stripe on the dorsal side with a mane of stiff hairs. The underside of the tail is a rusty color. Fur color may differ among islands and be highly variable among individuals, ranging from overall greyish to honey brown and red. Island grey foxes molt once a year during the fall months from August to November. At that time, the fur coat fades in color and the fur tips curl at the ends. Young foxes tend to have a paler but thicker dorsal fur coat compared to adults. In addition, the ears are darker in color compared to adult foxes.

Scientific Name

Urocyon littoralis santacruzae
Common Name
Santa Cruz Island Fox
FWS Category

Location in Taxonomic Tree

Identification Numbers



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