Fallon National Wildlife Refuge was established to conserve wetlands and provide habitat for migrating waterfowl at the terminus of the Carson River. In most years the river runs dry before reaching the refuge. However, during years with high runoff, the refuge gets flooded and can provide good habitat for waterfowl and shorebirds. Access to the refuge is difficult and requires a vehicle with high ground clearance/four-wheel drive. The road is impassable after a rainstorm. Fallon National Wildlife Refuge is open to hunting according to state regulations, but because it is dry most of the time there are limited opportunities for most species.