Welcome to the Arizona Ecological Services Field Office.

About Us

Welcome to the Arizona Ecological Services Field Office. Within Arizona, we have offices in Phoenix, Flagstaff, and Tucson. We work to protect endangered and threatened species, migratory birds, freshwater fish and wildlife habitat in Arizona. There are more than 60 threatened and endangered plants and animals throughout the state. We collaborate with many private, Tribal, City, County, State, Federal and other organizations and partners to preserve and protect living resources of Arizona ecosystems. In addition, we have staff who focus on environmental contaminants, and who work specifically with tribal and private partners to benefit wildlife on non-federal lands. 

What We Do

Our mission is to work with others to conserve, protect, and enhance fish, wildlife, plants, and their habitats for the continuing benefit of the American people. 

Our Organization

The Ecological Services Program works to restore and protect healthy populations of fish, wildlife, and plants and the environments upon which they depend. Using the best available science, we work with federal, state, Tribal, local, and non-profit stakeholders, as well as private land owners, to...

Our Species

Arizona is an ecologically diverse state that provides habitat to a wide variety of plants and animals. The state contains part or all of the four North American deserts: the Sonoran, Chihuahuan, Mojave, and Great Basin. In addition, Arizona is known for its grasslands, forests, mountains, and rivers, which cover many biological zones of life, from lowland hot, dry deserts to high-altitude cooler, wetter coniferous forests and alpine tundra. There are 72 threatened, endangered, or candidate species in Arizona, including 10 mammals, 9 birds, 5 reptiles, 2 amphibians, 21 fishes, 2 snails, 1 insect, and 22 plants. Many of these species also have designated critical habitat. 

A leopard frog with a distinctive color pattern of small, raised, cream-colored spots on the thigh against a dark background with relatively rough skin on the back and sides, dorsolateral folds that are interrupted and deflected medially, and often green on the head and back. A distinctive call (a...
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Tiger salamanders are large and stocky, 7.6-16.5 cm (3.0-6.5 in.), with small eyes, broad rounded snout, no parotid glands, and tubercles on the underside of front and hind feet. The dorsum has yellow to dark olive spots and blotches (reticulation), often with irregular edges between front and hind...
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Unlike most owls, Mexican spotted owls have dark eyes. They are an ashy-chestnut brown color with white and brown spots on their abdomen, back and head. Their brown tails are marked with thin white bands. They lack ear tufts. Young owls less than 5 months old have a downy appearance. Females are...

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Small; usually a little less than 6 inches in length, including tail. Conspicuous light-colored wingbars. Lacks the conspicuous pale eye-ring of many similar Empidonax species. Overall, body brownish-olive to gray-green above. Throat whitish, breast pale olive, and belly yellowish. Bill relatively...
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Yellow-billed cuckoos are fairly large, long, and slim birds. The mostly yellow bill is almost as long as the head, thick and slightly downcurved. They have a flat head, thin body, and very long tail. Wings appear pointed and swept back in flight. Yellow-billed cuckoos are warm brown above and...

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A marsh bird the size of a chicken, the Yuma Ridgway's rail is gray-brown above and buffy-cinnamon below, mottled brown or gray on its rump and has brownish-gray cheeks and flanks barred with black and white. Its somewhat orange bill is long, slender and slightly down-curved. The Yuma Ridgway's...

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Small (2 inches) smoothly rounded body shape with narrow vertical bars on the sides. Breeding males blue on head and sides with yellow on tail. Females and juveniles tan to olive colored back and silvery sides. Two subspecies are recognized: Desert Pupfish (C.m. macularis) and Quitobaquito Pupfish...
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A small (2.5-5 cm), silvery, live-bearing, guppy-like fish without dark spots on the fins. Males in breeding color are black with yellow fins. There are two listed subspecies of the Sonoran topminnow (P. occidentalis); the Gila topminnow (P. o.occidentalis) of the Gila River basin and the Yaqui...

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A small-finned minnow with a deep and chubby body averaging 6 inches (males) with females reaching 8 inches. Deep compressed body, flat head. Dark olive-gray color above, silver sides.
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The spinedace is described as a small (about 4 inches) silvery minnow. There are minimal differences between the sexes. The pectoral fin on males is larger than females, but both males and females are relatively the same size. During breeding season the bases of paired fins in males has been...
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A small member of the minnow family with an elongated body that is flattened ventrally. There are eight rays in the dorsal fin and seven in the anal fin. The lateral line has approximately 65 scales. Coloration tends to be olivaceous background, with a lot of blotches in darker pigments. There...
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The Huachuca springsnail is a moderate to large-sized springsnail with a shell height of 0.07 to 0.13 inches (1.7 to 3.2 millimeters). The shell is moderately convex with slightly shouldered whorls. The inner lip of the shell is thin. The aperture is fused to or separate from body whorl. The...
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Click on "Additional species information" below for link to Page springsnail species page on the Arizona Ecological Services Office webpage
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The San Bernardino springsnail (Pyrgulopsis bernardina) is one of approximately 170 known species of Hydrobiids in the United States. Hershler (1994, pp. 21-22) describes the species as follows: a narrow-conic shell, height 1.3 to 1.7 mm, and 3.25-4.0 whorls (twists); operculum (shell opening)...
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The Three Forks springsnail was originally described as Fontelicella trivialis by Taylor (1987, pp. 30, 32) and later Pyrgulopsis confluentis by Hershler and Landye (1988, pp. 32, 35) from a spring-fed pond at Three Forks, Apache County, Arizona. The species was renamed Pyrgulopsis trivialis by...
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The Hualapai Mexican Vole is an endangered mammal of Arizona. It is a rodent that is about 4-6 inches long. It has cinnamon brown and black fur, a short tail, and long fur that nearly covers its small round ears. It lives in forests with pine trees and grassy meadows. The species taxon may...
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A large, heavy-bodied, big-headed cat. Yellowish to tawny, spotted with black rosettes or rings in horizontal rows along the back and sides; most rings are tan inside, with 1 or 2 black spots. Legs, head, and tail have smaller, solid spots, usually giving way to incomplete bands near the end of...

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Slightly larger than a domestic cat; appearance is unlike any other cat – looks more like a large weasel or otter; uniform in color with a dark gray-brown to chestnut brown coat; darker animals usually found in the dense forest while the lighter individuals are found in more arid and open areas;...
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Leptonycteris curasoae is a yellow-brown or cinnamon gray bat, with a total head and body measurement of approximately 3 inches (7.62 cm). The tongue measures approximately the same length as the body. This species also has a small noseleaf. The wingspan of L. curasoae is approximately 10 inches (...
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The Mount Graham squirrel is tiny, weighing a mere 8 ounces (224 grams) and measuring about 8 inches in length, with a 6-inch long fluffy tail. Unlike many other squirrels, the Mount Graham species does not have a white-fringed tail. Females and males look much alike; they are grayish brown in...
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The acuña cactus (Echinomastus erectocentrus var. acunensis) was listed as Endangered on October 1, 2013 under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. On August 18, 2016, 7,501 hectares of critical habitat was designated for the acuña cactus. The taxon is known from...

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The Arizona hedgehog cactus is a dark green succulent perennial plant in the Cactaceae family. Individual plants have large, robust stems that distinguish it from other species of Echinocereus. Stems range in size from 2.5 to 16 inches in height and six to ten inches in diameter. Immature plants...
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Graptopetalum bartramii is a small, succulent (fleshy), acaulescent (without a stem) perennial plant in the Crassulaceae or stonecrop family. The plant has a basal rosette that is 7 to 16 centimeters (cm) (2.75 to 6.3 inches (in)) wide comprised of 20 or more flat to concave, smooth, blue-green...

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Pectis imberbis is an erect, many-branched, perennial herb growing 3-12 decimeters (dm) (12 to 47 inches (in)) from a woody caudex (stem base). The glabrous (without hairs) leaves are 1 to 5 cm (0.4 to 2 in) in length and 1 to 2 millimeters (mm) (0.04 to 0.08 in) wide with pointed tips, becoming...
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A slender, erect, perennial terrestrial orchid that reaches 50 cm including the spiral flower cluster. Five to ten linear-lanceolate leaves grow basally on the stem arising from fleshy, swollen roots. The flower stalk contains up to 40 small white flowers.
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A small (1-1.5 cm above ground) unbranched cactus, usually not more than 4 cm wide. Has "cottony" areoles and bright white radial spines. Central spines usually lacking, but each areole may have 1-3 slender spines. Most of the stem remains underground all year, during dry periods the portion of...

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A small cactus that is around 3 inches tall, and 1.5 inches in diameter. Flowers during blooming are small, and cream, yellow, or yellowish-green. The spines are corky, with the central spine around 3/8 inch long, ashy white, and pointed up. Tubercles form a spiral pattern around the plant....
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Gierisch mallow is a perennial, flowering member of the mallow family. S. gierischii is only found on gypsum outcrops associated with the Harrisburg Member of the Kaibab Formation in northern Mohave County, Arizona and closely adjacent Washington County, Utah (Atwood and Welsh 2002, p. 161). The...
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Lilaeopsis schaffneriana ssp. recurva is a semi-aquatic to fully aquatic herbaceous perennial in the carrot family (Apiaceae). The root system is comprised of both long horizontal rhizomes and connected shorter vertical rhizomes. Hollow linear leaves that taper to a point are produced singly or...

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The blue-star is a small (up to 90 cm) perennial subshrub with a thickened woody root. The species has up to 50 sparingly-branched stems arising from the base. Leaves are alternate, oblong to lanceolate and pubescent. White flowers are clustered at the end of the inflorescence. Mature plant may...

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A slender, perennial forb that is between 10 and 18 inches tall. The stem is triangular, and the leaves are pale green. Leaves are between 5 and 8 inches long, and are clustered near the plant’s base. Flowers are small and inconspicuous, consisting of green-brown scale like parts. The flowers...
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A small, blue-green to gray-green, barrel cactus that is globose. As it grows the cactus will become more columnar. Large individuals can range in height of 16 to 20 inches tall and 5 to 8 inches wide. Individuals are single stemmed with 8 ribs that spiral around the base to the apex. Each...
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This cactus is a very small globose cactus, reaching an inch tall and .74 inch in diameter. Stems are solitary, and rarely clustered. There are between three and five radial spines that are arranged in a twisted cross. There are no central spines. Flowers are yellow to yellow-green and can be...
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A low-growing hemispherical cactus that may be found as single or multi-stemmed plants. Adults measure 4-18 inches tall and 3-7 inches in diameter. The spines are stout and arranged in clusters with one central hooked spine and 6-15 radial straight spines. Spines are originally straw colored,...

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