The oldest known common loons find continued success at Seney National Wildlife Refuge

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A common loon’s iconic wail provides the summer soundtrack to northern waters. Their striking black and white breeding plumage and impressive ability to dive for fish captivate all who are lucky enough to spot them. We at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service want to tell you about one particularly impressive pair of common loons - a pair that’s made up of both of the oldest known common loons in the world.

Since 1997, a breeding pair of common loons has been meeting up and raising young at Seney National Wildlife Refuge in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula, roughly halfway between Lake Superior and Lake Michigan. As it turns out, this pair is made up not only of the oldest documented common loons in the world, they are also noted as one of the most productive pairs. What makes this situation even more impressive is that common loons do not typically mate for life. Despite all odds, these old birds have been in it for the long haul, and their special bond continues to pay off.

Identifying birds and observing behavior

The pair of oldest known common loons with their young.

Leg bands help identify individual birds so researchers can track their age and movements while observing their behavior without disruption. Refuge biologists banded the male known as ‘ABJ’ in 1987 when he was a young chick, which makes him the oldest common loon of an exact known age. In 1990, on the same waters, researchers banded a female known as ‘Fe’ when she was already a successful mother, making her at least 4 years old. ‘Fe’ has lived on to become the oldest known common loon overall.

Thriving in ideal habitat

What’s the secret to long life and a successful family? Is it good genetics? Good food? A big part of this pair’s success is likely related to where they've chosen to live. Their summer home in the quiet waters among the pines and northern hardwood forests of the Upper Peninsula provides the right combination of food, water and shelter. Seney National Wildlife Refuge is a remote refuge of more than 95,000 acres where more than a dozen common loon pairs breed and raise their young in the summer months. Because these refuge waters are closed to boating, the loons benefit from added security.

Common loons are well adapted to life in the water, but are clumsy on land. They choose nesting sites that are close to the water’s edge, but away from mainland predators, allowing them to quickly escape into the water if they feel threatened. Chicks can swim and dive shortly after hatching, but are so buoyant they can't get very far under water. It takes a few weeks for young to improve their diving skills. During the first couple of weeks after hatching, chicks commonly hitch a ride on their parents’ backs where they can rest, keep warm and stay safe from predators. Diligent loon parents spend a lot of time protecting their chicks while also catching fish and invertebrates for them to eat, even late into the season - long after the young are capable of catching their own prey.

Communication is key

Over the years, researchers have learned a lot about how common loons communicate with each other and even with people. Loons have four types of calls: yodels, hoots, tremolos and wails. All of these vocalizations have different purposes. Yodels are unique to any given male and are specific to their territory. In fact, he’ll change his yodel if he moves to a new territory! Hoots are more subdued and are ways for loons to communicate with their young or their mate. Tremolos are alarm calls that loons make when they want to send out an alert or want to make it clear that they are on a lake. When encountering loons on the water, hearing their wavering tremolo is a clear signal you are too close. Finally, the wail is that classic, haunting “call and repeat” that mates send and receive when they are trying to figure out each other's location.

2022 nesting season is underway

’Fe’ and ‘ABJ’ have both returned to the refuge and are expected to recouple and undertake their record 26th consecutive year as a breeding pair. If this occurs, they will be seeking to add to their lifetime productivity of 32 hatched offspring, another record for the species. Over the years, a handful of these young have returned to the refuge as breeding adults and some have raised their own offspring. 

Fall departure

At the end of each summer, as the autumn colors come to this northern landscape, ‘Fe’ and ‘ABJ’ will part ways. ‘Fe’ will likely depart first while ‘ABJ’ usually sticks around to tend to their young for a few more weeks. As they have done for decades, their fledgling will eventually fly off on its own. Each loon will make its way to overwintering habitat along ocean shores. Thanks to the decades of banding and monitoring by Common Coast Research and Conservation, we know the story of these two loons and annually look forward to their return and are hopeful they will have a productive summer.

The pair of oldest known common loons offer small fish to their young.

Story Tags

Migratory birds
Water birds
Wildlife refuges

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