Key West National Wildlife Refuge (Key West NWR) is among the first refuges established in the United States. President Theodore Roosevelt created the refuge in 1908 as a preserve and breeding ground for colonial nesting birds and other wildlife during the time when plume hunters were devastating bird populations throughout Florida.

Key West NWR is located west of the city of Key West, Florida, and is accessible only by boat.

The refuge consists of the Marquesas Keys and 13 other islands spread across 375 square miles of open water.  Most islands are dominated by mangrove plant communities. Exceptions are the hardwood hammock in the Marquesas Keys and the beaches and dunes on Marquesas, Boca Grande, and Woman Keys. All islands lack freshwater.
Key West National Wildlife Refuge Temporary Closures – November 8th-12th, 2023

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service will be closing Boca Grande Key, Woman Key, and the Marquesas Keys in Key West National Wildlife Refuge from November 8th-12th, 2023. All beach access will be closed to the public to protect wildlife and critical habitat from disturbance. These islands are all part of the Federal Wilderness System. Historically there has been extreme disturbance from boaters at this time of year in these areas and these closures aim to eliminate such impacts. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service along with partnering agencies will have an increased law enforcement presence at these locations to enforce the temporary closures. Anyone found violating these closures is subject to criminal prosecution by federal authorities and may be fined up to $5,000 and or six months imprisonment. 

Authority for the Refuge Manager to create this closure in a National Wildlife Refuge can be found in the Code of Federal Regulations - Title 50 – Chapter I –Subchapter C – Part 25 – Subpart B - §25.21(e) and Title 50 – Chapter I –Subchapter C – Part 25 – Subpart C - §25.31.  These regulations can be found at

Reference maps of these areas can be found on our Refuge website:  and on the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary Marine Zones website:  Click on Wildlife Management Areas specific to above mentioned islands.

For more information, please contact Chris Eggleston at 305-780-7509, or Greg Boling at 305-780-7526 and follow refuge updates here and Facebook page:

Visit Us

National wildlife refuges offer us all a chance to unplug from the stresses of daily life and reconnect with our natural surroundings 

Key West NWR is truly one of nature's masterpieces, encompassing thousands of acres of shallow saltwater and mangrove island habitat. The refuge waters are open 24 hours a day, 365 days a year for water-based activities such as boating, fishing, wildlife viewing, photography, snorkeling and diving.   

Key West NWR is accessible only by boat. To reach the refuge, visitors with boats can use a variety of public and private boat ramps throughout the Lower Florida Keys.  Private charter fishing and eco-tour services are also available and are a great way to visit the refuge if you don’t have your own boat. 

A great place to start your visit is at the Nature Center for the four Florida Keys NWRs, located at 30587 Overseas Highway on Big Pine Key.  

General regulations applicable to the entire Great White Heron NWR- 

Allowed Activities: 

  • Sport and commercial fishing in accordance with state fishing laws.  
  • Recreational boating with conventional propeller-driven crafts, kayaks, canoes, and sailboats.  
  • SCUBA diving and snorkeling.  
  • Wildlife viewing and photography.  


Prohibited Activities: 

  • Use of personal watercraft (jet skis), hovercrafts or airboats.  
  • No pets on beaches.
  • Landing airplanes, helicopters or ultralights.  
  • Camping on islands.  
  • Search for or removal of antiquities.   
  • No hunting or discharging of firearms.  
  • Feeding or harassing wildlife strictly prohibited.  
  • No littering. Be especially careful of monofilament fishing line; please take it home and dispose of it there. 
  • No waterskiing, towing of tubes, or similar. 

Additional Island Specific Zoning Regulations --

Some islands within the refuge with additional island specific regulations are refered to as Wildlife Management Areas, for example Boca Grande Key, Marquesas Keys, Snipes Keys, Marvin Key and Contents Keys - click the link for maps and detailed information.

Island Specific Zoning for Wildlife Management Areas


Location and Contact Information

      About Us

      The refuge consists of thousands of acres of open shallow saltwater and mangrove islands, and is known locally as “the backcountry." The refuge provides nesting, feeding, and resting areas for wading birds, shorebirds, raptors and hundreds of other species of birds. Several species of sea turtles (loggerhead, green and hawksbill) forage here and nest on the beaches within the refuge. Florida manatee and Atlantic bottle-nosed dolphin are commonly seen within the shallow waters. The last wild populations of the endangered Miami blue butterfly are found in this refuge.

      With few exceptions the refuge’s backcountry islands are pristine uninhabited islands in federal ownership. All of the islands within the refuge (except Ballast Key) are part of the federal National Wilderness System.

      The USFWS co-manages the submerged lands managed by the State of Florida through a Management Agreement for Submerged Lands within Boundaries of the Key West and Great White Heron NWRs (Management Agreement). Adopted in 1992, the Backcountry Management Agreement prohibits the use of certain watercraft and activities and creates zoning regulations for certain islands. The Service also partners with NOAA’s Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary to manage these islands that are formally refered to as "Wildlife Management Areas".

      Our Library

      Key West Great White Heron Tear Sheet with Map

      Information sheet for Key West and Great White Heron NWRs.