[Please see 50 CFR §16 for regulations regarding Injurious Wildlife]

The summary below shows only wildlife species that are currently listed as injurious and includes updated numbers for taxonomic changes to the species’ names. A few species were originally listed as early as 1900 by Congress (fruit bats and a mongoose), but the Effective Date shown here for those and the other species reflects when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service regulations took effect. Congress listed other species by statute after 1900, shown as “C” under “Effective Date.

The regulations cover only live specimens unless otherwise noted. All species of Salmonidae (salmon, trout, char, grayling, freshwater whitefish) are considered injurious due to risk of carrying pathogens that are harmful to fish, unless the salmonids are imported with a health certification or are dead and eviscerated (see 50 CFR 16.13). Twenty genera of salamanders (live, dead, parts) are considered injurious due to risk of carrying the fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (see 50 CFR 16.14).

MAMMALS (§16.11)

Common NameScientific NameNumber of SpeciesEffective Date
Bats, fruit (flying foxes; genus)Pteropus spp.65August 13, 1952
Dhole (Indian wild dog, red dog)Cuon sp.1January 1, 1966
Dog, raccoonNyctereutes procyonoides1January 17, 1983
Mongooses, meerkatsGenera: Atilax, Cynictis, Helogale, Herpestes, Ichneumia, Mungos, and Suricata19January 1, 1966
Possum, brushtailTrichosurus vulpecula1July 11, 2002
Rabbit, EuropeanOryctolagus sp.1August 13, 1952
Rats (or Mice), multimammateMastomys spp.8January 1, 1966

MAMMALS Subtotal = 96

BIRDS (§16.12)

Common NameScientific NameNumber of SpeciesEffective Date
Bulbul, red-whiskeredPycnonotus jocosus1July 1, 1968
DiochQuelea quelea1July 1, 1968
Sparrow, JavaPadda oryzivora1July 1, 1968
Starling, pink (rosy pastor)Sturnus roseus1January 1, 1966

BIRDS Subtotal = 4

FISHES (§16.13)

(News Release - September 30, 2016) Service Acts to Prevent Harm to Native Wildlife from 11 Nonnative Species

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service announced a final rule on September 30, 2016, to add 11 nonnative freshwater species to the list of injurious wildlife under the Lacey Act: 10 fish (crucian carp, Eurasian minnow, Prussian carp, roach, stone moroko, Nile perch, Amur sleeper, European perch, zander, wels catfish) and 1 crayfish (common yabby).  The rule went into effect on October 31, 2016.

Common NameScientific NameNumber of SpeciesEffective Date
Carp, bigheadHypophthalmichthys nobilis1Dec. 14, 2010 C
Carp, blackMylopharyngodon piceus1November 19, 2007
Carp, crucianCarassius carassius1October 31, 2016
Carp, largescale silverHypophthalmichthys harmandi1August 9, 2007
Carp, PrussianCarassius gibelio1October 31, 2016
Carp, silverHypophthalmichthys molitrix1August 9, 2007
Catfishes, walkingFamily Clariidae (genera include Bathyclarias, Channallabes, Clariallabes, Clarias, Dinotopterus, Dolichallabes, Encheloclarias, Gymnallabes, Heterobranchus, Horaglanis, Platyallabes, Platyclarias,Tanganikallabes, Uegitglanis, Xenoclarias)118January 1, 1970
Catfish, welsSilurus glanis1October 31, 2016
Minnow, EurasianPhoxinus phoxinus1October 31, 2016
Moroko, stonePseudorasbora parva1October 31, 2016
Perch, EuropeanPerca fluviatilis1October 31, 2016
Perch, NileLates niloticus1October 31, 2016
RoachRutilus rutilus1October 31, 2016
Salmon family (due to risk of pathogens)Family Salmonidae (genera include Brachymystax, Coregonus, Hucho, Oncorhynchus, Parahucho, Parasalmo, Prosopium, Salmo, Salvelinus, Salvethymus, Stenodus, and Thymallus)242July 1, 1968
Sleeper, AmurPerccottus glenii1October 31, 2016
Snakehead (family)Family Channidae (genera include Aenigmachanna, Channa, Parachanna)57October 4, 2002
ZanderSander lucioperca1October 31, 2016

FISHES Subtotal = 431

without Salmon family = 189


Common NameGenus SpeciesNumber of SpeciesEffective Date
Crabs, mitten (genus)Eriocheir spp.5June 22, 1989
Mussel, quaggaDreissena rostriformis or

D. bugensis
1December 4, 2018 C
Mussel, zebraDreissena polymorpha1January 23, 1990 C
Yabby, common (a crayfish)Cherax destructor1October 31, 2016



(News Release - January 12, 2016 ) Listing Salamanders as Injurious Due to Risk of Salamander Chytrid Fungus 

To help prevent a deadly fungus from killing native salamanders, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service published an interim rule to list 201 salamander species as injurious wildlife under the Lacey Act. The fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans, also known as Bsal or salamander chytrid, is carried on the skin of various salamander species.

Common NameGenus SpeciesNumber of SpeciesEffective Date
Salamanders (due to risk of Bsal)Genera: Chioglossa, Cynops, Euproctus, Hydromantes, Hynobius, Ichthyosaura, Lissotriton, Neurergus, Notophthalmus, Onychodactylus, Paramesotriton, Plethodon, Pleurodeles, Salamandra, Salamandrella, Salamandrina, Siren, Taricha, Triturus, and Tylototriton236*January 28, 2016

AMPHIBIANS Subtotal = 236*

*Number does not include Triturus hongkongensis, which is not a valid scientific name but is used in import declarations. It is synonymous with Paramesotriton hongkongensis; both names are covered under the listing.

REPTILES (§16.15)

(News Release - March 6, 2015) Service Lists Four Nonnative, Large Constrictor Snakes as Injurious Wildlife 

Common NameFamily, Genus, or SpeciesNumber of SpeciesEffective Date
Anaconda, BeniEunectes beniensis1April 9, 2015
Anaconda, DeSchauensee’sEunectes deschauenseei1April 9, 2015
Anaconda, greenEunectes murinus1April 9, 2015
Anaconda, yellowEunectes notaeus1March 23, 2012
Python, BurmesePython bivittatus (originally listed as Python molurus)1March 23, 2012
Python, IndianPython molurus1March 23, 2012
Python, northern AfricanPython sebae1March 23, 2012
Python, reticulatedPython reticulatus (or Broghammerus reticulatus, or Malayopython, reticulatus)1April 9, 2015
Python, southern AfricanPython natalensis1March 23, 2012
Snake, brown treeBoiga irregularis1May 25, 1990; December 13, 1991 C

REPTILES Subtotal = 10

TOTAL without Salmonidae and salamanders = 307