Fishing season is in accordance with state regulations. Freshwater fishing is offered in Back Bay and D-Pool, where largemouth bass, perch, catfish and bluegill are common. Surf fishing from the beach may bring anglers bluefish, whiting (kingfish), croaker, spot, redfish and others. Because Back Bay and the oceanfront are approximately a quarter-mile apart, anglers can bring both salt- and freshwater bait and tackle and try both in one day. The three public fishing facilities include D-Pool, with two accessible parking spots and fishing platform; a fishing dock over Back Bay; and approximately three miles of oceanfront. The D-Pool fishing location has the following additional regulations: catch-and-release for game fish, creel limit of 10 for non-game species, no live minnow bait, and the use of barbless or flattened hooks is required.
The unique location of Back Bay Refuge provides for diverse fishing opportunities. Freshwater fishing is available on the Back Bay and in the D-Pool fishing area. Handicapped parking is provided adjacent to the D-pool dock. Surf fishing can be enjoyed along the beach. The Seaside and Dune Trails provide access through the dunes. The vehicle access ramp should not be used as pedestrian access. A special night surf fishing program provides beach access until midnight during the month of October, with the purchase of a Special Use Permit. An additional freshwater fishing location is available at the Horn Point Kayak/Canoe Launch site, located at the end of Horn Point Road on the west side of Back Bay. This site also includes a soft, earthen kayak/canoe launch, restroom facilities and an informational kiosk. All state catch limits apply and a valid Virginia fishing license is required for all fishing activities at Back Bay Refuge.