Each year we count duck broods to index production. This survey targets Lesser Scaup and counts begin around 21 July. Up to 43 wetlands are sampled, spread among 2-4 wetland complexes. Counts are conducted on foot or from small inflatable boats. Relative to the long-term pattern, we look for decreases, no change, increases, or big increases in production across index waterbodies. 

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A bright blue sky obstructed by fluffy white clouds reflected off of a stream shot from inside a kayak
The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service manages an unparalleled network of public lands and waters called the National Wildlife Refuge System. With more than 570 refuges spanning the country, this system protects iconic species and provides some of the best wildlife viewing opportunities on Earth.


a lynx walks warily through the snow between willow shrubs
Yukon Flats Refuge is the nation’s third largest wildlife refuge. With the Brooks Range to the north and the jagged limestone peaks of the White Mountains to the south, this refuge encompasses the so-called "Yukon Flats" - a vast fire-dependent area of wetlands, forest, bog, and low-lying ground...