Bitterweed (Helenium amarum) occurs all across North Carolina, including Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge. You'll find it along the roadsides as well as refuge dikes. It is slightly toxic and has a bitter taste that can be passed on through the milk of feeding wildlife. And if it gets into grazing pastures the bitterness can transfer to the milk of domestic goats and dairy cows.

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Wildlife refuges
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