[Federal Register Volume 83, Number 229 (Wednesday, November 28, 2018)]
[Proposed Rules]
[Pages 61288-61307]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2018-25634]

[[Page 61287]]

Vol. 83


No. 229

November 28, 2018

Part IV

Department of the Interior


 Fish and Wildlife Service


50 CFR Part 10

General Provisions; Revised List of Migratory Birds; Proposed Rules

Federal Register / Vol. 83 , No. 229 / Wednesday, November 28, 2018 / 
Proposed Rules

[[Page 61288]]



Fish and Wildlife Service

50 CFR Part 10

[Docket No. FWS-HQ-MB-2018-0047; FXMB 12320900000//189//FF09M29000]
RIN 1018-BC67

General Provisions; Revised List of Migratory Birds

AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior.

ACTION: Proposed rule.


SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to 
revise the List of Migratory Birds protected by the Migratory Bird 
Treaty Act (MBTA) by both adding and removing species. Reasons for the 
changes to the list include adding species based on new taxonomy and 
new evidence of natural occurrence in the United States or U.S. 
territories, removing species no longer known to occur within the 
United States or U.S. territories, and changing names to conform to 
accepted use. The net increase of 59 species (66 added and 7 removed) 
would bring the total number of species protected by the MBTA to 1,085. 
We regulate the taking, possession, transportation, sale, purchase, 
barter, exportation, and importation of migratory birds. An accurate 
and up-to-date list of species protected by the MBTA is essential for 
public notification and regulatory purposes.

DATES: We will accept comments received or postmarked on or before 
January 28, 2019. Comments submitted electronically using the Federal 
eRulemaking Portal (see ADDRESSES, below) must be received by 11:59 
p.m. Eastern Time on the closing date.

ADDRESSES: You may submit comments by one of the following methods:
    (1) Electronically: Go to the Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov. In the Search box, enter FWS-HQ-MB-2018-0047, 
which is the docket number for this rulemaking. Then, click on the 
Search button. On the resulting page, in the Search panel on the left 
side of the screen, under the Document Type heading, click on the 
Proposed Rule box to locate this document. You may submit a comment by 
clicking on ``Comment Now!''
    (2) By hard copy: Submit by U.S. mail or hand-delivery to: Public 
Comments Processing, Attn: FWS-HQ-MB-2018-0047, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, MS: BPHC, 5275 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041-3803.
    We request that you send comments only by the methods described 
above. We will post all comments on http://www.regulations.gov. This 
generally means that we will post any personal information you provide 
us (see Public Comments, below, for more information).

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Eric L. Kershner, Chief of the Branch 
of Conservation, Permits, and Regulations; Division of Migratory Bird 
Management; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; MS: MB; 5275 Leesburg Pike, 
Falls Church, VA 22041-3803; (703) 358-2376.


What statutory authority does the service have for this rulemaking?

    We have statutory authority and responsibility for enforcing the 
MBTA (16 U.S.C. 703-712), the Fish and Wildlife Improvement Act of 1978 
(16 U.S.C. 742l), and the Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956 (16 U.S.C. 
742a-j). The MBTA implements Conventions between the United States and 
four neighboring countries for the protection of migratory birds, as 
    (1) Canada: Convention between the United States and Great Britain 
[on behalf of Canada] for the Protection of Migratory Birds, August 16, 
1916, 39 Stat. 1702 (T.S. No. 628), as amended by Protocol between the 
Government of the United States and the Government of Canada Amending 
the 1916 Convention between the United Kingdom and the United States of 
America for the Protection of Migratory Birds, Sen. Treaty Doc. 104-28 
(December 14, 1995);
    (2) Mexico: Convention between the United States and Mexico for the 
Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Mammals, February 7, 1936, 50 
Stat. 1311 (T.S. No. 912), as amended by Protocol with Mexico amending 
Convention for Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Mammals, Sen. 
Treaty Doc. 105-26 (May 5, 1997);
    (3) Japan: Convention between the Government of the United States 
of America and the Government of Japan for the Protection of Migratory 
Birds and Birds in Danger of Extinction, and Their Environment, March 
4, 1972, 25 U.S.T. 3329 (T.I.A.S. No. 7990); and
    (4) Russia: Convention between the United States of America and the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Concerning the Conservation of 
Migratory Birds and Their Environment (Russia), November 19, 1976, 29 
U.S.T. 4647 (T.I.A.S. No. 9073).

What is the purpose of this rulemaking?

    Our purpose is to inform the public of the species protected by the 
MBTA and its implementing regulations. These regulations are found in 
Title 50, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), parts 10, 20, and 21. We 
regulate the taking, possession, transportation, sale, purchase, 
barter, exportation, and importation of migratory birds. An accurate 
and up-to-date list of species protected by the MBTA is essential for 
notifying the public of regulatory protections.

Why is the amendment of the list of migratory birds necessary?

    The amendments we are proposing are needed to:
    (1) Add 17 species that qualify for protection under the MBTA;
    (2) Correct the spelling of 3 species names on the alphabetized 
    (3) Correct the spelling of 3 species names on the taxonomic list;
    (4) Add 22 species based on new distributional records documenting 
their natural occurrence in the United States or U.S. territories since 
    (5) Add one species moved from a family that was not protected to a 
family now protected under the MBTA as a result of taxonomic changes;
    (6) Add 26 species newly recognized as a result of recent taxonomic 
    (7) Remove 7 species not known to occur within the boundaries of 
the United States or U.S. territories as a result of recent taxonomic 
    (8) Change the common (English) names of 40 species to conform to 
accepted use; and
    (9) Change the scientific names of 114 species to conform to 
accepted use.
    The List of Migratory Birds (50 CFR 10.13) was last revised on 
November 1, 2013 (78 FR 65844). The amendments proposed in this rule 
were necessitated by eight published supplements to the 7th (1998) 
edition of the American Ornithologists' Union (AOU, now recognized as 
American Ornithological Society (AOS)) Check-list of North American 
Birds (AOU 2011, AOU 2012, AOU 2013, AOU 2014, AOU 2015, AOU 2016, AOS 
2017, and AOS 2018) and the 2017 publication of the Clements Checklist 
of Birds of the World (Clements et al. 2017).

What scientific authorities are used to amend the list of migratory 

    Although bird names (common and scientific) are relatively stable, 
staying current with standardized use is necessary to avoid confusion 
in communications. In making our determinations, we primarily relied on

[[Page 61289]]

the AOS's Checklist of North American birds (AOU 1998), as amended 
annually (AOU 1999 through 2016, AOS 2017, AOS 2018), on matters of 
taxonomy, nomenclature, and the sequence of species and other higher 
taxonomic categories (Orders, Families, Subfamilies) for species that 
occur in North America. The AOS Checklist contains all bird species 
that have occurred in North America from the Arctic through Panama, 
including the West Indies and the Hawaiian Islands, and includes 
distributional information for each species, which specifies whether 
the species is known to occur in the United States. For the species 
that occur outside the geographic area covered by the AOS Checklist, we 
relied on Clements et al. (2017) and peer-reviewed literature. Although 
we primarily rely on the above sources, when informed taxonomic opinion 
is inconsistent or controversial, we evaluate available published and 
unpublished information and come to our own conclusion regarding the 
validity of taxa.

What criteria are used to identify individual species protected by the 

    A species qualifies for protection under the MBTA by meeting one or 
more of the following criteria:
    (1) It occurs in the United States or U.S. territories as the 
result of natural biological or ecological processes and is currently, 
or was previously listed as, a species or part of a family protected by 
one of the four international treaties or their amendments. Any species 
that occurs in the United States or U.S. territories solely as a result 
of intentional or unintentional human-assisted introduction does not 
qualify for the MBTA list, regardless of whether the family the species 
belongs to is listed in any of the treaties, unless:

     It was native to the United States or its territories 
and extant in 1918;
     It was extirpated after 1918 throughout its range in 
the United States and its territories; and
     After such extirpation, it was reintroduced in the 
United States or its territories as part of a program carried out by 
a Federal agency.

    (2) Revised taxonomy results in it being newly split from a species 
that was previously on the list, and the new species occurs in the 
United States or U.S. territories as the result of natural biological 
or ecological processes. If a newly recognized native species is 
considered extinct (following the classification of the American 
Ornithological Society (AOS) or, for species not covered by the AOS, 
the Clements checklist or peer-reviewed literature), that species will 
still be included if either of the following criteria apply:
     The species resembles extant species included in the list 
that may be affected by trade if the species is not included; or
     Not including the species may create difficulties 
implementing the MBTA and its underlying Conventions.
    (3) New evidence exists for its natural occurrence in the United 
States or U.S. territories resulting from new or natural distributional 
changes and the species occurs in a protected family. Records must be 
documented, accepted, and published by the AOS committee. For the U.S. 
Pacific territories that fall outside the geographic scope of the AOS 
and for which there is no identified ornithological authority, new 
evidence of a species' natural occurrence will be based on the Clements 
checklist and then published peer-reviewed literature, in that order.
    In accordance with the Migratory Bird Treaty Reform Act of 2004 
(MBTRA) (Pub. L. 108-447, 118 Stat. 2809, 3071-72), we only include 
migratory bird species that are native to the United States or U.S. 
territories. A native migratory bird species is one that is present as 
a result of natural biological or ecological processes. The list at 50 
CFR 10.13 does not include nonnative species that occur in the United 
States or U.S. territories solely as a result of intentional or 
unintentional human-assisted introduction(s). Elsewhere in today's 
Federal Register, we publish a notice of availability of the draft 
revised list of nonnative bird species that are not protected under the 

How would the proposed changes affect the list of migratory birds?

    Several taxonomic changes were made at the Order and Family level 
by the AOS since our 2013 publication of the list (78 FR 65844; 
November 1, 2013). These changes affect the inclusion and taxonomic 
order of species on this list. Specifically, the Order Cathartiformes 
(New World vultures) was split from the Accipitriformes (diurnal birds 
of prey). Cathartiformes now includes the Family Cathartidae (vultures 
and California condor). At the Family level, the Oceanitidae (southern 
storm-petrels) was split from the Hydrobatidae (northern storm-
petrels), the Tityridae (becards and tityras) was split from the 
Tyrannidae (tyrant flycatchers), the Passerellidae (towhees, sparrows, 
and juncos) was split from the Emberizidae (buntings), the Megaluridae 
(Locustella warblers) was renamed to Locustellidae. The Ptilogonatidae 
(silky-flycatchers) was renamed to the Ptiliogonatidae. The 
Nesospingidae (Puerto Rican tanager) and the Spindalidae (Spindalis 
genus) were split from the Thraupidae (tanagers). The yellow-breasted 
chat was split from the Parulidae (wood-warblers) and placed into 
Icteriidae (chats). Within the Scolopacidae (sandpipers, phalaropes, 
and allies), new Subfamilies were created: The curlews were moved to 
Numeniinae; the godwits to Limosinae; and small sandpipers to 
Arenariinae and larger sandpipers to Tringinae, including phalaropes 
whose previous Subfamily Phalaropodinae was removed. Within the 
Accipitridae (hawks, eagles, and kites), new Subfamilies were created: 
The white-tailed kite was move to Elaninae, hook-billed and swallow-
tailed kite were moved to Gypaetinae, and all other members of the 
family were moved to Accipitrinae. Within the Icteridae (blackbirds), 
new Subfamilies were created: Yellow-headed blackbird was moved to 
Xanthocephalinae; bobolink was moved to Dolichonychinae; meadowlarks 
were moved to Sturnellinae; orioles were moved to Icterinae; and 
blackbirds, cowbirds, and grackles were moved to Agelaiinae. In the 
Falconidae (caracaras and falcons), collared forest-falcon was moved 
into the new Subfamily Herpetotherinae, and the Subfamily Caracarinae 
was removed, with crested caracara moved to the Subfamily Falconinae. 
In the Fringillidae (finches and allies), the Hawaiian fringillids were 
moved from the Subfamily Drepanidinae to Carduelinae. The Old World 
flycatchers in the Turdidae (thrushes) were moved to the Muscicapidae 
(Old World flycatchers). Bananaquit was moved from the Coerebidae (a 
family not protected by MBTA) to the Thraupidae (tanagers and allies), 
which is a family protected by the MBTA. All other tanagers were also 
moved from the Emberizidae (sparrows) to the Thraupidae. Within 
Thraupidae, the seedeaters were moved into the Subfamily Sporophilinae, 
and bananaquit, grassquits, and bullfinches were moved into the 
Subfamily Coerebinae.
    All species previously receiving protection under the MBTA that 
have been moved to newly created Families continue to be protected 
under the MBTA.
    The proposed amendments (66 additions, 7 removals, and 154 name 
changes) would affect a total of 204 species and would result in a net 
addition of 59 species to the List of Migratory Birds, increasing the 
number of species on the list from 1,026 to

[[Page 61290]]

1,085. Of the 66 species that we would add to the list, 26 were 
previously covered under the MBTA as members of the same species 
(conspecific) of listed species. These proposed amendments can be 
logically arranged in the following nine categories:
    (1) Add 17 species that qualify for protection by the MBTA but have 
not been added previously. The addition of these species is the result 
of either accepting AOS taxonomic updates that were previously excluded 
or determinations of documented natural occurrence in the United States 
or U.S. territories. The species and relevant publication(s) are:

Pink-footed Goose, Anser brachyrhynchus (AOU 1983);
Cackling Goose, Branta hutchinsii (AOU 2003);
European Turtle-Dove, Streptopelia turtur (AOU 2007);
Long-tailed Koel, Urodynamis taitensis (Wiles 2005);
White-tailed Nightjar, Hydropsalis cayennensis (AOU 1983);
Vervain Hummingbird, Mellisuga minima (AOU 1983);
Kentish Plover, Charadrius alexandrinus (Enbring and Owen 1981);
Common Redshank, Tringa totanus (Wiles 2005);
Nazca Booby, Sula granti (AOU 2000);
Abbott's Booby, Papasula abbotti (Pratt et al. 2009);
Rufous Night-Heron, Nycticorax caledonicus (Glass et al. 1990);
Gray-faced Buzzard, Butastur indicus (Stinson et al. 1997);
Eastern Marsh-Harrier, Circus spilonotus (Wiles et al. 2000);
Amur Falcon, Falco amurensis (Stinson et al. 1991);
Eurasian Jackdaw, Corvus monedula (AOU 1998);
Redwing, Turdus iliacus (AOU 1983);
Common Kingfisher, Alcedo atthis (Wiles et al. 1993).

    (2) Correct the spelling of three common or scientific names on the 
alphabetized list:
Eared Quetzel, Euptilotis neoxenus, becomes Eared Quetzal
Red-footed falcon, Flaco vespertinus, becomes Falco vespertinus
Piratic Flycatcher, Legatus leucophalus becomes Legatus leucophaius
    (3) Correct the spelling of three common or scientific names on the 
taxonomic list:
Eared Quetzel, Euptilotis neoxenus, becomes Eared Quetzal
White-crested Eleania, Elaenia albiceps becomes White-crested Elaenia
Piratic Flycatcher, Legatus leucophalus becomes Legatus leucophaius
    (4) Add 22 species based on review and acceptance by the AOS (since 
2010) or by other appropriate ornithological authorities of new 
distributional records documenting their occurrence in the United 
States or U.S. territories. These species belong to families covered by 
at least one of the four international conventions, and all are 
considered to be of accidental or casual occurrence. For each species, 
we list the State in which it has been recorded plus the relevant 

Common Scoter, Melanitta nigra--California and Oregon (AOS 2017);
Amethyst-throated Hummingbird, Lampornis amethystinus--Texas (AOS 
Rufous-necked Wood-Rail, Aramides axillaris--New Mexico (AOU 2016);
Solitary Snipe, Gallinago solitaria--Alaska (AOU 2011);
Chatham Albatross, Thalassarche eremita--California (AOS 2017);
Providence Petrel, Pterodroma solandri--Alaska (AOU 2013);
Fea's Petrel, Pterodroma feae--North Carolina, Georgia, Virginia 
(AOU 2013);
Zino's Petrel, Pterodroma madeira--North Carolina, (AOU 2015);
White-chinned Petrel, Procellaria aequinoctialis--Texas, California, 
Maine (AOU 2011);
Bryan's Shearwater, Puffinus bryani--Hawaii (AOU 2012);
Bare-throated Tiger-Heron, Tigrisoma mexicanum--Texas (AOU 2011);
Double-toothed Kite, Harpagus bidentatus--Texas (AOU 2013);
Amazon Kingfisher, Chloroceryle amazona--Texas (AOU 2011);
Gray-collared Becard, Pachyramphus major--Arizona (AOU 2011);
Pine Flycatcher, Empidonax affinis--Arizona (AOS 2018);
Cuban Vireo, Vireo gundlachii--Florida (AOS 2018);
Common Chiffchaff, Phylloscopus collybita--Alaska (AOU 2014);
Blyth's Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus dumetorum--Alaska (AOU 2017);
Common Redstart, Phoenicurus phoenicurus--Alaska (AOU 2015);
Brown-backed Solitaire, Myadestes occidentalis--Arizona (AOU 2011);
Asian Rosy-Finch, Leucosticte arctoa--Alaska (AOU 2013);
Red-legged Honeycreeper, Cyanerpes cyaneus--Texas (AOS 2017).

    (5) Add one species because of recent taxonomic changes 
transferring a species in a Family formerly not protected by the MBTA 
(Coerebidae) into a Family protected under the MBTA (Thraupidae). We 
reference the AOU publication supporting the change: Bananaquit, 
Coereba flaveola, (AOU 2015).
    (6) Add 26 species because of recent taxonomic changes in which 
taxa formerly treated as conspecific have been determined to be 
distinct species. Given that each of these species was formerly treated 
as conspecific with a listed species, these additions would not change 
the protective status of any of these taxa, only the names by which 
they are known. In each case, we reference the AOS or relevant 
publication supporting the change:

Ridgway's Rail, Rallus obsoletus--formerly considered conspecific 
with Clapper Rail, Rallus longirostris (AOU 2014);
Common Gallinule, Gallinula galeata--formerly considered conspecific 
with Common Moorhen, Gallinula chloropus (AOU 2011);
Scripps's Murrelet, Synthliboramphus scrippsi--formerly considered 
conspecific with Xantus's Murrelet, Synthliboramphus hypoleucus (AOU 
Salvin's Albatross, Thalassarche salvini--formerly considered 
conspecific with Shy Albatross, Thalassarche cauta (AOU 2014);
Trindade Petrel, Pterodroma arminjoniana --formerly considered 
conspecific with Herald Petrel, Pterodroma heraldica (AOU 2015);
Newell's Shearwater, Puffinus newelli--formerly considered 
conspecific with Townsend's Shearwater, Puffinus auricularis (AOU 
Barolo Shearwater, Puffinus baroli--formerly considered conspecific 
with Little Shearwater, Puffinus assimilis (AOU 2013);
Townsend's Storm-Petrel, Oceanodroma socorroensis--formerly 
considered conspecific with Leach's Storm-Petrel, Oceanodroma 
leucorhoa (AOU 2016);
Northern Boobook, Ninox japonica--formerly considered conspecific 
with Brown Hawk-Owl, Ninox scutulata (AOU 2014);
Pacific Kingfisher, Todiramphus sacer--formerly considered 
conspecific with Collared Kingfisher, Todiramphus chloris (Clements 
et al. 2015);
Mariana Kingfisher, Todiramphus albicilla--formerly considered 
conspecific with Collared Kingfisher, Todiramphus chloris (Clements 
et al. 2015);
Woodhouse's Scrub-Jay, Aphelocoma woodhouseii--formerly considered 
conspecific with Western Scrub-Jay, Aphelocoma californica (AOU 
Kamchatka Leaf Warbler, Phylloscopus examinandus--formerly 
considered conspecific with Arctic Warbler, Phylloscopus borealis 
(AOU 2014);
Saipan Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus hiwae--formerly considered 
conspecific with Nightingale Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus luscinius 
(Clements et al. 2013);
Aguiguan Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus nijoi--formerly considered 
conspecific with Nightingale Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus luscinius 
(Clements et al. 2013);
Pagan Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus yamashinae--formerly considered 
conspecific with Nightingale Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus luscinius 
(Clements et al. 2013);
Laysan Honeycreeper, Himatione fraithii-- formerly considered 
conspecific with Apapane, Himatione sanguinea (AOU 2015)
Kauai Nukupu[revaps]u, Hemignathus hanapepe--formerly considered 
conspecific with Nukupuu, Hemignathus lucidus (AOU 2015);
Maui Nukupu[revaps]u, Hemignathus affins--formerly considered 
conspecific with

[[Page 61291]]

Nukupuu, Hemignathus lucidus (AOU 2015);
Kauai [revaps]Akialoa, Akialoa stejnegeri--formerly considered 
conspecific with Greater Akialoa, Hemignathus ellisianus (AOU 2015);
Maui Nui [revaps]Akialoa, Akialoa lanaiensis--formerly considered 
conspecific with Greater Akialoa, Hemignathus ellisianus (AOU 2015);
O[revaps]ahu [revaps]Akepa, Loxops wolstenholmei--formerly 
considered conspecific with Akepa, Loxops coccineus (AOU 2015);
Maui [revaps]Akepa, Loxops ochraceus--formerly considered 
conspecific with Akepa, Loxops coccineus (AOU 2015);
Cassia Crossbill, Loxia sinesciuris--formerly considered conspecific 
with Red Crossbill, Loxia curvirostra (AOS 2017);
Sagebrush Sparrow, Artemisiospiza nevadensis--formerly considered 
conspecific with Sage Sparrow, Amphispiza belli (AOU 2013);
Morelet's Seedeater, Sporophila morelleti--formerly considered 
conspecific with White-collared Seedeater, Sporophila torqueola (AOS 

    (7) Remove seven species based on revised taxonomic treatments, 
either because a species is taxonomically merged with another species, 
either on or off the list; a species previously on the list is 
taxonomically split into multiple species and the new species is not 
known to occur within the United States or U.S. territories; or the 
species is considered extinct (following the classification of the AOS 
or, for species not covered by the AOS, the Clements checklist or peer-
reviewed literature) unless any of the following criteria apply: It is 
protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 
U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), or the Convention on International Trade in 
Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES; 27 U.S.T. 1087); it 
resembles extant species included in the list that may be affected by 
its removal; or its removal would create difficulties implementing the 
MBTA and its underlying Conventions. In each case, we reference the 
publication supporting these changes:

Thayer's Gull, Larus thayeri, now a subspecies of Iceland Gull, 
Larus glaucoides (AOS 2017);
Townsend's Shearwater, Puffinus auricularis (AOU 2015);
Little Shearwater, Puffinus assimilis (AOU 2015);
Brown Hawk-Owl, Ninox scutulata (AOU 2014);
Caribbean Coot, Fulica caribaea (AOU 2016);
Collared Kingfisher, Todiramphus chloris (Clements et al. 2015);
White-collared Seedeater, Sporophila torqueola (AOS 2018).

    (8) Revise the common (English) names of 40 species to conform to 
the most recent nomenclatural treatment as described in AOU 
publications 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, AOS 2017, AOS 2018, 
and Clements et al. (2017). Hawaiian species names are modified to 
official Hawaiian spelling, following the Pukui-Elbert Hawaiian 
Dictionary, adding the diacritical marks to the common names where 
applicable. The Government Publishing Office Style Manual requires the 
words Hawaii and Kauai to be spelled without the diacritical mark. 
These revisions do not change the protective status of any of these 
taxa, only the names by which they are known. In each case, the update 
is described in the table, below.
    (9) Revise the scientific names of 114 species to conform to the 
most recent nomenclatural treatment as described in AOU publications 
2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, AOS 2017, AOS 2018, and Clements et 
al. (2017). These revisions do not change the protective status of any 
of these taxa, only the names by which they are known. In each case, 
the update is described in the table, below.
    Table of Proposed Name Changes, as described in categories 8 and 9, 
above. Table is organized following AOS (2017) taxonomic order. The 
relevant AOS publication is provided. Hawaiian common name changes are 
indicated with a (--).

                                    Previous common     Current common
   Publication source and year           name                name
AOU 2004........................  Canada Goose        Canada Goose,
                                   (including Branta   Branta
                                   hutchinsii),        canadensis.
                                   Branta canadensis.
AOU 2016........................  Green Violetear,    Mexican Violetear,
                                   Colibri             Colibri
                                   thalassinus.        thalassinus.
AOS 2017........................  Magnificent         Rivoli's
                                   hummingbird,        Hummingbird,
                                   Eugenes fulgens.    Eugenes fulgens.
AOU 2012........................  Xantus's Murrelet,  Guadalupe
                                   Synthliboramphus    Murrelet,
                                   hypoleucus.         Synthliboramphus
AOU 2014........................  Shy Albatross,      White-capped
                                   Thalassarche        Albatross,
                                   cauta.              Thalassarche
AOU 2015........................  Herald Petrel,      Trindade Petrel,
                                   Pterodroma          Pterodroma
                                   arminjoniana.       arminjoniana.
Clements et al. 2000............  Pacific Reef-       Pacific Reef-
                                   Egret, Egretta      Heron, Egretta
                                   sacra.              sacra.
AOU 2012........................  Gray Frog-Hawk,     Chinese
                                   Accipiter           Sparrowhawk,
                                   soloensis.          Accipiter
AOU 2014........................  Common Black-Hawk,  Common Black Hawk,
                                   Buteogallus         Buteogallus
                                   anthracinus.        anthracinus.
AOS 2018........................  Gray Jay,           Canada Jay,
                                   Perisoreus          Perisoreus
                                   canadensis.         canadensis.
AOU 2016........................  Western Scrub-Jay,  California Scrub-
                                   Aphelocoma          Jay, Aphelocoma
                                   californica.        californica.
AOU 2016........................  Eurasian Sky Lark,  Eurasian Skylark,
                                   Alauda arvensis.    Alauda arvensis.
AOU 2014........................  Pallas's Leaf-      Pallas's Leaf
                                   Warbler,            Warbler,
                                   Phylloscopus        Phylloscopus
                                   proregulus.         proregulus.
--..............................  Kamao, Myadestes    K[atilde]ma`o,
                                   myadestinus.        Myadestes
--..............................  Olomao, Myadestes   Oloma`o, Myadestes
                                   lanaiensis.         lanaiensis.
--..............................  Omao, Myadestes     `[Otilde]ma'o,
                                   obscurus.           Myadestes
AOS 2017........................  Le Conte's          LeConte's
                                   Thrasher,           Thrasher,
                                   Toxostoma           Toxostoma
                                   lecontei.           lecontei.
AOU 2015........................  Nukupuu,            O`ahu Nukupu`u,
                                   Hemignathus         Hemignathus
                                   lucidus.            lucidus.
--..............................  Poo-uli,            Po`ouli,
                                   Melamprosops        Melamprosops
                                   phaeosoma.          phaeosoma.
--..............................  Akikiki,            `Akikiki,
                                   Oreomystis bairdi.  Oreomystis
--..............................  Oahu Alauahio,      O`ahu `Alauahio,
                                   Paroreomyza         Paroreomyza
                                   maculata.           maculata.
--..............................  Kakawahie,          K[atilde]k[atilde]
                                   Paroreomyza         wahie,
                                   flammea.            Paroreomyza
--..............................  Maui Alauahio,      Maui `Alauahio,
                                   Paroreomyza         Paroreomyza
                                   montana.            montana.
--..............................  Akohekohe,          `Akohekohe,
                                   Palmeria dolei.     Palmeria dolei.
--..............................  Apapane, Himatione  `Apapane,
                                   sanguinea.          Himatione
--..............................  Iiwi, Drepanis      `I`iwi, Drepanis
                                   coccinea.           coccinea.
--..............................  Ou, Psittirostra    `[Otilde]`[utilde]
                                   psittacea.          , Psittirostra
--..............................  Anianiau, Magumma   `Anianiau, Magumma
                                   parva.              parva.
--..............................  Akekee, Loxops      `Akeke`e, Loxops
                                   caeruleirostris.    caeruleirostris.
AOU 2015........................  Akepa, Loxops       Hawaii `Akepa,
                                   coccineus.          Loxops coccineus.
AOS 2017........................  Le Conte's          LeConte's Sparrow,
                                   Sparrow,            Ammodramus
                                   Ammodramus          leconteii.
AOS 2017........................  Emperor Goose,      Emperor Goose,
                                   Chen canagica.      Anser canagicus.
AOS 2017........................  Snow Goose, Chen    Snow Goose, Anser
                                   caerulescens.       caerulescens.

[[Page 61292]]

AOS 2017........................  Ross's Goose, Chen  Ross's Goose,
                                   rossii.             Anser rossii.
AOS 2017........................  Baikal Teal, Anas   Baikal Teal,
                                   formosa.            Sibirionetta
AOS 2017........................  Garganey, Anas      Garganey, Spatula
                                   querquedula.        querquedula.
AOS 2017........................  Blue-winged Teal,   Blue-winged Teal,
                                   Anas discors.       Spatula discors.
AOS 2017........................  Cinnamon Teal,      Cinnamon Teal,
                                   Anas cyanoptera.    Spatula
AOS 2017........................  Northern Shoveler,  Northern Shoveler,
                                   Anas clypeata.      Spatula clypeata.
AOS 2017........................  Gadwall, Anas       Gadwall, Mareca
                                   strepera.           strepera.
AOS 2017........................  Falcated Duck,      Falcated Duck,
                                   Anas falcata.       Mareca falcata.
AOS 2017........................  Eurasian Wigeon,    Eurasian Wigeon,
                                   Anas penelope.      Mareca penelope.
AOS 2017........................  American Wigeon,    American Wigeon,
                                   Anas americana.     Mareca americana.
Clements et al. 2017............  White-throated      White-throated
                                   Ground-Dove,        Ground-Dove,
                                   Gallicolumba        Alopecoenas
                                   xanthonura.         xanthonura.
Clements et al. 2010............  Hodgson's Hawk-     Hodgson's Hawk-
                                   Cuckoo, Cuculus     Cuckoo,
                                   fugax.              Hierococcyx
AOU 2012........................  Chuck-will's-       Chuck-will's-
                                   widow,              widow,
                                   Caprimulgus         Antrostomus
                                   carolinensis.       carolinensis.
AOU 2012........................  Buff-collared       Buff-collared
                                   Nightjar,           Nightjar,
                                   Caprimulgus         Antrostomus
                                   ridgwayi.           ridgwayi.
AOU 2012........................  Eastern Whip-poor-  Eastern Whip-poor-
                                   will, Caprimulgus   will, Antrostomus
                                   vociferus.          vociferus.
AOU 2012........................  Mexican Whip-poor-  Mexican Whip-poor-
                                   will, Caprimulgus   will, Antrostomus
                                   arizonae.           arizonae.
AOU 2012........................  Puerto Rican        Puerto Rican
                                   Nightjar,           Nightjar,
                                   Caprimulgus         Antrostomus
                                   noctitherus.        noctitherus.
AOS 2018........................  Gray Nightjar,      Gray Nightjar,
                                   Caprimulgus         Caprimulgus
                                   indicus.            jotaka.
AOU 2012........................  Calliope            Calliope
                                   Hummingbird,        Hummingbird,
                                   Stellula calliope.  Selasphorus
AOU 2014........................  Clapper Rail,       Clapper Rail,
                                   Rallus              Rallus crepitans.
AOU 2016........................  Yellow-breasted     Yellow-breasted
                                   Crake, Porzana      Crake, Hapalocrex
                                   flaviventer.        flaviventer.
AOU 2012........................  Purple Gallinule,   Purple Gallinule,
                                   Porphyrio           Porphyrio
                                   martinica.          martinicus.
AOU 2016........................  Sandhill Crane,     Sandhill Crane,
                                   Grus canadensis.    Antigone
AOU 2011........................  Snowy Plover,       Snowy Plover,
                                   Charadrius          Charadrius
                                   alexandrinus.       nivosus.
AOU 2013........................  Surfbird, Aphriza   Surfbird, Calidris
                                   virgata.            virgata.
AOU 2013........................  Ruff, Philomachus   Ruff, Calidris
                                   pugnax.             pugnax.
AOU 2013........................  Broad-billed        Broad-billed
                                   Sandpiper,          Sandpiper,
                                   Limicola            Calidris
                                   falcinellus.        falcinellus.
AOU 2013........................  Spoon-billed        Spoon-billed
                                   Sandpiper,          Sandpiper,
                                   Eurynorhynchus      Calidris pygmea.
AOU 2013........................  Buff-breasted       Buff-breasted
                                   Sandpiper,          Sandpiper,
                                   Tryngites           Calidris
                                   subruficollis.      subruficollis.
AOS 2017........................  Blue-gray Noddy,    Blue-gray Noddy,
                                   Procelsterna        Anous ceruleus.
AOU 2003........................  Whiskered Tern,     Whiskered Tern,
                                   Chlidonias          Chlidonias
                                   hybridus.           hybrida.
AOS 2018........................  Tahiti Petrel,      Tahiti Petrel,
                                   Pterodroma          Pseudobulweria
                                   rostrata.           rostrata.
AOU 2016........................  Wedge-tailed        Wedge-tailed
                                   Shearwater,         Shearwater,
                                   Puffinus            Ardenna pacifica.
AOU 2016........................  Buller's            Buller's
                                   Shearwater,         Shearwater,
                                   Puffinus bulleri.   Ardenna bulleri.
AOU 2016........................  Short-tailed        Short-tailed
                                   Shearwater,         Shearwater,
                                   Puffinus            Ardenna
                                   tenuirostris.       tenuirostris.
AOU 2016........................  Sooty Shearwater,   Sooty Shearwater,
                                   Puffinus griseus.   Ardenna grisea.
AOU 2016........................  Great Shearwater,   Great Shearwater,
                                   Puffinus gravis.    Ardenna gravis.
AOU 2016........................  Pink-footed         Pink-footed
                                   Shearwater,         Shearwater,
                                   Puffinus            Ardenna
                                   creatopus.          creatopus.
AOU 2016........................  Flesh-footed        Flesh-footed
                                   Shearwater,         Shearwater,
                                   Puffinus            Ardenna
                                   carneipes.          carneipes.
AOS 2017........................  Intermediate        Intermediate
                                   Egret, Mesophoyx    Egret, Ardea
                                   intermedia.         intermedia.
AOS 2017........................  Northern Harrier,   Northern Harrier,
                                   Circus cyaneus.     Circus hudsonius.
AOU 2015........................  Roadside Hawk,      Roadside Hawk,
                                   Buteo               Rupornis
                                   magnirostris.       magnirostris.
AOU 2015........................  White-tailed Hawk,  White-tailed Hawk,
                                   Buteo               Geranoaetus
                                   albicaudatus.       albicaudatus.
AOS 2018........................  Downy Woodpecker,   Downy Woodpecker,
                                   Picoides            Dryobates
                                   pubescens.          pubescens.
AOS 2018........................  Nuttall's           Nuttall's
                                   Woodpecker,         Woodpecker,
                                   Picoides            Dryobates
                                   nuttallii.          nuttallii.
AOS 2018........................  Ladder-backed       Ladder-backed
                                   Woodpecker,         Woodpecker,
                                   Picoides scalaris.  Dryobates
AOS 2018........................  Red-cockaded        Red-cockaded
                                   Woodpecker,         Woodpecker,
                                   Picoides borealis.  Dryobates
AOS 2018........................  Hairy Woodpecker,   Hairy Woodpecker,
                                   Picoides villosus.  Dryobates
AOS 2018........................  White-headed        White-headed
                                   Woodpecker,         Woodpecker,
                                   Picoides            Dryobates
                                   albolarvatus.       albolarvatus.
AOS 2018........................  Arizona             Arizona
                                   Woodpecker,         Woodpecker,
                                   Picoides arizonae.  Dryobates
AOU 2013........................  Flammulated Owl,    Flammulated Owl,
                                   Otus flammeolus.    Psiloscops
AOS 2017........................  Northern Shrike,    Northern Shrike,
                                   Lanius excubitor.   Lanius borealis.
AOU 2011........................  Mexican Jay,        Mexican Jay,
                                   Aphelocoma          Aphelocoma
                                   ultramarina.        wollweberi.
AOU 2012........................  Sinaloa Wren,       Sinaloa Wren,
                                   Thryothorus         Thryophilus
                                   sinaloa.            sinaloa.
AOS 2018........................  Siberian Blue       Siberian Blue
                                   Robin, Luscinia     Robin, Larvivora
                                   cyane.              cyane.
AOS 2018........................  Rufous-tailed       Rufous-tailed
                                   Robin, Luscinia     Robin, Larvivora
                                   sibilans.           sibilans.
AOS 2018........................  Bluethroat,         Bluethroat,
                                   Luscinia svecica.   Cyanecula
AOS 2018........................  Siberian            Siberian
                                   Rubythroat,         Rubythroat,
                                   Luscinia calliope.  Calliope
Clements et al. 2015............  Chestnut-cheeked    Chestnut-cheeked
                                   Starling, Sturnus   Starling,
                                   phillippensis.      Agropsar
Clements et al. 2015............  White-cheeked       White-cheeked
                                   Starling, Sturnus   Starling,
                                   cineraceus.         Spodiopsar
AOU 2013........................  Gray Silky-         Gray Silky-
                                   flycatcher,         flycatcher,
                                   Ptilogonys          Ptiliogonys
                                   cinereus.           cinereus.
AOU 2012........................  House Finch,        House Finch,
                                   Carpodacus          Haemorhous
                                   mexicanus.          mexicanus.
AOU 2012........................  Purple Finch,       Purple Finch,
                                   Carpodacus          Haemorhous
                                   purpureus.          purpureus.
AOU 2012........................  Cassin's Finch,     Cassin's Finch,
                                   Carpodacus          Haemorhous
                                   cassinii.           cassinii.
AOU 2015........................  American Tree       American Tree
                                   Sparrow, Spizella   Sparrow,
                                   arborea.            Spizelloides
AOS 2018........................  Baird's Sparrow,    Baird's Sparrow,
                                   Ammodramus          Centronyx
                                   bairdii.            bairdii.
AOS 2018........................  Henslow's Sparrow,  Henslow's Sparrow,
                                   Ammodramus          Centronyx
                                   henslowii.          henslowii.
AOS 2018........................  LeConte's Sparrow,  LeConte's Sparrow,
                                   Ammodramus          Ammospiza
                                   leconteii.          leconteii.
AOS 2018........................  Seaside Sparrow,    Seaside Sparrow,
                                   Ammodramus          Ammospiza
                                   maritima.           maritima.
AOS 2018........................  Nelson's Sparrow,   Nelson's Sparrow,
                                   Ammodramus          Ammospiza
                                   nelsoni.            nelsoni.
AOS 2018........................  Saltmarsh Sparrow,  Saltmarsh Sparrow,
                                   Ammodramus          Ammospiza
                                   caudacuta.          caudacuta.
AOU 2011........................  MacGillivray's      MacGillivray's
                                   Warbler,            Warbler,
                                   Oporornis tolmiei.  Geothlypis
AOU 2011........................  Mourning Warbler,   Mourning Warbler,
                                   Oporornis           Geothlypis
                                   philadelphia.       philadelphia.

[[Page 61293]]

AOU 2011........................  Kentucky Warbler,   Kentucky Warbler,
                                   Oporornis           Geothlypis
                                   formosus.           formosa.
AOU 2011........................  Elfin-woods         Elfin-woods
                                   Warbler,            Warbler,
                                   Dendroica angelae.  Setophaga
AOU 2011........................  Hooded Warbler,     Hooded Warbler,
                                   Wilsonia citrina.   Setophaga
AOU 2011........................  Kirtland's          Kirtland's
                                   Warbler,            Warbler,
                                   Dendroica           Setophaga
                                   kirtlandii.         kirtlandii.
AOU 2011........................  Cape May Warbler,   Cape May Warbler,
                                   Dendroica tigrina.  Setophaga
AOU 2011........................  Cerulean Warbler,   Cerulean Warbler,
                                   Dendroica cerulea.  Setophaga
AOU 2011........................  Northern Parula,    Northern Parula,
                                   Parula americana.   Setophaga
AOU 2011........................  Tropical Parula,    Tropical Parula,
                                   Parula pitiayumi.   Setophaga
AOU 2011........................  Magnolia Warbler,   Magnolia Warbler,
                                   Dendroica           Setophaga
                                   magnolia.           magnolia.
AOU 2011........................  Bay-breasted        Bay-breasted
                                   Warbler,            Warbler,
                                   Dendroica           Setophaga
                                   castanea.           castanea.
AOU 2011........................  Blackburnian        Blackburnian
                                   Warbler,            Warbler,
                                   Dendroica fusca.    Setophaga fusca.
AOU 2011........................  Yellow Warbler,     Yellow Warbler,
                                   Dendroica           Setophaga
                                   petechia.           petechia.
AOU 2011........................  Chestnut-sided      Chestnut-sided
                                   Warbler,            Warbler,
                                   Dendroica           Setophaga
                                   pensylvanica.       pensylvanica.
AOU 2011........................  Blackpoll Warbler,  Blackpoll Warbler,
                                   Dendroica striata.  Setophaga
AOU 2011........................  Black-throated      Black-throated
                                   Blue Warbler,       Blue Warbler,
                                   Dendroica           Setophaga
                                   caerulescens.       caerulescens.
AOU 2011........................  Palm Warbler,       Palm Warbler,
                                   Dendroica           Setophaga
                                   palmarum.           palmarum.
AOU 2011........................  Pine Warbler,       Pine Warbler,
                                   Dendroica pinus.    Setophaga pinus.
AOU 2011........................  Yellow-rumped       Yellow-rumped
                                   Warbler,            Warbler,
                                   Dendroica           Setophaga
                                   coronata.           coronata.
AOU 2011........................  Yellow-throated     Yellow-throated
                                   Warbler,            Warbler,
                                   Dendroica           Setophaga
                                   dominica.           dominica.
AOU 2011........................  Prairie Warbler,    Prairie Warbler,
                                   Dendroica           Setophaga
                                   discolor.           discolor.
AOU 2011........................  Adelaide's          Adelaide's
                                   Warbler,            Warbler,
                                   Dendroica           Setophaga
                                   adelaidae.          adelaidae.
AOU 2011........................  Grace's Warbler,    Grace's Warbler,
                                   Dendroica graciae.  Setophaga
AOU 2011........................  Black-throated      Black-throated
                                   Gray Warbler,       Gray Warbler,
                                   Dendroica           Setophaga
                                   nigrescens.         nigrescens.
AOU 2011........................  Townsend's          Townsend's
                                   Warbler,            Warbler,
                                   Dendroica           Setophaga
                                   townsendi.          townsendi.
AOU 2011........................  Hermit Warbler,     Hermit Warbler,
                                   Dendroica           Setophaga
                                   occidentalis.       occidentalis.
AOU 2011........................  Golden-cheeked      Golden-cheeked
                                   Warbler,            Warbler,
                                   Dendroica           Setophaga
                                   chrysoparia.        chrysoparia.
AOU 2011........................  Black-throated      Black-throated
                                   Green Warbler,      Green Warbler,
                                   Dendroica virens.   Setophaga virens.
AOU 2011........................  Fan-tailed          Fan-tailed
                                   Warbler,            Warbler,
                                   Euthlypis           Basileuterus
                                   lachrymosa.         lachrymosus.
AOU 2011........................  Canada Warbler,     Canada Warbler,
                                   Wilsonia            Cardellina
                                   canadensis.         canadensis.
AOU 2011........................  Wilson's Warbler,   Wilson's Warbler,
                                   Wilsonia pusilla.   Cardellina
Clements et al. 2017............  Friendly Ground-    Shy Ground-Dove,
                                   Dove,               Alopecoenas
                                   Gallicolumba        stairi.
Clements et al. 2006............  Micronesian         Guam Kingfisher,
                                   Kingfisher,         Todiramphus
                                   Todirhamphus        cinnamominus.
Clements et al. 2006, 2017......  Nightingale Reed-   Nightingale Reed
                                   Warbler,            Warbler,
                                   Acrocephalus        Acrocephalus
                                   luscinia.           luscinius.
AOU 2015........................  Akiapolaau,         `Akiapola`au,
                                   Hemignathus         Hemignathus
                                   munroi.             wilsoni.
AOU 2015........................  Greater Akialoa,    O`ahu `Akialoa,
                                   Hemignathus         Akialoa
                                   ellisianus.         ellisiana.
AOU 2015........................  Hawaii Amakihi,     Hawaii `Amakihi,
                                   Hemignathus         Chlorodrepanis
                                   virens.             virens.
AOU 2015........................  Oahu Amakihi,       O`ahu `Amakihi,
                                   Hemignathus         Chlorodrepanis
                                   flavus.             flava.
AOU 2015........................  Kauai Amakihi,      Kauai `Amakihi,
                                   Hemignathus         Chlorodrepanis
                                   kauaiensis.         stejnegeri.
AOU 2012, 2013..................  Sage Sparrow,       Bell's Sparrow,
                                   Amphispiza belli.   Artemisiospiza

How is the list of migratory birds organized?

    The species are listed in two formats to suit the needs of 
different segments of the public: alphabetically in 50 CFR 10.13(c)(1) 
and taxonomically in 50 CFR 10.13(c)(2). In the alphabetical listing, 
species are listed by common (English) group names, with the scientific 
name of each species following the English group name. This format, 
similar to that used in modern telephone directories, is most useful to 
members of the lay public. In the taxonomic listing, species are listed 
in phylogenetic sequence by scientific name, with the English name 
following the scientific name. To help clarify species relationships, 
we also list the higher-level taxonomic categories of Order, Family, 
and Subfamily. This format follows the sequence adopted by the AOS 
(1998, 2017) and is most useful to ornithologists and other scientists.

What species are not protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act?

    The MBTA does not apply to:
    (1) Nonnative species introduced into the United States or U.S. 
territories by means of intentional or unintentional human assistance 
that belong to families or groups covered by the Canadian, Mexican, or 
Russian Conventions. Elsewhere in today's Federal Register, we publish 
a notice of availability of the draft revised list of nonnative bird 
species that are not protected under the MBTA. Note, though, that 
native species that are introduced into parts of the United States 
where they are not native are still protected under the MBTA regardless 
of where they occur in the United States or U.S. territories.
    (2) Species native or nonnative to the United States or U.S. 
territories that either belong to families or groups not referred to in 
the Canada, Mexico, and Russia Conventions or are not included by 
species name in the Japan Convention. This includes the Tinamidae 
(tinamous), Megapodiidae (megapodes), Cracidae (chachalacas), 
Odontophoridae (New World quail), Phasianidae (grouse, ptarmigan, and 
turkeys), Pteroclidae (sandgrouse), Heliornithidae (finfoots), 
Burhinidae (thick-knees), Glareolidae (pratincoles), Todidae (todies), 
Psittacidae (parrots), Psittaculidae (Old World parrots), Meliphagidae 
(honeyeaters), Dicruridae (drongos), Monarchidae (monarchs), 
Pycnonotidae (bulbuls), Scotocercidae (bush warblers and allies), 
Zosteropidae (white-eyes), Sturnidae (starlings, except as listed in 
Japanese treaty), Ploceidae (weavers), Estrildidae (estrildid finches), 
and Passeridae (Old World sparrows, including house or English 
sparrow), as well as numerous other families not represented in the 
United States or U.S. territories.

Public Comments

    Any final action resulting from this proposed rule must be based on 
the best scientific and commercial data available and be as accurate 
and as effective as possible. We request comments or information from 
other concerned governmental agencies, the scientific community, 
industry, or any other

[[Page 61294]]

interested parties concerning this proposed rule.
    Please include sufficient information with your submission (such as 
electronic copies of scientific journal articles or other publications, 
preferably in English) to allow us to verify any scientific or 
commercial information you include.
    You may submit your comments and materials concerning this proposed 
rule by one of the methods listed in ADDRESSES. We request that you 
send comments only by the methods described in ADDRESSES.
    If you submit information via http://www.regulations.gov, your 
entire submission--including any personal identifying information--will 
be posted on the website. If your submission is made via a hardcopy 
that includes personal identifying information, you may request at the 
top of your document that we withhold this information from public 
review. However, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to do so. We 
will post all hardcopy submissions on http://www.regulations.gov.
    Comments and materials we receive, as well as supporting 
documentation we used in preparing this proposed rule, will be 
available for public inspection on http://www.regulations.gov, or by 
appointment, during normal business hours, at the U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, Division of Migratory Bird Management (see FOR 

Required Determinations

Regulatory Planning and Review

    Executive Order (E.O.) 12866 provides that the Office of 
Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) in the Office of Management 
and Budget will review all significant rules. OIRA has determined that 
this proposed rule is not significant.
    E.O. 13563 reaffirms the principles of E.O. 12866, while calling 
for improvements in the nation's regulatory system to promote 
predictability, to reduce uncertainty, and to use the best, most 
innovative, and least burdensome tools for achieving regulatory ends. 
E.O. 13563 directs agencies to consider regulatory approaches that 
reduce burdens and maintain flexibility and freedom of choice for the 
public where these approaches are relevant, feasible, and consistent 
with regulatory objectives. E.O. 13563 emphasizes further that 
regulations must be based on the best available science and that the 
rulemaking process must allow for public participation and an open 
exchange of ideas. We have developed this proposed rule in a manner 
consistent with these requirements.

Executive Order 13771--Reducing Regulation and Controlling Regulatory 

    This proposed rule is not an Executive Order (E.O.) 13771 (82 FR 
9339, February 3, 2017) regulatory action because this proposed rule is 
not significant under E.O. 12866.

Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.)

    Under the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq., as 
amended by the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act 
(SBREFA) of 1996 (5 U.S.C. 804(2)), whenever an agency is required to 
publish a notice of rulemaking for any proposed or final rule, it must 
prepare and make available for public comment a regulatory flexibility 
analysis that describes the effect of the rule on small entities (i.e., 
small businesses, small organizations, and small government 
jurisdictions). However, no regulatory flexibility analysis is required 
if the head of an agency certifies the rule does not have a significant 
economic impact on a substantial number of small entities.
    SBREFA amended the Regulatory Flexibility Act to require Federal 
agencies to provide the statement of the factual basis for certifying 
that a rule will not have a significant economic impact on a 
substantial number of small entities. We have examined this proposed 
rule's potential effects on small entities as required by the 
Regulatory Flexibility Act, and have determined that, if adopted as 
proposed, this action would not have a significant economic impact on a 
substantial number of small entities. This rule is an administrative 
action to update the list of migratory bird species protected under the 
Conventions. Consequently, we certify that, if adopted as proposed, 
this rule would not have a significant economic impact on a substantial 
number of small entities; therefore, a regulatory flexibility analysis 
is not required.
    This proposed rule is not a major rule under SBREFA (5 U.S.C. 
804(2)). It would not have a significant impact on a substantial number 
of small entities.
    a. This proposed rule would not have an annual effect on the 
economy of $100 million or more.
    b. This proposed rule would not cause a major increase in costs or 
prices for consumers, individual industries, Federal, State, or local 
government agencies, or geographic regions.
    c. This proposed rule would not have significant adverse effects on 
competition, employment, investment, productivity, innovation, or the 
ability of U.S.-based enterprises to compete with foreign-based 

Unfunded Mandates Reform Act

    In accordance with the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (2 U.S.C. 1501 
et seq.), we have determined the following:
    a. This proposed rule would not ``significantly or uniquely'' 
affect small governments. A small government agency plan is not 
required. This proposed rule is an administrative action to update the 
list of migratory bird species protected under the Conventions; it 
would not affect small government activities in any significant way.
    b. This proposed rule would not produce a Federal mandate of $100 
million or greater in any year; i.e., it is not a ``significant 
regulatory action'' under the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act.


    In accordance with Executive Order 12630, this proposed rule does 
not have significant takings implications. This proposed rule does not 
contain a provision for taking of private property. Therefore, a 
takings implication assessment is not required.


    This proposed rule does not have sufficient Federalism effects to 
warrant preparation of a federalism summary impact statement under 
Executive Order 13132. It does not interfere with the States' ability 
to manage themselves or their funds. No significant economic impacts 
are expected to result from the updating of the list of migratory bird 

Civil Justice Reform

    In accordance with Executive Order 12988, the Office of the 
Solicitor has determined that this proposed rule does not unduly burden 
the judicial system and meets the requirements of sections 3(a) and 
3(b)(2) of the Order.

Paperwork Reduction Act

    This proposed rule does not contain information collection 
requirements, and a submission to the Office of Management and Budget 
(OMB) under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et 
seq.) is not required. We may not conduct or sponsor and you are not 
required to respond to a collection of information unless it displays a 
currently valid OMB control number.

[[Page 61295]]

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)

    Given that the proposed revision of 50 CFR 10.13 is strictly 
administrative in nature and will have no or minor environmental 
effects, it is categorically excluded from further NEPA requirements 
(43 CFR 46.210(i)).

Endangered Species Act (ESA)

    Of the species on the List of Migratory Birds, 84 species, 
subspecies, or distinct population segments are also listed as 
endangered or threatened under section 4 of the ESA of 1973, as amended 
(16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.). No legal complications arise from the dual 
listing as the two lists are developed under separate authorities and 
for different purposes. Because this proposed rule is strictly 
administrative in nature, it has no effect on endangered or threatened 
species. Thus, it does not require consultation under section 7 of the 

Government-to-Government Relationship With Tribes

    In accordance with the President's memorandum of April 29, 1994, 
``Government-to-Government Relations with Native American tribal 
Governments'' (59 FR 22951), Executive Order 13175, and 512 DM 2, we 
have evaluated potential effects on federally recognized Indian tribes 
and have determined that there are no potential effects. The proposed 
revisions to existing regulations in this rule are purely 
administrative in nature and do not interfere with the tribes' ability 
to manage themselves or their funds or to regulate migratory bird 
activities on tribal lands.

Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use (Executive Order 13211)

    On May 18, 2001, the President issued Executive Order 13211 
addressing regulations that significantly affect energy supply, 
distribution, and use. Executive Order 13211 requires agencies to 
prepare Statements of Energy Effects when undertaking certain actions. 
Because this proposed rule would only affect the listing of protected 
species in the United States, it is not a significant regulatory action 
under Executive Order 12866, and does not significantly affect energy 
supplies, distribution, or use. Therefore, this action is not a 
significant energy action and no Statement of Energy Effects is 

Clarity of the Proposed Rule

    We are required by Executive Orders 12866 and 12988 and by the 
Presidential Memorandum of June 1, 1998, to write all rules in plain 
language. This means that each rule we publish must:
    (1) Be logically organized;
    (2) Use the active voice to address readers directly;
    (3) Use clear language rather than jargon;
    (4) Be divided into short sections and sentences; and
    (5) Use lists and tables wherever possible.
    If you feel that we have not met these requirements, send us 
comments by one of the methods listed in ADDRESSES. To better help us 
revise the rule, your comments should be as specific as possible. For 
example, you should tell us the numbers of the sections or paragraphs 
that are unclearly written, which sections or sentences are too long, 
the sections where you feel lists or tables would be useful, etc.

References Cited

    A complete list of all references cited is available on http://www.regulations.gov under Docket No. FWS-HQ-MB-2018-0047, and upon 

List of Subjects in Part 10

    Exports, Fish, Imports, Law enforcement, Plants, Transportation, 

Proposed Regulation Promulgation

    For the reasons discussed in the preamble, we propose to amend 
title 50, chapter I, subchapter B, part 10 of the Code of Federal 
Regulations, as follows:


1. The authority citation for part 10 continues to read as follows:

    Authority: 16 U.S.C. 668a-d, 703-712, 742a-j-l, 1361-1384, 1401-
1407, 1531-1543, 3371-3378; 18 U.S.C. 42; 19 U.S.C. 1202.

2. Amend Sec.  [thinsp]10.13 by revising paragraph (c) to read as 

Sec.  10.13  List of Migratory Birds.

* * * * *
    (c) What species are protected as migratory birds? Species 
protected as migratory birds are listed in two formats to suit the 
varying needs of the user: Alphabetically in paragraph (c)(1) of this 
section and taxonomically in paragraph (c)(2) of this section. Taxonomy 
and nomenclature generally follow the 7th edition of the American 
Ornithologists' Union's (AOU, now recognized as American Ornithological 
Society (AOS)) Check-list of North American birds (1998, as amended 
through 2018). For species not treated by the AOS Check-list, we 
generally follow Clements Checklist of Birds of the World (Clements et 
al. 2017).
    (1) Alphabetical listing. Species are listed alphabetically by 
common (English) group names, with the scientific name of each species 
following the common name.

ACCENTOR, Siberian, Prunella montanella
`AKEKE`E, Loxops caeruleirostris
`AKEPA, Hawaii, Loxops coccineus
    Maui, Loxops ochraceus
    O`ahu, Loxops wolstenholmei
`AKIALOA, Kauai, Akialoa stejnegeri
    Maui Nui, Akialoa lanaiensis
    O`ahu, Akialoa ellisiana
`AKIAPOLA`AU, Hemignathus wilsoni
`AKIKIKI, Oreomystis bairdi
`AKOHEKOHE, Palmeria dolei
`ALAUAHIO, Maui, Paroreomyza montana
    O`ahu, Paroreomyza maculata
ALBATROSS, Black-browed, Thalassarche melanophris
    Black-footed, Phoebastria nigripes
    Chatham, Thalassarche eremita
    Laysan, Phoebastria immutabilis
    Light-mantled, Phoebetria palpebrata
    Salvin's, Thalassarche salvini
    Short-tailed, Phoebastria albatrus
    Wandering, Diomedea exulans
    White-capped, Thalassarche cauta
    Yellow-nosed, Thalassarche chlororhynchos
`AMAKIHI, Hawaii, Chlorodrepanis virens
    Kauai, Chlorodrepanis stejnegeri
    O`ahu, Chlorodrepanis flava
ANHINGA, Anhinga anhinga
ANI, Groove-billed, Crotophaga sulcirostris
    Smooth-billed, Crotophaga ani
`ANIANIAU, Magumma parva
`APAPANE, Himatione sanguinea
AUKLET, Cassin's, Ptychoramphus aleuticus
    Crested, Aethia cristatella
    Least, Aethia pusilla
    Parakeet, Aethia psittacula
    Rhinoceros, Cerorhinca monocerata
    Whiskered, Aethia pygmaea
AVOCET, American, Recurvirostra americana
BANANAQUIT, Coereba flaveola
BEAN-GOOSE, Taiga, Anser fabalis
    Tundra, Anser serrirostris
BEARDLESS-TYRANNULET, Northern, Camptostoma imberbe
BECARD, Gray-collared, Pachyramphus major
    Rose-throated, Pachyramphus aglaiae
BITTERN, American, Botaurus lentiginosus
    Black, Ixobrychus flavicollis
    Least, Ixobrychus exilis
    Schrenck's, Ixobrychus eurhythmus
    Yellow, Ixobrychus sinensis
BLACKBIRD, Brewer's, Euphagus cyanocephalus
    Red-winged, Agelaius phoeniceus
    Rusty, Euphagus carolinus
    Tawny-shouldered, Agelaius humeralis
    Tricolored, Agelaius tricolor
    Yellow-headed, Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus
    Yellow-shouldered, Agelaius xanthomus
BLUEBIRD, Eastern, Sialia sialis
    Mountain, Sialia currucoides
    Western, Sialia mexicana
BLUETAIL, Red-flanked, Tarsiger cyanurus
BLUETHROAT, Cyanecula svecica

[[Page 61296]]

BOBOLINK, Dolichonyx oryzivorus
BOOBOOK, Northern, Ninox japonica
BOOBY, Abbott's, Papasula abbotti
    Blue-footed, Sula nebouxii
    Brown, Sula leucogaster
    Masked, Sula dactylatra
    Nazca, Sula granti
    Red-footed, Sula sula
BRAMBLING, Fringilla montifringilla
BRANT, Branta bernicla
BUFFLEHEAD, Bucephala albeola
BULLFINCH, Eurasian, Pyrrhula pyrrhula
    Puerto Rican, Melopyrrha portoricensis
BUNTING, Blue, Cyanocompsa parellina
    Gray, Emberiza variabilis
    Indigo, Passerina cyanea
    Lark, Calamospiza melanocorys
    Lazuli, Passerina amoena
    Little, Emberiza pusilla
    McKay's, Plectrophenax hyperboreus
    Painted, Passerina ciris
    Pallas's, Emberiza pallasi
    Pine, Emberiza leucocephalos
    Reed, Emberiza schoeniclus
    Rustic, Emberiza rustica
    Snow, Plectrophenax nivalis
    Varied, Passerina versicolor
    Yellow-breasted, Emberiza aureola
    Yellow-browed, Emberiza chrysophrys
    Yellow-throated, Emberiza elegans
BUSHTIT, Psaltriparus minimus
BUZZARD, Gray-faced, Butastur indicus
CANVASBACK, Aythya valisineria
CARACARA, Crested, Caracara cheriway
CARDINAL, Northern, Cardinalis cardinalis
CARIB, Green-throated, Eulampis holosericeus
    Purple-throated, Eulampis jugularis
CATBIRD, Black, Melanoptila glabrirostris
    Gray, Dumetella carolinensis
CHAFFINCH, Common, Fringilla coelebs
CHAT, Yellow-breasted, Icteria virens
CHICKADEE, Black-capped, Poecile atricapillus
    Boreal, Poecile hudsonicus
    Carolina, Poecile carolinensis
    Chestnut-backed, Poecile rufescens
    Gray-headed, Poecile cinctus
    Mexican, Poecile sclateri
    Mountain, Poecile gambeli
CHIFFCHAFF, Common, Phylloscopus collybita
CHUCK-WILL'S-WIDOW, Antrostomus carolinensis
CONDOR, California, Gymnogyps californianus
COOT, American, Fulica americana
    Eurasian, Fulica atra
    Hawaiian, Fulica alai
CORMORANT, Brandt's, Phalacrocorax penicillatus
    Double-crested, Phalacrocorax auritus
    Great, Phalacrocorax carbo
    Little Pied, Phalacrocorax melanoleucos
    Neotropic, Phalacrocorax brasilianus
    Pelagic, Phalacrocorax pelagicus
    Red-faced, Phalacrocorax urile
COWBIRD, Bronzed, Molothrus aeneus
    Brown-headed, Molothrus ater
    Shiny, Molothrus bonariensis
CRAKE, Corn, Crex crex
    Paint-billed, Neocrex erythrops
    Spotless, Porzana tabuensis
    Yellow-breasted, Hapalocrex flaviventer
CRANE, Common, Grus grus
    Sandhill, Antigone canadensis
    Whooping, Grus americana
CREEPER, Brown, Certhia americana
    Hawaii, Loxops mana
CROSSBILL, Cassia, Loxia sinesciuris
    Red, Loxia curvirostra
    White-winged, Loxia leucoptera
CROW, American, Corvus brachyrhynchos
    Fish, Corvus ossifragus
    Hawaiian, Corvus hawaiiensis
    Mariana, Corvus kubaryi
    Northwestern, Corvus caurinus
    Tamaulipas, Corvus imparatus
    White-necked, Corvus leucognaphalus
CUCKOO, Black-billed, Coccyzus erythropthalmus
    Common, Cuculus canorus
    Mangrove, Coccyzus minor
    Oriental, Cuculus optatus
    Yellow-billed, Coccyzus americanus
CURLEW, Bristle-thighed, Numenius tahitiensis
    Eskimo, Numenius borealis
    Eurasian, Numenius arquata
    Far Eastern, Numenius madagascariensis
    Little, Numenius minutus
    Long-billed, Numenius americanus
DICKCISSEL, Spiza americana
DIPPER, American, Cinclus mexicanus
DOTTEREL, Eurasian, Charadrius morinellus
DOVE, Inca, Columbina inca
    Mourning, Zenaida macroura
    White-tipped, Leptotila verreauxi
    White-winged, Zenaida asiatica
    Zenaida, Zenaida aurita
DOVEKIE, Alle alle
DOWITCHER, Long-billed, Limnodromus scolopaceus
    Short-billed, Limnodromus griseus
DUCK, American Black, Anas rubripes
    Eastern Spot-billed, Anas zonorhyncha
    Falcated, Mareca falcata
    Harlequin, Histrionicus histrionicus
    Hawaiian, Anas wyvilliana
    Laysan, Anas laysanensis
    Long-tailed, Clangula hyemalis
    Masked, Nomonyx dominicus
    Mottled, Anas fulvigula
    Muscovy, Cairina moschata
    Pacific Black, Anas superciliosa
    Ring-necked, Aythya collaris
    Ruddy, Oxyura jamaicensis
    Tufted, Aythya fuligula
    Wood, Aix sponsa
DUNLIN, Calidris alpina
EAGLE, Bald, Haliaeetus leucocephalus
    Golden, Aquila chrysaetos
    White-tailed, Haliaeetus albicilla
EGRET, Cattle, Bubulcus ibis
    Chinese, Egretta eulophotes
    Great, Ardea alba
    Intermediate, Ardea intermedia
    Little, Egretta garzetta
    Reddish, Egretta rufescens
    Snowy, Egretta thula
EIDER, Common, Somateria mollissima
    King, Somateria spectabilis
    Spectacled, Somateria fischeri
    Steller's, Polysticta stelleri
ELAENIA, Caribbean, Elaenia martinica
    Greenish, Myiopagis viridicata
    White-crested, Elaenia albiceps
EMERALD, Puerto Rican, Chlorostilbon maugaeus
EUPHONIA, Antillean, Euphonia musica
FALCON, Amur, Falco amurensis
    Aplomado, Falco femoralis
    Peregrine, Falco peregrinus
    Prairie, Falco mexicanus
    Red-footed, Falco vespertinus
FIELDFARE, Turdus pilaris
FINCH, Cassin's, Haemorhous cassinii
    House, Haemorhous mexicanus
    Laysan, Telespiza cantans
    Nihoa, Telespiza ultima
    Purple, Haemorhous purpureus
FLAMINGO, American, Phoenicopterus ruber
FLICKER, Gilded, Colaptes chrysoides
    Northern, Colaptes auratus
FLYCATCHER, Acadian, Empidonax virescens
    Alder, Empidonax alnorum
    Ash-throated, Myiarchus cinerascens
    Asian Brown, Muscicapa dauurica
    Brown-crested, Myiarchus tyrannulus
    Buff-breasted, Empidonax fulvifrons
    Cordilleran, Empidonax occidentalis
    Crowned Slaty, Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus
    Dark-sided, Muscicapa sibirica
    Dusky, Empidonax oberholseri
    Dusky-capped, Myiarchus tuberculifer
    Fork-tailed, Tyrannus savana
    Gray, Empidonax wrightii
    Gray-streaked, Muscicapa griseisticta
    Great Crested, Myiarchus crinitus
    Hammond's, Empidonax hammondii
    La Sagra's, Myiarchus sagrae
    Least, Empidonax minimus
    Mugimaki, Ficedula mugimaki
    Narcissus, Ficedula narcissina
    Nutting's, Myiarchus nuttingi
    Olive-sided, Contopus cooperi
    Pacific-slope, Empidonax difficilis
    Pine, Empidonax affinis
    Piratic, Legatus leucophaius
    Puerto Rican, Myiarchus antillarum
    Scissor-tailed, Tyrannus forficatus
    Social, Myiozetetes similis
    Spotted, Muscicapa striata
    Sulphur-bellied, Myiodynastes luteiventris
    Taiga, Ficedula albicilla
    Tufted, Mitrephanes phaeocercus
    Variegated, Empidonomus varius
    Vermilion, Pyrocephalus rubinus
    Willow, Empidonax traillii
    Yellow-bellied, Empidonax flaviventris
FOREST-FALCON, Collared, Micrastur semitorquatus
FRIGATEBIRD, Great, Fregata minor
    Lesser, Fregata ariel
    Magnificent, Fregata magnificens
FRUIT-DOVE, Crimson-crowned, Ptilinopus porphyraceus
    Many-colored, Ptilinopus perousii
    Mariana, Ptilinopus roseicapilla
FULMAR, Northern, Fulmarus glacialis
GADWALL, Mareca strepera
GALLINULE, Azure, Porphyrio flavirostris
    Common, Gallinula galeata
    Purple, Porphyrio martinicus
GANNET, Northern, Morus bassanus
GARGANEY, Spatula querquedula
GNATCATCHER, Black-capped, Polioptila nigriceps
    Black-tailed, Polioptila melanura
    Blue-Gray, Polioptila caerulea
    California, Polioptila californica
GODWIT, Bar-tailed, Limosa lapponica
    Black-tailed, Limosa limosa
    Hudsonian, Limosa haemastica
    Marbled, Limosa fedoa

[[Page 61297]]

GOLDENEYE, Barrow's, Bucephala islandica
    Common, Bucephala clangula
GOLDEN-PLOVER, American, Pluvialis dominica
    European, Pluvialis apricaria
    Pacific, Pluvialis fulva
GOLDFINCH, American, Spinus tristis
    Lawrence's, Spinus lawrencei
    Lesser, Spinus psaltria
GOOSE, Barnacle, Branta leucopsis
    Cackling, Branta hutchinsii
    Canada, Branta canadensis
    Emperor, Anser canagicus
    Greater White-fronted, Anser albifrons
    Hawaiian, Branta sandvicensis
    Lesser White-fronted, Anser erythropus
    Pink-footed, Anser brachyrhynchus
    Ross's, Anser rossii
    Snow, Anser caerulescens
GOSHAWK, Northern, Accipiter gentilis
GRACKLE, Boat-tailed, Quiscalus major
    Common, Quiscalus quiscula
    Greater Antillean, Quiscalus niger
    Great-tailed, Quiscalus mexicanus
GRASSHOPPER-WARBLER, Middendorff's, Locustella ochotensis
GRASSQUIT, Black-faced, Tiaris bicolor
    Yellow-faced, Tiaris olivaceus
GREBE, Clark's, Aechmophorus clarkii
    Eared, Podiceps nigricollis
    Horned, Podiceps auritus
    Least, Tachybaptus dominicus
    Pied-billed, Podilymbus podiceps
    Red-necked, Podiceps grisegena
    Western, Aechmophorus occidentalis
GREENFINCH, Oriental, Chloris sinica
GREENSHANK, Common, Tringa nebularia
    Nordmann's, Tringa guttifer
GROSBEAK, Black-headed, Pheucticus melanocephalus
    Blue, Passerina caerulea
    Crimson-collared, Rhodothraupis celaeno
    Evening, Coccothraustes vespertinus
    Pine, Pinicola enucleator
    Rose-breasted, Pheucticus ludovicianus
    Yellow, Pheucticus chrysopeplus
GROUND-DOVE, Common, Columbina passerina
    Ruddy, Columbina talpacoti
    Shy, Alopecoenas stairi
    White-throated, Alopecoenas xanthonura
GUILLEMOT, Black, Cepphus grylle
    Pigeon, Cepphus columba
GULL, Belcher's, Larus belcheri
    Black-headed, Chroicocephalus ridibundus
    Black-tailed, Larus crassirostris
    Bonaparte's, Chroicocephalus philadelphia
    California, Larus californicus
    Franklin's, Leucophaeus pipixcan
    Glaucous, Larus hyperboreus
    Glaucous-winged, Larus glaucescens
    Gray-hooded, Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus
    Great Black-backed, Larus marinus
    Heermann's, Larus heermanni
    Herring, Larus argentatus
    Iceland, Larus glaucoides
    Ivory, Pagophila eburnea
    Kelp, Larus dominicanus
    Laughing, Leucophaeus atricilla
    Lesser Black-backed, Larus fuscus
    Little, Hydrocoloeus minutus
    Mew, Larus canus
    Ring-billed, Larus delawarensis
    Ross's, Rhodostethia rosea
    Sabine's, Xema sabini
    Slaty-backed, Larus schistisagus
    Swallow-tailed, Creagrus furcatus
    Western, Larus occidentalis
    Yellow-footed, Larus livens
    Yellow-legged, Larus michahellis
GYRFALCON, Falco rusticolus
HARRIER, Northern, Circus hudsonius
HAWFINCH, Coccothraustes coccothraustes
HAWK, Broad-winged, Buteo platypterus
    Common Black, Buteogallus anthracinus
    Cooper's, Accipiter cooperii
    Crane, Geranospiza caerulescens
    Ferruginous, Buteo regalis
    Gray, Buteo plagiatus
    Harris's, Parabuteo unicinctus
    Hawaiian, Buteo solitarius
    Red-shouldered, Buteo lineatus
    Red-tailed, Buteo jamaicensis
    Roadside, Rupornis magnirostris
    Rough-legged, Buteo lagopus
    Sharp-shinned, Accipiter striatus
    Short-tailed, Buteo brachyurus
    Swainson's, Buteo swainsoni
    White-tailed, Geranoaetus albicaudatus
    Zone-tailed, Buteo albonotatus
HAWK-CUCKOO, Hodgson's, Hierococcyx nisicolor
HERON, Gray, Ardea cinerea
    Great Blue, Ardea herodias
    Green, Butorides virescens
    Little Blue, Egretta caerulea
    Tricolored, Egretta tricolor
HOBBY, Eurasian, Falco subbuteo
HONEYCREEPER, Laysan, Himatione fraithii
    Red-legged, Cyanerpes cyaneus
HOOPOE, Eurasian, Upupa epops
HOUSE-MARTIN, Common, Delichon urbicum
HUMMINGBIRD, Allen's, Selasphorus sasin
    Amethyst-throated, Lampornis amethystinus
    Anna's, Calypte anna
    Antillean Crested, Orthorhyncus cristatus
    Berylline, Amazilia beryllina
    Black-chinned, Archilochus alexandri
    Blue-throated, Lampornis clemenciae
    Broad-billed, Cynanthus latirostris
    Broad-tailed, Selasphorus platycercus
    Buff-bellied, Amazilia yucatanensis
    Bumblebee, Atthis heloisa
    Calliope, Selasphorus calliope
    Cinnamon, Amazilia rutila
    Costa's, Calypte costae
    Lucifer, Calothorax lucifer
    Rivoli's, Eugenes fulgens
    Ruby-throated, Archilochus colubris
    Rufous, Selasphorus rufus
    Vervain, Mellisuga minima
    Violet-crowned, Amazilia violiceps
    White-eared, Hylocharis leucotis
    Xantus's, Hylocharis xantusii
IBIS, Glossy, Plegadis falcinellus
    Scarlet, Eudocimus ruber
    White, Eudocimus albus
    White-faced, Plegadis chihi
`I`IWI, Drepanis coccinea
IMPERIAL-PIGEON, Pacific, Ducula pacifica
JABIRU, Jabiru mycteria
JACANA, Northern, Jacana spinosa
JACKDAW, Eurasian, Corvus monedula
JAEGER, Long-tailed, Stercorarius longicaudus
    Parasitic, Stercorarius parasiticus
    Pomarine, Stercorarius pomarinus
JAY, Blue, Cyanocitta cristata
    Brown, Psilorhinus morio
    Canada, Perisoreus canadensis
    Green, Cyanocorax yncas
    Mexican, Aphelocoma wollweberi
    Pinyon, Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus
    Steller's, Cyanocitta stelleri
JUNCO, Dark-eyed, Junco hyemalis
    Yellow-eyed, Junco phaeonotus
K[Amacr]K[Amacr]WAHIE, Paroreomyza flammea
K[Amacr]MA`O, Myadestes myadestinus
KESTREL, American, Falco sparverius
    Eurasian, Falco tinnunculus
KILLDEER, Charadrius vociferus
KINGBIRD, Cassin's, Tyrannus vociferans
    Couch's, Tyrannus couchii
    Eastern, Tyrannus tyrannus
    Gray, Tyrannus dominicensis
    Loggerhead, Tyrannus caudifasciatus
    Thick-billed, Tyrannus crassirostris
    Tropical, Tyrannus melancholicus
    Western, Tyrannus verticalis
KINGFISHER, Amazon, Chloroceryle amazona
    Belted, Megaceryle alcyon
    Common, Alcedo atthis
    Green, Chloroceryle americana
    Guam, Todiramphus cinnamominus
    Mariana, Todiramphus albicilla
    Pacific, Todiramphus sacer
    Ringed, Megaceryle torquata
KINGLET, Golden-crowned, Regulus satrapa
    Ruby-crowned, Regulus calendula
KISKADEE, Great, Pitangus sulphuratus
KITE, Black, Milvus migrans
    Double-toothed, Harpagus bidentatus
    Hook-billed, Chondrohierax uncinatus
    Mississippi, Ictinia mississippiensis
    Snail, Rostrhamus sociabilis
    Swallow-tailed, Elanoides forficatus
    White-tailed, Elanus leucurus
KITTIWAKE, Black-legged, Rissa tridactyla
    Red-legged, Rissa brevirostris
KNOT, Great, Calidris tenuirostris
    Red, Calidris canutus
KOEL, Long-tailed, Urodynamis taitensis
LAPWING, Northern, Vanellus vanellus
LARK, Horned, Eremophila alpestris
LIMPKIN, Aramus guarauna
LIZARD-CUCKOO, Puerto Rican, Coccyzus vieilloti
LONGSPUR, Chestnut-collared, Calcarius ornatus
    Lapland, Calcarius lapponicus
    McCown's, Rhynchophanes mccownii
    Smith's, Calcarius pictus
LOON, Arctic, Gavia arctica
    Common, Gavia immer
    Pacific, Gavia pacifica
    Red-throated, Gavia stellata
    Yellow-billed, Gavia adamsii
MAGPIE, Black-billed, Pica hudsonia
    Yellow-billed, Pica nuttalli
MALLARD, Anas platyrhynchos
MANGO, Antillean, Anthracothorax dominicus
    Green, Anthracothorax viridis
    Green-breasted, Anthracothorax prevostii
MARSH-HARRIER, Eastern, Circus spilonotus
MARTIN, Brown-chested, Progne tapera
    Caribbean, Progne dominicensis
    Cuban, Progne cryptoleuca
    Gray-breasted, Progne chalybea
    Purple, Progne subis
    Southern, Progne elegans
MEADOWLARK, Eastern, Sturnella magna
    Western, Sturnella neglecta

[[Page 61298]]

MERGANSER, Common, Mergus merganser
    Hooded, Lophodytes cucullatus
    Red-breasted, Mergus serrator
MERLIN, Falco columbarius
MILLERBIRD, Acrocephalus familiaris
MOCKINGBIRD, Bahama, Mimus gundlachii
    Blue, Melanotis caerulescens
    Northern, Mimus polyglottos
MOORHEN, Common, Gallinula chloropus
MURRE, Common, Uria aalge
    Thick-billed, Uria lomvia
MURRELET, Ancient, Synthliboramphus antiquus
    Craveri's, Synthliboramphus craveri
    Guadalupe, Synthliboramphus hypoleucus
    Kittlitz's, Brachyramphus brevirostris
    Long-billed, Brachyramphus perdix
    Marbled, Brachyramphus marmoratus
    Scripps's, Synthliboramphus scrippsi
NEEDLETAIL, White-throated, Hirundapus caudacutus
NIGHTHAWK, Antillean, Chordeiles gundlachii
    Common, Chordeiles minor
    Lesser, Chordeiles acutipennis
NIGHT-HERON, Black-crowned, Nycticorax nycticorax
    Japanese, Gorsachius goisagi
    Malayan, Gorsachius melanolophus
    Rufous, Nycticorax caledonicus
    Yellow-crowned, Nyctanassa violacea
NIGHTINGALE-THRUSH, Black-headed, Catharus mexicanus
    Orange-billed, Catharus aurantiirostris
NIGHTJAR, Buff-collared, Antrostomus ridgwayi
    Gray, Caprimulgus jotaka
    Puerto Rican, Antrostomus noctitherus
    White-tailed, Hydropsalis cayennensis
NODDY, Black, Anous minutus
    Blue-gray, Anous ceruleus
    Brown, Anous stolidus
NUKUPU`U, Kauai, Hemignathus hanapepe
    Maui, Hemignathus affinis
    O`ahu, Hemignathus lucidus
NUTCRACKER, Clark's, Nucifraga columbiana
NUTHATCH, Brown-headed, Sitta pusilla
    Pygmy, Sitta pygmaea
    Red-breasted, Sitta canadensis
    White-breasted, Sitta carolinensis
OLOMA`O, Myadestes lanaiensis
`[Otilde]MA'O, Myadestes obscurus
ORIOLE, Altamira, Icterus gularis
    Audubon's, Icterus graduacauda
    Baltimore, Icterus galbula
    Black-vented, Icterus wagleri
    Bullock's, Icterus bullockii
    Hooded, Icterus cucullatus
    Orchard, Icterus spurius
    Puerto Rican, Icterus portoricensis
    Scott's, Icterus parisorum
    Streak-backed, Icterus pustulatus
OSPREY, Pandion haliaetus
`[Otilde]`[Utilde], Psittirostra psittacea
OVENBIRD, Seiurus aurocapilla
OWL, Barn, Tyto alba
    Barred, Strix varia
    Boreal, Aegolius funereus
    Burrowing, Athene cunicularia
    Elf, Micrathene whitneyi
    Flammulated, Psiloscops flammeolus
    Great Gray, Strix nebulosa
    Great Horned, Bubo virginianus
    Long-eared, Asio otus
    Mottled, Ciccaba virgata
    Northern Hawk, Surnia ulula
    Northern Saw-whet, Aegolius acadicus
    Short-eared, Asio flammeus
    Snowy, Bubo scandiacus
    Spotted, Strix occidentalis
    Stygian, Asio stygius
OYSTERCATCHER, American, Haematopus palliatus
    Black, Haematopus bachmani
    Eurasian, Haematopus ostralegus
PALILA, Loxioides bailleui
PALM-SWIFT, Antillean, Tachornis phoenicobia
PARROTBILL, Maui, Pseudonestor xanthophrys
PARULA, Northern, Setophaga americana
    Tropical, Setophaga pitiayumi
PAURAQUE, Common, Nyctidromus albicollis
PELICAN, American White, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos
    Brown, Pelecanus occidentalis
PETREL, Bermuda, Pterodroma cahow
    Black-capped, Pterodroma hasitata
    Black-winged, Pterodroma nigripennis
    Bonin, Pterodroma hypoleuca
    Bulwer's, Bulweria bulwerii
    Cook's, Pterodroma cookii
    Fea's, Pterodroma feae
    Gould's, Pterodroma leucoptera
    Great-winged, Pterodroma macroptera
    Hawaiian, Pterodroma sandwichensis
    Herald, Pterodroma heraldica
    Jouanin's, Bulweria fallax
    Juan Fernandez, Pterodroma externa
    Kermadec, Pterodroma neglecta
    Mottled, Pterodroma inexpectata
    Murphy's, Pterodroma ultima
    Parkinson's, Procellaria parkinsoni
    Phoenix, Pterodroma alba
    Providence, Pterodroma solandri
    Stejneger's, Pterodroma longirostris
    Tahiti, Pseudobulweria rostrata
    Trindade, Pterodroma arminjoniana
    White-chinned, Procellaria aequinoctialis
    White-necked, Pterodroma cervicalis
    Zino's, Pterodroma madeira
PEWEE, Cuban, Contopus caribaeus
    Greater, Contopus pertinax
    Hispaniolan, Contopus hispaniolensis
    Lesser Antillean, Contopus latirostris
PHAINOPEPLA, Phainopepla nitens
PHALAROPE, Red, Phalaropus fulicarius
    Red-necked, Phalaropus lobatus
    Wilson's, Phalaropus tricolor
PHOEBE, Black, Sayornis nigricans
    Eastern, Sayornis phoebe
    Say's, Sayornis saya
PIGEON, Band-tailed, Patagioenas fasciata
    Plain, Patagioenas inornata
    Red-billed, Patagioenas flavirostris
    Scaly-naped, Patagioenas squamosa
    White-crowned, Patagioenas leucocephala
PINTAIL, Northern, Anas acuta
    White-cheeked, Anas bahamensis
PIPIT, American, Anthus rubescens
    Olive-backed, Anthus hodgsoni
    Pechora, Anthus gustavi
    Red-throated, Anthus cervinus
    Sprague's, Anthus spragueii
    Tree, Anthus trivialis
PLOVER, Black-bellied, Pluvialis squatarola
    Collared, Charadrius collaris
    Common Ringed, Charadrius hiaticula
    Kentish, Charadrius alexandrinus
    Little Ringed, Charadrius dubius
    Mountain, Charadrius montanus
    Piping, Charadrius melodus
    Semipalmated, Charadrius semipalmatus
    Snowy, Charadrius nivosus
    Wilson's, Charadrius wilsonia
POCHARD, Baer's, Aythya baeri
    Common, Aythya ferina
POND-HERON, Chinese, Ardeola bacchus
POORWILL, Common, Phalaenoptilus nuttallii
PO`OULI, Melamprosops phaeosoma
PUAIOHI, Myadestes palmeri
PUFFIN, Atlantic, Fratercula arctica
    Horned, Fratercula corniculata
    Tufted, Fratercula cirrhata
PYGMY-OWL, Ferruginous, Glaucidium brasilianum
    Northern, Glaucidium gnoma
PYRRHULOXIA, Cardinalis sinuatus
QUAIL-DOVE, Bridled, Geotrygon mystacea
    Key West, Geotrygon chrysia
    Ruddy, Geotrygon montana
QUETZAL, Eared, Euptilotis neoxenus
RAIL, Black, Laterallus jamaicensis
    Buff-banded, Gallirallus philippensis
    Clapper, Rallus crepitans
    Guam, Gallirallus owstoni
    King, Rallus elegans
    Ridgway's, Rallus obsoletus
    Spotted, Pardirallus maculatus
    Virginia, Rallus limicola
    Yellow, Coturnicops noveboracensis
RAVEN, Chihuahuan, Corvus cryptoleucus
    Common, Corvus corax
RAZORBILL, Alca torda
REDHEAD, Aythya americana
REDPOLL, Common, Acanthis flammea
    Hoary, Acanthis hornemanni
REDSHANK, Common, Tringa totanus
    Spotted, Tringa erythropus
REDSTART, American, Setophaga ruticilla
    Common, Phoenicurus phoenicurus
    Painted, Myioborus pictus
    Slate-throated, Myioborus miniatus
REDWING, Turdus iliacus
    REEF-HERON, Pacific, Egretta sacra
    Western, Egretta gularis
ROADRUNNER, Greater, Geococcyx californianus
ROBIN, American, Turdus migratorius
    Rufous-backed, Turdus rufopalliatus
    Rufous-tailed, Larvivora sibilans
    Siberian Blue, Larvivora cyane
ROCK-THRUSH, Blue, Monticola solitarius
ROSEFINCH, Common, Carpodacus erythrinus
ROSY-FINCH, Asian, Leucosticte arctoa
    Black, Leucosticte atrata
    Brown-capped, Leucosticte australis
    Gray-crowned, Leucosticte tephrocotis
RUBYTHROAT, Siberian, Calliope calliope
RUFF, Calidris pugnax
SANDERLING, Calidris alba
SANDPIPER, Baird's, Calidris bairdii
    Broad-billed, Calidris falcinellus
    Buff-breasted, Calidris subruficollis
    Common, Actitis hypoleucos
    Curlew, Calidris ferruginea
    Green, Tringa ochropus
    Least, Calidris minutilla
    Marsh, Tringa stagnatilis
    Pectoral, Calidris melanotos
    Purple, Calidris maritima
    Rock, Calidris ptilocnemis
    Semipalmated, Calidris pusilla
    Sharp-tailed, Calidris acuminata

[[Page 61299]]

    Solitary, Tringa solitaria
    Spoon-billed, Calidris pygmea
    Spotted, Actitis macularius
    Stilt, Calidris himantopus
    Terek, Xenus cinereus
    Upland, Bartramia longicauda
    Western, Calidris mauri
    White-rumped, Calidris fuscicollis
    Wood, Tringa glareola
SAND-PLOVER, Greater, Charadrius leschenaultii
    Lesser, Charadrius mongolus
SAPSUCKER, Red-breasted, Sphyrapicus ruber
    Red-naped, Sphyrapicus nuchalis
    Williamson's, Sphyrapicus thyroideus
    Yellow-bellied, Sphyrapicus varius
SCAUP, Greater, Aythya marila
    Lesser, Aythya affinis
SCOPS-OWL, Oriental, Otus sunia
SCOTER, Black, Melanitta americana
    Common, Melanitta nigra
    Surf, Melanitta perspicillata
    White-winged, Melanitta fusca
SCREECH-OWL, Eastern, Megascops asio
    Puerto Rican, Megascops nudipes
    Western, Megascops kennicottii
    Whiskered, Megascops trichopsis
SCRUB-JAY, California, Aphelocoma californica
    Florida, Aphelocoma coerulescens
    Island, Aphelocoma insularis
    Woodhouse's, Aphelocoma woodhouseii
SEA-EAGLE, Steller's, Haliaeetus pelagicus
SEEDEATER, Morelet's, Sporophila morelleti
SHEARWATER, Audubon's, Puffinus lherminieri
    Barolo, Puffinus baroli
    Black-vented, Puffinus opisthomelas
    Bryan's, Puffinus bryani
    Buller's, Ardenna bulleri
    Cape Verde, Calonectris edwardsii
    Christmas, Puffinus nativitatis
    Cory's, Calonectris diomedea
    Flesh-footed, Ardenna carneipes
    Great, Ardenna gravis
    Manx, Puffinus puffinus
    Newell's, Puffinus newelli
    Pink-footed, Ardenna creatopus
    Short-tailed, Ardenna tenuirostris
    Sooty, Ardenna grisea
    Streaked, Calonectris leucomelas
    Wedge-tailed, Ardenna pacifica
SHOVELER, Northern, Spatula clypeata
SHRIKE, Brown, Lanius cristatus
    Loggerhead, Lanius ludovicianus
    Northern, Lanius borealis
SILKY-FLYCATCHER, Gray, Ptiliogonys cinereus
SISKIN, Eurasian, Spinus spinus
    Pine, Spinus pinus
SKIMMER, Black, Rynchops niger
SKUA, Great, Stercorarius skua
    South Polar, Stercorarius maccormicki
SKYLARK, Eurasian, Alauda arvensis
SMEW, Mergellus albellus
SNIPE, Common, Gallinago gallinago
    Jack, Lymnocryptes minimus
    Pin-tailed, Gallinago stenura
    Solitary, Gallinago solitaria
    Swinhoe's, Gallinago megala
    Wilson's, Gallinago delicata
SOLITAIRE, Brown-backed, Myadestes occidentalis
    Townsend's, Myadestes townsendi
SORA, Porzana carolina
SPARROW, American Tree, Spizelloides arborea
    Bachman's, Peucaea aestivalis
    Baird's, Centronyx bairdii
    Bell's, Artemisiospiza belli
    Black-chinned, Spizella atrogularis
    Black-throated, Amphispiza bilineata
    Botteri's, Peucaea botterii
    Brewer's, Spizella breweri
    Cassin's, Peucaea cassinii
    Chipping, Spizella passerina
    Clay-colored, Spizella pallida
    Field, Spizella pusilla
    Five-striped, Amphispiza quinquestriata
    Fox, Passerella iliaca
    Golden-crowned, Zonotrichia atricapilla
    Grasshopper, Ammodramus savannarum
    Harris's, Zonotrichia querula
    Henslow's, Centronyx henslowii
    Lark, Chondestes grammacus
    LeConte's, Ammospiza leconteii
    Lincoln's, Melospiza lincolnii
    Nelson's, Ammospiza nelsoni
    Olive, Arremonops rufivirgatus
    Rufous-crowned, Aimophila ruficeps
    Rufous-winged, Peucaea carpalis
    Sagebrush, Artemisiospiza nevadensis
    Saltmarsh, Ammospiza caudacuta
    Savannah, Passerculus sandwichensis
    Seaside, Ammospiza maritima
    Song, Melospiza melodia
    Swamp, Melospiza georgiana
    Vesper, Pooecetes gramineus
    White-crowned, Zonotrichia leucophrys
    White-throated, Zonotrichia albicollis
    Worthen's, Spizella wortheni
SPARROWHAWK, Chinese, Accipiter soloensis
    Japanese, Accipiter gularis
SPINDALIS, Puerto Rican, Spindalis portoricensis
    Western, Spindalis zena
SPOONBILL, Roseate, Platalea ajaja
STARLING, Chestnut-cheeked, Agropsar philippensis
    White-cheeked, Spodiopsar cineraceus
STARTHROAT, Plain-capped, Heliomaster constantii
STILT, Black-necked, Himantopus mexicanus
    Black-winged, Himantopus himantopus
STINT, Little, Calidris minuta
    Long-toed, Calidris subminuta
    Red-necked, Calidris ruficollis
    Temminck's, Calidris temminckii
STONECHAT, Saxicola torquatus
STORK, Wood, Mycteria americana
STORM-PETREL, Ashy, Oceanodroma homochroa
    Band-rumped, Oceanodroma castro
    Black, Oceanodroma melania
    Black-bellied, Fregetta tropica
    Fork-tailed, Oceanodroma furcata
    Leach's, Oceanodroma leucorhoa
    Least, Oceanodroma microsoma
    Matsudaira's, Oceanodroma matsudairae
    Polynesian, Nesofregetta fuliginosa
    Ringed, Oceanodroma hornbyi
    Swinhoe's, Oceanodroma monorhis
    Townsend's, Oceanodroma socorroensis
    Tristram's, Oceanodroma tristrami
    Wedge-rumped, Oceanodroma tethys
    White-bellied, Fregetta grallaria
    White-faced, Pelagodroma marina
    Wilson's, Oceanites oceanicus
SURFBIRD, Calidris virgata
SWALLOW, Bahama, Tachycineta cyaneoviridis
    Bank, Riparia riparia
    Barn, Hirundo rustica
    Cave, Petrochelidon fulva
    Cliff, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota
    Mangrove, Tachycineta albilinea
    Northern Rough-winged, Stelgidopteryx serripennis
    Tree, Tachycineta bicolor
    Violet-green, Tachycineta thalassina
SWAMPHEN, Purple, Porphyrio porphyrio
SWAN, Trumpeter, Cygnus buccinator
    Tundra, Cygnus columbianus
    Whooper, Cygnus cygnus
SWIFT, Alpine, Apus melba
    Black, Cypseloides niger
    Chimney, Chaetura pelagica
    Common, Apus apus
    Fork-tailed, Apus pacificus
    Short-tailed, Chaetura brachyura
    Vaux's, Chaetura vauxi
    White-collared, Streptoprocne zonaris
    White-throated, Aeronautes saxatalis
SWIFTLET, Mariana, Aerodramus bartschi
    White-rumped, Aerodramus spodiopygius
TANAGER, Flame-colored, Piranga bidentata
    Hepatic, Piranga flava
    Puerto Rican, Nesospingus speculiferus
    Scarlet, Piranga olivacea
    Summer, Piranga rubra
    Western, Piranga ludoviciana
TATTLER, Gray-tailed, Tringa brevipes
    Wandering, Tringa incana
TEAL, Baikal, Sibirionetta formosa
    Blue-winged, Spatula discors
    Cinnamon, Spatula cyanoptera
    Green-winged, Anas crecca
TERN, Aleutian, Onychoprion aleuticus
    Arctic, Sterna paradisaea
    Black, Chlidonias niger
    Black-naped, Sterna sumatrana
    Bridled, Onychoprion anaethetus
    Caspian, Hydroprogne caspia
    Common, Sterna hirundo
    Elegant, Thalasseus elegans
    Forster's, Sterna forsteri
    Gray-backed, Onychoprion lunatus
    Great Crested, Thalasseus bergii
    Gull-billed, Gelochelidon nilotica
    Large-billed, Phaetusa simplex
    Least, Sternula antillarum
    Little, Sternula albifrons
    Roseate, Sterna dougallii
    Royal, Thalasseus maximus
    Sandwich, Thalasseus sandvicensis
    Sooty, Onychoprion fuscatus
    Whiskered, Chlidonias hybrida
    White, Gygis alba
    White-winged, Chlidonias leucopterus
THRASHER, Bendire's, Toxostoma bendirei
    Brown, Toxostoma rufum
    California, Toxostoma redivivum
    Crissal, Toxostoma crissale
    Curve-billed, Toxostoma curvirostre
    LeConte's, Toxostoma lecontei
    Long-billed, Toxostoma longirostre
    Pearly-eyed, Margarops fuscatus
    Sage, Oreoscoptes montanus
THRUSH, Aztec, Ridgwayia pinicola
    Bicknell's, Catharus bicknelli
    Clay-colored, Turdus grayi
    Dusky, Turdus naumanni
    Eyebrowed, Turdus obscurus
    Gray-cheeked, Catharus minimus
    Hermit, Catharus guttatus

[[Page 61300]]

    Red-legged, Turdus plumbeus
    Swainson's, Catharus ustulatus
    Varied, Ixoreus naevius
    White-throated, Turdus assimilis
    Wood, Hylocichla mustelina
TIGER-HERON, Bare-throated, Tigrisoma mexicanum
TITMOUSE, Black-crested, Baeolophus atricristatus
    Bridled, Baeolophus wollweberi
    Juniper, Baeolophus ridgwayi
    Oak, Baeolophus inornatus
    Tufted, Baeolophus bicolor
TITYRA, Masked, Tityra semifasciata
TOWHEE, Abert's, Melozone aberti
    California, Melozone crissalis
    Canyon, Melozone fusca
    Eastern, Pipilo erythrophthalmus
    Green-tailed, Pipilo chlorurus
    Spotted, Pipilo maculatus
TROGON, Elegant, Trogon elegans
TROPICBIRD, Red-billed, Phaethon aethereus
    Red-tailed, Phaethon rubricauda
    White-tailed, Phaethon lepturus
TURNSTONE, Black, Arenaria melanocephala
    Ruddy, Arenaria interpres
TURTLE-DOVE, European, Streptopelia turtur
    Oriental, Streptopelia orientalis
VEERY, Catharus fuscescens
VERDIN, Auriparus flaviceps
VIOLETEAR, Mexican, Colibri thalassinus
VIREO, Bell's, Vireo bellii
    Black-capped, Vireo atricapilla
    Black-whiskered, Vireo altiloquus
    Blue-headed, Vireo solitarius
    Cassin's, Vireo cassinii
    Cuban, Vireo gundlachii
    Gray, Vireo vicinior
    Hutton's, Vireo huttoni
    Philadelphia, Vireo philadelphicus
    Plumbeous, Vireo plumbeus
    Puerto Rican, Vireo latimeri
    Red-eyed, Vireo olivaceus
    Thick-billed, Vireo crassirostris
    Warbling, Vireo gilvus
    White-eyed, Vireo griseus
    Yellow-green, Vireo flavoviridis
    Yellow-throated, Vireo flavifrons
    Yucatan, Vireo magister
VULTURE, Black, Coragyps atratus
    Turkey, Cathartes aura
WAGTAIL, Citrine, Motacilla citreola
    Eastern Yellow, Motacilla tschutschensis
    Gray, Motacilla cinerea
    White, Motacilla alba
WARBLER, Adelaide's, Setophaga adelaidae
    Aguiguan Reed, Acrocephalus nijoi
    Arctic, Phylloscopus borealis
    Bachman's, Vermivora bachmanii
    Bay-breasted, Setophaga castanea
    Black-and-white, Mniotilta varia
    Blackburnian, Setophaga fusca
    Blackpoll, Setophaga striata
    Black-throated Blue, Setophaga caerulescens
    Black-throated Gray, Setophaga nigrescens
    Black-throated Green, Setophaga virens
    Blue-winged, Vermivora cyanoptera
    Blyth's Reed, Acrocephalus dumetorum
    Canada, Cardellina canadensis
    Cape May, Setophaga tigrina
    Cerulean, Setophaga cerulea
    Chestnut-sided, Setophaga pensylvanica
    Colima, Oreothlypis crissalis
    Connecticut, Oporornis agilis
    Crescent-chested, Oreothlypis superciliosa
    Dusky, Phylloscopus fuscatus
    Elfin-woods, Setophaga angelae
    Fan-tailed, Basileuterus lachrymosus
    Golden-cheeked, Setophaga chrysoparia
    Golden-crowned, Basileuterus culicivorus
    Golden-winged, Vermivora chrysoptera
    Grace's, Setophaga graciae
    Hermit, Setophaga occidentalis
    Hooded, Setophaga citrina
    Kamchatka Leaf, Phylloscopus examinandus
    Kentucky, Geothlypis formosa
    Kirtland's, Setophaga kirtlandii
    Lanceolated, Locustella lanceolata
    Lucy's, Oreothlypis luciae
    MacGillivray's, Geothlypis tolmiei
    Magnolia, Setophaga magnolia
    Mourning, Geothlypis philadelphia
    Nashville, Oreothlypis ruficapilla
    Nightingale Reed, Acrocephalus luscinius
    Olive, Peucedramus taeniatus
    Orange-crowned, Oreothlypis celata
    Pagan Reed, Acrocephalus yamashinae
    Pallas's Leaf, Phylloscopus proregulus
    Palm, Setophaga palmarum
    Pine, Setophaga pinus
    Prairie, Setophaga discolor
    Prothonotary, Protonotaria citrea
    Red-faced, Cardellina rubrifrons
    Rufous-capped, Basileuterus rufifrons
    Saipan Reed, Acrocephalus hiwae
    Sedge, Acrocephalus schoenobaenus
    Swainson's, Limnothlypis swainsonii
    Tennessee, Oreothlypis peregrina
    Townsend's, Setophaga townsendi
    Virginia's, Oreothlypis virginiae
    Willow, Phylloscopus trochilus
    Wilson's, Cardellina pusilla
    Wood, Phylloscopus sibilatrix
    Worm-eating, Helmitheros vermivorum
    Yellow, Setophaga petechia
    Yellow-browed, Phylloscopus inornatus
    Yellow-rumped, Setophaga coronata
    Yellow-throated, Setophaga dominica
WATERTHRUSH, Louisiana, Parkesia motacilla
    Northern, Parkesia noveboracensis
WAXWING, Bohemian, Bombycilla garrulus
    Cedar, Bombycilla cedrorum
WHEATEAR, Northern, Oenanthe oenanthe
WHIMBREL, Numenius phaeopus
WHIP-POOR-WILL, Eastern, Antrostomus vociferus
    Mexican, Antrostomus arizonae
WHISTLING-DUCK, Black-bellied, Dendrocygna autumnalis
    Fulvous, Dendrocygna bicolor
    West Indian, Dendrocygna arborea
WHITETHROAT, Lesser, Sylvia curruca
WIGEON, American, Mareca americana
    Eurasian, Mareca penelope
WILLET, Tringa semipalmata
WOODCOCK, American, Scolopax minor
    Eurasian, Scolopax rusticola
WOODPECKER, Acorn, Melanerpes formicivorus
    American Three-toed, Picoides dorsalis
    Arizona, Dryobates arizonae
    Black-backed, Picoides arcticus
    Downy, Dryobates pubescens
    Gila, Melanerpes uropygialis
    Golden-fronted, Melanerpes aurifrons
    Great Spotted, Dendrocopos major
    Hairy, Dryobates villosus
    Ivory-billed, Campephilus principalis
    Ladder-backed, Dryobates scalaris
    Lewis's, Melanerpes lewis
    Nuttall's, Dryobates nuttallii
    Pileated, Dryocopus pileatus
    Puerto Rican, Melanerpes portoricensis
    Red-bellied, Melanerpes carolinus
    Red-cockaded, Dryobates borealis
    Red-headed, Melanerpes erythrocephalus
    White-headed, Dryobates albolarvatus
WOOD-PEWEE, Eastern, Contopus virens
    Western, Contopus sordidulus
WOOD-RAIL, Rufous-necked, Aramides axillaris
WOODSTAR, Bahama, Calliphlox evelynae
WREN, Bewick's, Thryomanes bewickii
    Cactus, Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus
    Canyon, Catherpes mexicanus
    Carolina, Thryothorus ludovicianus
    House, Troglodytes aedon
    Marsh, Cistothorus palustris
    Pacific, Troglodytes pacificus
    Rock, Salpinctes obsoletus
    Sedge, Cistothorus platensis
    Sinaloa, Thryophilus sinaloa
    Winter, Troglodytes hiemalis
WRENTIT, Chamaea fasciata
WRYNECK, Eurasian, Jynx torquilla
YELLOWLEGS, Greater, Tringa melanoleuca
    Lesser, Tringa flavipes
YELLOWTHROAT, Common, Geothlypis trichas
    Gray-crowned, Geothlypis poliocephala
    (2) Taxonomic listing. Species are listed in phylogenetic 
sequence by scientific name, with the common (English) name 
following the scientific name. To help clarify species 
relationships, we also list the higher-level taxonomic categories of 
Order, Family, and Subfamily.

    Dendrocygna autumnalis, Black-bellied Whistling-Duck
    Dendrocygna arborea, West Indian Whistling-Duck
    Dendrocygna bicolor, Fulvous Whistling-Duck
    Anser canagicus, Emperor Goose
    Anser caerulescens, Snow Goose
    Anser rossii, Ross's Goose
    Anser albifrons, Greater White-fronted Goose
    Anser erythropus, Lesser White-fronted Goose
    Anser fabalis, Taiga Bean-Goose
    Anser serrirostris, Tundra Bean-Goose
    Anser brachyrhynchus, Pink-footed Goose
    Branta bernicla, Brant
    Branta leucopsis, Barnacle Goose
    Branta hutchinsii, Cackling Goose
    Branta canadensis, Canada Goose
    Branta sandvicensis, Hawaiian Goose
    Cygnus buccinator, Trumpeter Swan
    Cygnus columbianus, Tundra Swan
    Cygnus cygnus, Whooper Swan
Subfamily ANATINAE
    Cairina moschata, Muscovy Duck
    Aix sponsa, Wood Duck
    Sibirionetta formosa, Baikal Teal
    Spatula querquedula, Garganey
    Spatula discors, Blue-winged Teal
    Spatula cyanoptera, Cinnamon Teal

[[Page 61301]]

    Spatula clypeata, Northern Shoveler
    Mareca strepera, Gadwall
    Mareca falcata, Falcated Duck
    Mareca penelope, Eurasian Wigeon
    Mareca americana, American Wigeon
    Anas laysanensis, Laysan Duck
    Anas wyvilliana, Hawaiian Duck
    Anas zonorhyncha, Eastern Spot-billed Duck
    Anas platyrhynchos, Mallard
    Anas rubripes, American Black Duck
    Anas fulvigula, Mottled Duck
    Anas superciliosa, Pacific Black Duck
    Anas bahamensis, White-cheeked Pintail
    Anas acuta, Northern Pintail
    Anas crecca, Green-winged Teal
    Aythya valisineria, Canvasback
    Aythya americana, Redhead
    Aythya ferina, Common Pochard
    Aythya baeri, Baer's Pochard
    Aythya collaris, Ring-necked Duck
    Aythya fuligula, Tufted Duck
    Aythya marila, Greater Scaup
    Aythya affinis, Lesser Scaup
    Polysticta stelleri, Steller's Eider
    Somateria fischeri, Spectacled Eider
    Somateria spectabilis, King Eider
    Somateria mollissima, Common Eider
    Histrionicus histrionicus, Harlequin Duck
    Melanitta perspicillata, Surf Scoter
    Melanitta fusca, White-winged Scoter
    Melanitta nigra, Common Scoter
    Melanitta americana, Black Scoter
    Clangula hyemalis, Long-tailed Duck
    Bucephala albeola, Bufflehead
    Bucephala clangula, Common Goldeneye
    Bucephala islandica, Barrow's Goldeneye
    Mergellus albellus, Smew
    Lophodytes cucullatus, Hooded Merganser
    Mergus merganser, Common Merganser
    Mergus serrator, Red-breasted Merganser
    Nomonyx dominicus, Masked Duck
    Oxyura jamaicensis, Ruddy Duck
    Phoenicopterus ruber, American Flamingo
    Tachybaptus dominicus, Least Grebe
    Podilymbus podiceps, Pied-billed Grebe
    Podiceps auritus, Horned Grebe
    Podiceps grisegena, Red-necked Grebe
    Podiceps nigricollis, Eared Grebe
    Aechmophorus occidentalis, Western Grebe
    Aechmophorus clarkii, Clark's Grebe
    Patagioenas squamosa, Scaly-naped Pigeon
    Patagioenas leucocephala, White-crowned Pigeon
    Patagioenas flavirostris, Red-billed Pigeon
    Patagioenas inornata, Plain Pigeon
    Patagioenas fasciata, Band-tailed Pigeon
    Streptopelia orientalis, Oriental Turtle-Dove
    Alopecoenas xanthonura, White-throated Ground-Dove
    Alopecoenas stairi, Shy Ground-Dove
    Streptopelia turtur, European Turtle-Dove
    Columbina inca, Inca Dove
    Columbina passerina, Common Ground-Dove
    Columbina talpacoti, Ruddy Ground-Dove
    Geotrygon montana, Ruddy Quail-Dove
    Geotrygon chrysia, Key West Quail-Dove
    Geotrygon mystacea, Bridled Quail-Dove
    Leptotila verreauxi, White-tipped Dove
    Zenaida asiatica, White-winged Dove
    Zenaida aurita, Zenaida Dove
    Zenaida macroura, Mourning Dove
    Ptilinopus perousii, Many-colored Fruit-Dove
    Ptilinopus porphyraceus, Crimson-crowned Fruit-Dove
    Ptilinopus roseicapilla, Mariana Fruit-Dove
    Ducula pacifica, Pacific Imperial-Pigeon
    Urodynamis taitensis, Long-tailed Koel
    Hierococcyx nisicolor, Hodgson's Hawk-Cuckoo
    Cuculus canorus, Common Cuckoo
    Cuculus optatus, Oriental Cuckoo
    Coccyzus americanus, Yellow-billed Cuckoo
    Coccyzus minor, Mangrove Cuckoo
    Coccyzus erythropthalmus, Black-billed Cuckoo
    Coccyzus vieilloti, Puerto Rican Lizard-Cuckoo
    Geococcyx californianus, Greater Roadrunner
    Crotophaga ani, Smooth-billed Ani
    Crotophaga sulcirostris, Groove-billed Ani
    Chordeiles acutipennis, Lesser Nighthawk
    Chordeiles minor, Common Nighthawk
    Chordeiles gundlachii, Antillean Nighthawk
    Nyctidromus albicollis, Common Pauraque
    Phalaenoptilus nuttallii, Common Poorwill
    Antrostomus carolinensis, Chuck-will's-widow
    Antrostomus ridgwayi, Buff-collared Nightjar
    Antrostomus vociferus, Eastern Whip-poor-will
    Antrostomus arizonae, Mexican Whip-poor-will
    Antrostomus noctitherus, Puerto Rican Nightjar
    Hydropsalis cayennensis, White-tailed Nightjar
    Caprimulgus jotaka, Gray Nightjar
    Cypseloides niger, Black Swift
    Streptoprocne zonaris, White-collared Swift
    Chaetura pelagica, Chimney Swift
    Chaetura vauxi, Vaux's Swift
    Chaetura brachyura, Short-tailed Swift
    Hirundapus caudacutus, White-throated Needletail
    Aerodramus spodiopygius, White-rumped Swiftlet
    Aerodramus bartschi, Mariana Swiftlet
Subfamily APODINAE
    Apus apus, Common Swift
    Apus pacificus, Fork-tailed Swift
    Apus melba, Alpine Swift
    Aeronautes saxatalis, White-throated Swift
    Tachornis phoenicobia, Antillean Palm-Swift
    Colibri thalassinus, Mexican Violetear
    Anthracothorax prevostii, Green-breasted Mango
    Anthracothorax dominicus, Antillean Mango
    Anthracothorax viridis, Green Mango
    Eulampis jugularis, Purple-throated Carib
    Eulampis holosericeus, Green-throated Carib
    Eugenes fulgens, Rivoli's Hummingbird
    Heliomaster constantii, Plain-capped Starthroat
    Lampornis amethystinus, Amethyst-throated Hummingbird
    Lampornis clemenciae, Blue-throated Hummingbird
    Calliphlox evelynae, Bahama Woodstar
    Calothorax lucifer, Lucifer Hummingbird
    Archilochus colubris, Ruby-throated Hummingbird
    Archilochus alexandri, Black-chinned Hummingbird
    Mellisuga minima, Vervain Hummingbird
    Calypte anna, Anna's Hummingbird
    Calypte costae, Costa's Hummingbird
    Atthis heloisa, Bumblebee Hummingbird
    Selasphorus platycercus, Broad-tailed Hummingbird
    Selasphorus rufus, Rufous Hummingbird
    Selasphorus sasin, Allen's Hummingbird
    Selasphorus calliope, Calliope Hummingbird
    Chlorostilbon maugaeus, Puerto Rican Emerald
    Cynanthus latirostris, Broad-billed Hummingbird
    Orthorhyncus cristatus, Antillean Crested Hummingbird
    Amazilia beryllina, Berylline Hummingbird
    Amazilia yucatanensis, Buff-bellied Hummingbird
    Amazilia rutila, Cinnamon Hummingbird
    Amazilia violiceps, Violet-crowned Hummingbird
    Hylocharis leucotis, White-eared Hummingbird
    Hylocharis xantusii, Xantus's Hummingbird
    Coturnicops noveboracensis, Yellow Rail
    Laterallus jamaicensis, Black Rail
    Gallirallus philippensis, Buff-banded Rail
    Gallirallus owstoni, Guam Rail
    Crex crex, Corn Crake
    Rallus obsoletus, Ridgway's Rail
    Rallus crepitans, Clapper Rail
    Rallus elegans, King Rail
    Rallus limicola, Virginia Rail
    Aramides axillaris, Rufous-necked Wood-Rail
    Porzana carolina, Sora
    Porzana tabuensis, Spotless Crake
    Hapalocrex flaviventer, Yellow-breasted Crake
    Neocrex erythrops, Paint-billed Crake
    Pardirallus maculatus, Spotted Rail
    Porphyrio martinicus, Purple Gallinule
    Porphyrio flavirostris, Azure Gallinule
    Porphyrio porphyrio, Purple Swamphen
    Gallinula galeata, Common Gallinule

[[Page 61302]]

    Gallinula chloropus, Common Moorhen
    Fulica atra, Eurasian Coot
    Fulica alai, Hawaiian Coot
    Fulica americana, American Coot
    Aramus guarauna, Limpkin
Subfamily GRUINAE
    Antigone canadensis, Sandhill Crane
    Grus grus, Common Crane
    Grus americana, Whooping Crane
    Himantopus himantopus, Black-winged Stilt
    Himantopus mexicanus, Black-necked Stilt
    Recurvirostra americana, American Avocet
    Haematopus ostralegus, Eurasian Oystercatcher
    Haematopus palliatus, American Oystercatcher
    Haematopus bachmani, Black Oystercatcher
    Vanellus vanellus, Northern Lapwing
    Pluvialis squatarola, Black-bellied Plover
    Pluvialis apricaria, European Golden-Plover
    Pluvialis dominica, American Golden-Plover
    Pluvialis fulva, Pacific Golden-Plover
    Charadrius mongolus, Lesser Sand-Plover
    Charadrius leschenaultii, Greater Sand-Plover
    Charadrius collaris, Collared Plover
    Charadrius alexandrinus, Kentish Plover
    Charadrius nivosus, Snowy Plover
    Charadrius wilsonia, Wilson's Plover
    Charadrius hiaticula, Common Ringed Plover
    Charadrius semipalmatus, Semipalmated Plover
    Charadrius melodus, Piping Plover
    Charadrius dubius, Little Ringed Plover
    Charadrius vociferus, Killdeer
    Charadrius montanus, Mountain Plover
    Charadrius morinellus, Eurasian Dotterel
    Jacana spinosa, Northern Jacana
    Bartramia longicauda, Upland Sandpiper
    Numenius tahitiensis, Bristle-thighed Curlew
    Numenius phaeopus, Whimbrel
    Numenius minutus, Little Curlew
    Numenius borealis, Eskimo Curlew
    Numenius americanus, Long-billed Curlew
    Numenius madagascariensis, Far Eastern Curlew
    Numenius arquata, Eurasian Curlew
    Limosa lapponica, Bar-tailed Godwit
    Limosa limosa, Black-tailed Godwit
    Limosa haemastica, Hudsonian Godwit
    Limosa fedoa, Marbled Godwit
    Arenaria interpres, Ruddy Turnstone
    Arenaria melanocephala, Black Turnstone
    Calidris tenuirostris, Great Knot
    Calidris canutus, Red Knot
    Calidris virgata, Surfbird
    Calidris pugnax, Ruff
    Calidris falcinellus, Broad-billed Sandpiper
    Calidris acuminata, Sharp-tailed Sandpiper
    Calidris himantopus, Stilt Sandpiper
    Calidris ferruginea, Curlew Sandpiper
    Calidris temminckii, Temminck's Stint
    Calidris subminuta, Long-toed Stint
    Calidris pygmea, Spoon-billed Sandpiper
    Calidris ruficollis, Red-necked Stint
    Calidris alba, Sanderling
    Calidris alpina, Dunlin
    Calidris ptilocnemis, Rock Sandpiper
    Calidris maritima, Purple Sandpiper
    Calidris bairdii, Baird's Sandpiper
    Calidris minuta, Little Stint
    Calidris minutilla, Least Sandpiper
    Calidris fuscicollis, White-rumped Sandpiper
    Calidris subruficollis, Buff-breasted Sandpiper
    Calidris melanotos, Pectoral Sandpiper
    Calidris pusilla, Semipalmated Sandpiper
    Calidris mauri, Western Sandpiper
    Limnodromus griseus, Short-billed Dowitcher
    Limnodromus scolopaceus, Long-billed Dowitcher
    Lymnocryptes minimus, Jack Snipe
    Scolopax rusticola, Eurasian Woodcock
    Scolopax minor, American Woodcock
    Gallinago solitaria, Solitary Snipe
    Gallinago stenura, Pin-tailed Snipe
    Gallinago megala, Swinhoe's Snipe
    Gallinago gallinago, Common Snipe
    Gallinago delicata, Wilson's Snipe
    Xenus cinereus, Terek Sandpiper
    Actitis hypoleucos, Common Sandpiper
    Actitis macularius, Spotted Sandpiper
    Tringa ochropus, Green Sandpiper
    Tringa solitaria, Solitary Sandpiper
    Tringa brevipes, Gray-tailed Tattler
    Tringa incana, Wandering Tattler
    Tringa flavipes, Lesser Yellowlegs
    Tringa semipalmata, Willet
    Tringa erythropus, Spotted Redshank
    Tringa nebularia, Common Greenshank
    Tringa guttifer, Nordmann's Greenshank
    Tringa melanoleuca, Greater Yellowlegs
    Tringa totanus, Common Redshank
    Tringa glareola, Wood Sandpiper
    Tringa stagnatilis, Marsh Sandpiper
    Phalaropus tricolor, Wilson's Phalarope
    Phalaropus lobatus, Red-necked Phalarope
    Phalaropus fulicarius, Red Phalarope
    Stercorarius skua, Great Skua
    Stercorarius maccormicki, South Polar Skua
    Stercorarius pomarinus, Pomarine Jaeger
    Stercorarius parasiticus, Parasitic Jaeger
    Stercorarius longicaudus, Long-tailed Jaeger
    Alle alle, Dovekie
    Uria aalge, Common Murre
    Uria lomvia, Thick-billed Murre
    Alca torda, Razorbill
    Cepphus grylle, Black Guillemot
    Cepphus columba, Pigeon Guillemot
    Brachyramphus perdix, Long-billed Murrelet
    Brachyramphus marmoratus, Marbled Murrelet
    Brachyramphus brevirostris, Kittlitz's Murrelet
    Synthliboramphus scrippsi, Scripps's Murrelet
    Synthliboramphus hypoleucus, Guadalupe Murrelet
    Synthliboramphus craveri, Craveri's Murrelet
    Synthliboramphus antiquus, Ancient Murrelet
    Ptychoramphus aleuticus, Cassin's Auklet
    Aethia psittacula, Parakeet Auklet
    Aethia pusilla, Least Auklet
    Aethia pygmaea, Whiskered Auklet
    Aethia cristatella, Crested Auklet
    Cerorhinca monocerata, Rhinoceros Auklet
    Fratercula arctica, Atlantic Puffin
    Fratercula corniculata, Horned Puffin
    Fratercula cirrhata, Tufted Puffin
Subfamily LARINAE
    Creagrus furcatus, Swallow-tailed Gull
    Rissa tridactyla, Black-legged Kittiwake
    Rissa brevirostris, Red-legged Kittiwake
    Pagophila eburnea, Ivory Gull
    Xema sabini, Sabine's Gull
    Chroicocephalus philadelphia, Bonaparte's Gull
    Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus, Gray-hooded Gull
    Chroicocephalus ridibundus, Black-headed Gull
    Hydrocoloeus minutus, Little Gull
    Rhodostethia rosea, Ross's Gull
    Leucophaeus atricilla, Laughing Gull
    Leucophaeus pipixcan, Franklin's Gull
    Larus belcheri, Belcher's Gull
    Larus crassirostris, Black-tailed Gull
    Larus heermanni, Heermann's Gull
    Larus canus, Mew Gull
    Larus delawarensis, Ring-billed Gull
    Larus occidentalis, Western Gull
    Larus livens, Yellow-footed Gull
    Larus californicus, California Gull
    Larus argentatus, Herring Gull
    Larus michahellis, Yellow-legged Gull
    Larus glaucoides, Iceland Gull
    Larus fuscus, Lesser Black-backed Gull
    Larus schistisagus, Slaty-backed Gull
    Larus glaucescens, Glaucous-winged Gull
    Larus hyperboreus, Glaucous Gull
    Larus marinus, Great Black-backed Gull
    Larus dominicanus, Kelp Gull
    Anous stolidus, Brown Noddy
    Anous minutus, Black Noddy
    Anous ceruleus, Blue-gray Noddy
    Gygis alba, White Tern
    Onychoprion fuscatus, Sooty Tern
    Onychoprion lunatus, Gray-backed Tern
    Onychoprion anaethetus, Bridled Tern
    Onychoprion aleuticus, Aleutian Tern
    Sternula albifrons, Little Tern
    Sternula antillarum, Least Tern
    Phaetusa simplex, Large-billed Tern
    Gelochelidon nilotica, Gull-billed Tern
    Hydroprogne caspia, Caspian Tern
    Chlidonias niger, Black Tern
    Chlidonias leucopterus, White-winged Tern
    Chlidonias hybrida, Whiskered Tern
    Sterna dougallii, Roseate Tern
    Sterna sumatrana, Black-naped Tern
    Sterna hirundo, Common Tern
    Sterna paradisaea, Arctic Tern
    Sterna forsteri, Forster's Tern

[[Page 61303]]

    Thalasseus maximus, Royal Tern
    Thalasseus bergii, Great Crested Tern
    Thalasseus sandvicensis, Sandwich Tern
    Thalasseus elegans, Elegant Tern
    Rynchops niger, Black Skimmer
    Phaethon lepturus, White-tailed Tropicbird
    Phaethon aethereus, Red-billed Tropicbird
    Phaethon rubricauda, Red-tailed Tropicbird
    Gavia stellata, Red-throated Loon
    Gavia arctica, Arctic Loon
    Gavia pacifica, Pacific Loon
    Gavia immer, Common Loon
    Gavia adamsii, Yellow-billed Loon
    Thalassarche chlororhynchos, Yellow-nosed Albatross
    Thalassarche cauta, White-capped Albatross
    Thalassarche eremita, Chatham Albatross
    Thalassarche salvini, Salvin's Albatross
    Thalassarche melanophris, Black-browed Albatross
    Phoebetria palpebrata, Light-mantled Albatross
    Diomedea exulans, Wandering Albatross
    Phoebastria immutabilis, Laysan Albatross
    Phoebastria nigripes, Black-footed Albatross
    Phoebastria albatrus, Short-tailed Albatross
    Oceanites oceanicus, Wilson's Storm-Petrel
    Pelagodroma marina, White-faced Storm-Petrel
    Fregetta tropica, Black-bellied Storm-Petrel
    Fregetta grallaria, White-bellied Storm-Petrel
    Nesofregetta fuliginosa, Polynesian Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma furcata, Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma hornbyi, Ringed Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma monorhis, Swinhoe's Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma leucorhoa, Leach's Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma socorroensis, Townsend's Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma homochroa, Ashy Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma castro, Band-rumped Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma tethys, Wedge-rumped Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma matsudairae, Matsudaira's Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma melania, Black Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma tristrami, Tristram's Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma microsoma, Least Storm-Petrel
    Fulmarus glacialis, Northern Fulmar
    Pterodroma macroptera, Great-winged Petrel
    Pterodroma solandri, Providence Petrel
    Pterodroma neglecta, Kermadec Petrel
    Pterodroma arminjoniana, Trindade Petrel
    Pterodroma heraldica, Herald Petrel
    Pterodroma ultima, Murphy's Petrel
    Pterodroma inexpectata, Mottled Petrel
    Pterodroma cahow, Bermuda Petrel
    Pterodroma hasitata, Black-capped Petrel
    Pterodroma externa, Juan Fernandez Petrel
    Pterodroma sandwichensis, Hawaiian Petrel
    Pterodroma cervicalis, White-necked Petrel
    Pterodroma hypoleuca, Bonin Petrel
    Pterodroma nigripennis, Black-winged Petrel
    Pterodroma feae, Fea's Petrel
    Pterodroma madeira, Zino's Petrel
    Pterodroma cookii, Cook's Petrel
    Pterodroma longirostris, Stejneger's Petrel
    Pterodroma alba, Phoenix Petrel
    Pterodroma leucoptera, Gould's Petrel
    Pseudobulweria rostrata, Tahiti Petrel
    Bulweria bulwerii, Bulwer's Petrel
    Bulweria fallax, Jouanin's Petrel
    Procellaria aequinoctialis, White-chinned Petrel
    Procellaria parkinsoni, Parkinson's Petrel
    Calonectris leucomelas, Streaked Shearwater
    Calonectris diomedea, Cory's Shearwater
    Calonectris edwardsii, Cape Verde Shearwater
    Ardenna pacifica, Wedge-tailed Shearwater
    Ardenna bulleri, Buller's Shearwater
    Ardenna tenuirostris, Short-tailed Shearwater
    Ardenna grisea, Sooty Shearwater
    Ardenna gravis, Great Shearwater
    Ardenna creatopus, Pink-footed Shearwater
    Ardenna carneipes, Flesh-footed Shearwater
    Puffinus nativitatis, Christmas Shearwater
    Puffinus puffinus, Manx Shearwater
    Puffinus newelli, Newell's Shearwater
    Puffinus bryani, Bryan's Shearwater
    Puffinus opisthomelas, Black-vented Shearwater
    Puffinus lherminieri, Audubon's Shearwater
    Puffinus baroli, Barolo Shearwater
    Jabiru mycteria, Jabiru
    Mycteria americana, Wood Stork
    Fregata magnificens, Magnificent Frigatebird
    Fregata minor, Great Frigatebird
    Fregata ariel, Lesser Frigatebird
    Sula dactylatra, Masked Booby
    Sula granti, Nazca Booby
    Sula nebouxii, Blue-footed Booby
    Sula leucogaster, Brown Booby
    Sula sula, Red-footed Booby
    Papasula abbotti, Abbott's Booby
    Morus bassanus, Northern Gannet
    Phalacrocorax melanoleucos, Little Pied Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax penicillatus, Brandt's Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax brasilianus, Neotropic Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax auritus, Double-crested Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax carbo, Great Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax urile, Red-faced Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax pelagicus, Pelagic Cormorant
    Anhinga anhinga, Anhinga
    Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, American White Pelican
    Pelecanus occidentalis, Brown Pelican
    Botaurus lentiginosus, American Bittern
    Ixobrychus sinensis, Yellow Bittern
    Ixobrychus exilis, Least Bittern
    Ixobrychus eurhythmus, Schrenck's Bittern
    Ixobrychus flavicollis, Black Bittern
    Tigrisoma mexicanum, Bare-throated Tiger-Heron
    Ardea herodias, Great Blue Heron
    Ardea cinerea, Gray Heron
    Ardea alba, Great Egret
    Ardea intermedia, Intermediate Egret
    Egretta eulophotes, Chinese Egret
    Egretta garzetta, Little Egret
    Egretta sacra, Pacific Reef-Heron
    Egretta gularis, Western Reef-Heron
    Egretta thula, Snowy Egret
    Egretta caerulea, Little Blue Heron
    Egretta tricolor, Tricolored Heron
    Egretta rufescens, Reddish Egret
    Bubulcus ibis, Cattle Egret
    Ardeola bacchus, Chinese Pond-Heron
    Butorides virescens, Green Heron
    Nycticorax nycticorax, Black-crowned Night-Heron
    Nycticorax caledonicus, Rufous Night-Heron
    Nyctanassa violacea, Yellow-crowned Night-Heron
    Gorsachius goisagi, Japanese Night-Heron
    Gorsachius melanolophus, Malayan Night-Heron
    Eudocimus albus, White Ibis
    Eudocimus ruber, Scarlet Ibis
    Plegadis falcinellus, Glossy Ibis
    Plegadis chihi, White-faced Ibis
    Platalea ajaja, Roseate Spoonbill
    Coragyps atratus, Black Vulture
    Cathartes aura, Turkey Vulture
    Gymnogyps californianus, California Condor
    Pandion haliaetus, Osprey
Subfamily ELANINAE
    Elanus leucurus, White-tailed Kite
    Chondrohierax uncinatus, Hook-billed Kite
    Elanoides forficatus, Swallow-tailed Kite
    Aquila chrysaetos, Golden Eagle
    Harpagus bidentatus, Double-toothed Kite
    Circus spilonotus, Eastern Marsh-Harrier
    Circus hudsonius, Northern Harrier
    Accipiter soloensis, Chinese Sparrowhawk
    Accipiter gularis, Japanese Sparrowhawk
    Accipiter striatus, Sharp-shinned Hawk

[[Page 61304]]

    Accipiter cooperii, Cooper's Hawk
    Accipiter gentilis, Northern Goshawk
    Milvus migrans, Black Kite
    Haliaeetus leucocephalus, Bald Eagle
    Haliaeetus albicilla, White-tailed Eagle
    Haliaeetus pelagicus, Steller's Sea-Eagle
    Ictinia mississippiensis, Mississippi Kite
    Butastur indicus, Gray-faced Buzzard
    Geranospiza caerulescens, Crane Hawk
    Rostrhamus sociabilis, Snail Kite
    Buteogallus anthracinus, Common Black Hawk
    Rupornis magnirostris, Roadside Hawk
    Parabuteo unicinctus, Harris's Hawk
    Geranoaetus albicaudatus, White-tailed Hawk
    Buteo plagiatus, Gray Hawk
    Buteo lineatus, Red-shouldered Hawk
    Buteo platypterus, Broad-winged Hawk
    Buteo solitarius, Hawaiian Hawk
    Buteo brachyurus, Short-tailed Hawk
    Buteo swainsoni, Swainson's Hawk
    Buteo albonotatus, Zone-tailed Hawk
    Buteo jamaicensis, Red-tailed Hawk
    Buteo lagopus, Rough-legged Hawk
    Buteo regalis, Ferruginous Hawk
    Tyto alba, Barn Owl
    Otus sunia, Oriental Scops-Owl
    Psiloscops flammeolus, Flammulated Owl
    Megascops kennicottii, Western Screech-Owl
    Megascops asio, Eastern Screech-Owl
    Megascops trichopsis, Whiskered Screech-Owl
    Megascops nudipes, Puerto Rican Screech-Owl
    Bubo virginianus, Great Horned Owl
    Bubo scandiacus, Snowy Owl
    Surnia ulula, Northern Hawk Owl
    Glaucidium gnoma, Northern Pygmy-Owl
    Glaucidium brasilianum, Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl
    Micrathene whitneyi, Elf Owl
    Athene cunicularia, Burrowing Owl
    Ciccaba virgata, Mottled Owl
    Strix occidentalis, Spotted Owl
    Strix varia, Barred Owl
    Strix nebulosa, Great Gray Owl
    Asio otus, Long-eared Owl
    Asio stygius, Stygian Owl
    Asio flammeus, Short-eared Owl
    Aegolius funereus, Boreal Owl
    Aegolius acadicus, Northern Saw-whet Owl
    Ninox japonica, Northern Boobook
    Trogon elegans, Elegant Trogon
    Euptilotis neoxenus, Eared Quetzal
    Upupa epops, Eurasian Hoopoe
    Alcedo atthis, Common Kingfisher
    Todiramphus sacer, Pacific Kingfisher
    Todiramphus cinnamominus, Guam Kingfisher
    Todiramphus albicilla, Mariana Kingfisher
    Megaceryle torquata, Ringed Kingfisher
    Megaceryle alcyon, Belted Kingfisher
    Chloroceryle amazona, Amazon Kingfisher
    Chloroceryle americana, Green Kingfisher
Subfamily JYNGINAE
    Jynx torquilla, Eurasian Wryneck
Subfamily PICINAE
    Melanerpes lewis, Lewis's Woodpecker
    Melanerpes portoricensis, Puerto Rican Woodpecker
    Melanerpes erythrocephalus, Red-headed Woodpecker
    Melanerpes formicivorus, Acorn Woodpecker
    Melanerpes uropygialis, Gila Woodpecker
    Melanerpes aurifrons, Golden-fronted Woodpecker
    Melanerpes carolinus, Red-bellied Woodpecker
    Sphyrapicus thyroideus, Williamson's Sapsucker
    Sphyrapicus varius, Yellow-bellied Sapsucker
    Sphyrapicus nuchalis, Red-naped Sapsucker
    Sphyrapicus ruber, Red-breasted Sapsucker
    Picoides dorsalis, American Three-toed Woodpecker
    Picoides arcticus, Black-backed Woodpecker
    Dendrocopos major, Great Spotted Woodpecker
    Dryobates pubescens, Downy Woodpecker
    Dryobates nuttallii, Nuttall's Woodpecker
    Dryobates scalaris, Ladder-backed Woodpecker
    Dryobates borealis, Red-cockaded Woodpecker
    Dryobates villosus, Hairy Woodpecker
    Dryobates albolarvatus, White-headed Woodpecker
    Dryobates arizonae, Arizona Woodpecker
    Colaptes auratus, Northern Flicker
    Colaptes chrysoides, Gilded Flicker
    Dryocopus pileatus, Pileated Woodpecker
    Campephilus principalis, Ivory-billed Woodpecker
    Micrastur semitorquatus, Collared Forest-Falcon
    Caracara cheriway, Crested Caracara
    Falco tinnunculus, Eurasian Kestrel
    Falco sparverius, American Kestrel
    Falco vespertinus, Red-footed Falcon
    Falco amurensis, Amur Falcon
    Falco columbarius, Merlin
    Falco subbuteo, Eurasian Hobby
    Falco femoralis, Aplomado Falcon
    Falco rusticolus, Gyrfalcon
    Falco peregrinus, Peregrine Falcon
    Falco mexicanus, Prairie Falcon
    Tityra semifasciata, Masked Tityra
    Pachyramphus major, Gray-collared Becard
    Pachyramphus aglaiae, Rose-throated Becard
    Camptostoma imberbe, Northern Beardless-Tyrannulet
    Myiopagis viridicata, Greenish Elaenia
    Elaenia martinica, Caribbean Elaenia
    Elaenia albiceps, White-crested Elaenia
    Mitrephanes phaeocercus, Tufted Flycatcher
    Contopus cooperi, Olive-sided Flycatcher
    Contopus pertinax, Greater Pewee
    Contopus sordidulus, Western Wood-Pewee
    Contopus virens, Eastern Wood-Pewee
    Contopus caribaeus, Cuban Pewee
    Contopus hispaniolensis, Hispaniolan Pewee
    Contopus latirostris, Lesser Antillean Pewee
    Empidonax flaviventris, Yellow-bellied Flycatcher
    Empidonax virescens, Acadian Flycatcher
    Empidonax alnorum, Alder Flycatcher
    Empidonax traillii, Willow Flycatcher
    Empidonax minimus, Least Flycatcher
    Empidonax hammondii, Hammond's Flycatcher
    Empidonax wrightii, Gray Flycatcher
    Empidonax oberholseri, Dusky Flycatcher
    Empidonax affinis, Pine Flycatcher
    Empidonax difficilis, Pacific-slope Flycatcher
    Empidonax occidentalis, Cordilleran Flycatcher
    Empidonax fulvifrons, Buff-breasted Flycatcher
    Sayornis nigricans, Black Phoebe
    Sayornis phoebe, Eastern Phoebe
    Sayornis saya, Say's Phoebe
    Pyrocephalus rubinus, Vermilion Flycatcher
    Myiarchus tuberculifer, Dusky-capped Flycatcher
    Myiarchus cinerascens, Ash-throated Flycatcher
    Myiarchus nuttingi, Nutting's Flycatcher
    Myiarchus crinitus, Great Crested Flycatcher
    Myiarchus tyrannulus, Brown-crested Flycatcher
    Myiarchus sagrae, La Sagra's Flycatcher
    Myiarchus antillarum, Puerto Rican Flycatcher
    Pitangus sulphuratus, Great Kiskadee
    Myiozetetes similis, Social Flycatcher
    Myiodynastes luteiventris, Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher
    Legatus leucophaius, Piratic Flycatcher
    Empidonomus varius, Variegated Flycatcher
    Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus, Crowned Slaty Flycatcher
    Tyrannus melancholicus, Tropical Kingbird
    Tyrannus couchii, Couch's Kingbird
    Tyrannus vociferans, Cassin's Kingbird
    Tyrannus crassirostris, Thick-billed Kingbird
    Tyrannus verticalis, Western Kingbird
    Tyrannus tyrannus, Eastern Kingbird
    Tyrannus dominicensis, Gray Kingbird
    Tyrannus caudifasciatus, Loggerhead Kingbird
    Tyrannus forficatus, Scissor-tailed Flycatcher
    Tyrannus savana, Fork-tailed Flycatcher
    Lanius cristatus, Brown Shrike

[[Page 61305]]

    Lanius ludovicianus, Loggerhead Shrike
    Lanius borealis, Northern Shrike
    Vireo atricapilla, Black-capped Vireo
    Vireo griseus, White-eyed Vireo
    Vireo crassirostris, Thick-billed Vireo
    Vireo latimeri, Puerto Rican Vireo
    Vireo gundlachii, Cuban Vireo
    Vireo bellii, Bell's Vireo
    Vireo vicinior, Gray Vireo
    Vireo huttoni, Hutton's Vireo
    Vireo flavifrons, Yellow-throated Vireo
    Vireo cassinii, Cassin's Vireo
    Vireo solitarius, Blue-headed Vireo
    Vireo plumbeus, Plumbeous Vireo
    Vireo philadelphicus, Philadelphia Vireo
    Vireo gilvus, Warbling Vireo
    Vireo olivaceus, Red-eyed Vireo
    Vireo flavoviridis, Yellow-green Vireo
    Vireo altiloquus, Black-whiskered Vireo
    Vireo magister, Yucatan Vireo
    Perisoreus canadensis, Canada Jay
    Psilorhinus morio, Brown Jay
    Cyanocorax yncas, Green Jay
    Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus, Pinyon Jay
    Cyanocitta stelleri, Steller's Jay
    Cyanocitta cristata, Blue Jay
    Aphelocoma coerulescens, Florida Scrub-Jay
    Aphelocoma insularis, Island Scrub-Jay
    Aphelocoma californica, California Scrub-Jay
    Aphelocoma woodhouseii, Woodhouse's Scrub-Jay
    Aphelocoma wollweberi, Mexican Jay
    Nucifraga columbiana, Clark's Nutcracker
    Pica hudsonia, Black-billed Magpie
    Pica nuttalli, Yellow-billed Magpie
    Corvus monedula, Eurasian Jackdaw
    Corvus kubaryi, Mariana Crow
    Corvus brachyrhynchos, American Crow
    Corvus caurinus, Northwestern Crow
    Corvus leucognaphalus, White-necked Crow
    Corvus imparatus, Tamaulipas Crow
    Corvus ossifragus, Fish Crow
    Corvus hawaiiensis, Hawaiian Crow
    Corvus cryptoleucus, Chihuahuan Raven
    Corvus corax, Common Raven
    Alauda arvensis, Eurasian Skylark
    Eremophila alpestris, Horned Lark
    Progne subis, Purple Martin
    Progne cryptoleuca, Cuban Martin
    Progne dominicensis, Caribbean Martin
    Progne chalybea, Gray-breasted Martin
    Progne elegans, Southern Martin
    Progne tapera, Brown-chested Martin
    Tachycineta bicolor, Tree Swallow
    Tachycineta albilinea, Mangrove Swallow
    Tachycineta thalassina, Violet-green Swallow
    Tachycineta cyaneoviridis, Bahama Swallow
    Stelgidopteryx serripennis, Northern Rough-winged Swallow
    Riparia riparia, Bank Swallow
    Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, Cliff Swallow
    Petrochelidon fulva, Cave Swallow
    Hirundo rustica, Barn Swallow
    Delichon urbicum, Common House-Martin
    Poecile carolinensis, Carolina Chickadee
    Poecile atricapillus, Black-capped Chickadee
    Poecile gambeli, Mountain Chickadee
    Poecile sclateri, Mexican Chickadee
    Poecile rufescens, Chestnut-backed Chickadee
    Poecile hudsonicus, Boreal Chickadee
    Poecile cinctus, Gray-headed Chickadee
    Baeolophus wollweberi, Bridled Titmouse
    Baeolophus inornatus, Oak Titmouse
    Baeolophus ridgwayi, Juniper Titmouse
    Baeolophus bicolor, Tufted Titmouse
    Baeolophus atricristatus, Black-crested Titmouse
    Auriparus flaviceps, Verdin
    Psaltriparus minimus, Bushtit
Subfamily SITTINAE
    Sitta canadensis, Red-breasted Nuthatch
    Sitta carolinensis, White-breasted Nuthatch
    Sitta pygmaea, Pygmy Nuthatch
    Sitta pusilla, Brown-headed Nuthatch
    Certhia americana, Brown Creeper
    Salpinctes obsoletus, Rock Wren
    Catherpes mexicanus, Canyon Wren
    Troglodytes aedon, House Wren
    Troglodytes pacificus, Pacific Wren
    Troglodytes hiemalis, Winter Wren
    Cistothorus platensis, Sedge Wren
    Cistothorus palustris, Marsh Wren
    Thryothorus ludovicianus, Carolina Wren
    Thryomanes bewickii, Bewick's Wren
    Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus, Cactus Wren
    Thryophilus sinaloa, Sinaloa Wren
    Polioptila caerulea, Blue-Gray Gnatcatcher
    Polioptila californica, California Gnatcatcher
    Polioptila melanura, Black-tailed Gnatcatcher
    Polioptila nigriceps, Black-capped Gnatcatcher
    Cinclus mexicanus, American Dipper
    Regulus satrapa, Golden-crowned Kinglet
    Regulus calendula, Ruby-crowned Kinglet
    Phylloscopus trochilus, Willow Warbler
    Phylloscopus collybita, Common Chiffchaff
    Phylloscopus sibilatrix, Wood Warbler
    Phylloscopus fuscatus, Dusky Warbler
    Phylloscopus proregulus, Pallas's Leaf Warbler
    Phylloscopus inornatus, Yellow-browed Warbler
    Phylloscopus borealis, Arctic Warbler
    Phylloscopus examinandus, Kamchatka Leaf Warbler
    Sylvia curruca, Lesser Whitethroat
    Chamaea fasciata, Wrentit
    Acrocephalus luscinius, Nightingale Reed Warbler
    Acrocephalus hiwae, Saipan Reed warbler
    Acrocephalus nijoi, Aguiguan Reed Warbler
    Acrocephalus yamashinae, Pagan Reed Warbler
    Acrocephalus familiaris, Millerbird
    Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, Sedge Warbler
    Acrocephalus dumetorum, Blyth's Reed Warbler
    Locustella ochotensis, Middendorff's Grasshopper-Warbler
    Locustella lanceolata, Lanceolated Warbler
    Muscicapa griseisticta, Gray-streaked Flycatcher
    Muscicapa dauurica, Asian Brown Flycatcher
    Muscicapa striata, Spotted Flycatcher
    Muscicapa sibirica, Dark-sided Flycatcher
    Larvivora cyane, Siberian Blue Robin
    Larvivora sibilans, Rufous-tailed Robin
    Cyanecula svecica, Bluethroat
    Calliope calliope, Siberian Rubythroat
    Tarsiger cyanurus, Red-flanked Bluetail
    Ficedula narcissina, Narcissus Flycatcher
    Ficedula mugimaki, Mugimaki Flycatcher
    Ficedula albicilla, Taiga Flycatcher
    Phoenicurus phoenicurus, Common Redstart
    Saxicola torquatus, Stonechat
    Oenanthe oenanthe, Northern Wheatear
    Monticola solitarius, Blue Rock-Thrush
    Sialia sialis, Eastern Bluebird
    Sialia mexicana, Western Bluebird
    Sialia currucoides, Mountain Bluebird
    Myadestes townsendi, Townsend's Solitaire
    Myadestes occidentalis, Brown-backed Solitaire
    Myadestes myadestinus, K[ccedil]ma`o
    Myadestes lanaiensis, Oloma`o
    Myadestes obscurus, `O[ccedil]ma'o
    Myadestes palmeri, Puaiohi
    Catharus aurantiirostris, Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush
    Catharus mexicanus, Black-headed Nightingale-Thrush
    Catharus fuscescens, Veery
    Catharus minimus, Gray-cheeked Thrush
    Catharus bicknelli, Bicknell's Thrush
    Catharus ustulatus, Swainson's Thrush
    Catharus guttatus, Hermit Thrush
    Hylocichla mustelina, Wood Thrush
    Turdus obscurus, Eyebrowed Thrush
    Turdus naumanni, Dusky Thrush
    Turdus pilaris, Fieldfare
    Turdus iliacus, Redwing
    Turdus grayi, Clay-colored Thrush
    Turdus assimilis, White-throated Thrush
    Turdus rufopalliatus, Rufous-backed Robin
    Turdus migratorius, American Robin
    Turdus plumbeus, Red-legged Thrush
    Ixoreus naevius, Varied Thrush
    Ridgwayia pinicola, Aztec Thrush
    Melanotis caerulescens, Blue Mockingbird
    Melanoptila glabrirostris, Black Catbird
    Dumetella carolinensis, Gray Catbird
    Margarops fuscatus, Pearly-eyed Thrasher
    Toxostoma curvirostre, Curve-billed Thrasher
    Toxostoma rufum, Brown Thrasher
    Toxostoma longirostre, Long-billed Thrasher
    Toxostoma bendirei, Bendire's Thrasher
    Toxostoma redivivum, California Thrasher
    Toxostoma lecontei, LeConte's Thrasher
    Toxostoma crissale, Crissal Thrasher

[[Page 61306]]

    Oreoscoptes montanus, Sage Thrasher
    Mimus gundlachii, Bahama Mockingbird
    Mimus polyglottos, Northern Mockingbird
    Agropsar philippensis, Chestnut-cheeked Starling
    Spodiopsar cineraceus, White-cheeked Starling
    Bombycilla garrulus, Bohemian Waxwing
    Bombycilla cedrorum, Cedar Waxwing
    Ptiliogonys cinereus, Gray Silky-flycatcher
    Phainopepla nitens, Phainopepla
    Peucedramus taeniatus, Olive Warbler
    Prunella montanella, Siberian Accentor
    Motacilla tschutschensis, Eastern Yellow Wagtail
    Motacilla citreola, Citrine Wagtail
    Motacilla cinerea, Gray Wagtail
    Motacilla alba, White Wagtail
    Anthus trivialis, Tree Pipit
    Anthus hodgsoni, Olive-backed Pipit
    Anthus gustavi, Pechora Pipit
    Anthus cervinus, Red-throated Pipit
    Anthus rubescens, American Pipit
    Anthus spragueii, Sprague's Pipit
    Fringilla coelebs, Common Chaffinch
    Fringilla montifringilla, Brambling
    Euphonia musica, Antillean Euphonia
    Coccothraustes vespertinus, Evening Grosbeak
    Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Hawfinch
    Carpodacus erythrinus, Common Rosefinch
    Melamprosops phaeosoma, Po`ouli
    Oreomystis bairdi, `Akikiki
    Paroreomyza maculata, O`ahu `Alauahio
    Paroreomyza flammea, K[atilde]k[atilde]wahie
    Paroreomyza montana, Maui `Alauahio
    Loxioides bailleui, Palila
    Telespiza cantans, Laysan Finch
    Telespiza ultima, Nihoa Finch
    Palmeria dolei, `Akohekohe
    Himatione fraithii, Laysan Honeycreeper
    Himatione sanguinea, `Apapane
    Drepanis coccinea, `I`iwi
    Psittirostra psittacea, `[Otilde]`[utilde]
    Pseudonestor xanthophrys, Maui Parrotbill
    Hemignathus hanapepe, Kauai Nukupu`u
    Hemignathus lucidus, O`ahu Nukupu`u
    Hemignathus affinis, Maui Nukupu`u
    Hemignathus wilsoni, `Akiapola`au
    Akialoa stejnegeri, Kauai `Akialoa
    Akialoa ellisiana, O`ahu `Akialoa
    Akialoa lanaiensis, Maui Nui `Akialoa
    Magumma parva, `Anianiau
    Chlorodrepanis virens, Hawaii `Amakihi
    Chlorodrepanis flava, O`ahu `Amakihi
    Chlorodrepanis stejnegeri, Kauai `Amakihi
    Loxops mana, Hawaii Creeper
    Loxops caeruleirostris, `Akeke`e
    Loxops wolstenholmei, O`ahu `Akepa
    Loxops ochraceus, Maui `Akepa
    Loxops coccineus, Hawaii `Akepa
    Pinicola enucleator, Pine Grosbeak
    Pyrrhula pyrrhula, Eurasian Bullfinch
    Leucosticte arctoa, Asian Rosy-Finch
    Leucosticte tephrocotis, Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch
    Leucosticte atrata, Black Rosy-Finch
    Leucosticte australis, Brown-capped Rosy-Finch
    Haemorhous mexicanus, House Finch
    Haemorhous purpureus, Purple Finch
    Haemorhous cassinii, Cassin's Finch
    Chloris sinica, Oriental Greenfinch
    Acanthis flammea, Common Redpoll
    Acanthis hornemanni, Hoary Redpoll
    Loxia curvirostra, Red Crossbill
    Loxia sinesciuris, Cassia Crossbill
    Loxia leucoptera, White-winged Crossbill
    Spinus spinus, Eurasian Siskin
    Spinus pinus, Pine Siskin
    Spinus psaltria, Lesser Goldfinch
    Spinus lawrencei, Lawrence's Goldfinch
    Spinus tristis, American Goldfinch
    Calcarius lapponicus, Lapland Longspur
    Calcarius ornatus, Chestnut-collared Longspur
    Calcarius pictus, Smith's Longspur
    Rhynchophanes mccownii, McCown's Longspur
    Plectrophenax nivalis, Snow Bunting
    Plectrophenax hyperboreus, McKay's Bunting
    Emberiza leucocephalos, Pine Bunting
    Emberiza chrysophrys, Yellow-browed Bunting
    Emberiza pusilla, Little Bunting
    Emberiza rustica, Rustic Bunting
    Emberiza elegans, Yellow-throated Bunting
    Emberiza aureola, Yellow-breasted Bunting
    Emberiza variabilis, Gray Bunting
    Emberiza pallasi, Pallas's Bunting
    Emberiza schoeniclus, Reed Bunting
    Arremonops rufivirgatus, Olive Sparrow
    Pipilo chlorurus, Green-tailed Towhee
    Pipilo maculatus, Spotted Towhee
    Pipilo erythrophthalmus, Eastern Towhee
    Aimophila ruficeps, Rufous-crowned Sparrow
    Melozone fusca, Canyon Towhee
    Melozone crissalis, California Towhee
    Melozone aberti, Abert's Towhee
    Peucaea carpalis, Rufous-winged Sparrow
    Peucaea botterii, Botteri's Sparrow
    Peucaea cassinii, Cassin's Sparrow
    Peucaea aestivalis, Bachman's Sparrow
    Spizelloides arborea, American Tree Sparrow
    Spizella passerina, Chipping Sparrow
    Spizella pallida, Clay-colored Sparrow
    Spizella breweri, Brewer's Sparrow
    Spizella pusilla, Field Sparrow
    Spizella wortheni, Worthen's Sparrow
    Spizella atrogularis, Black-chinned Sparrow
    Pooecetes gramineus, Vesper Sparrow
    Chondestes grammacus, Lark Sparrow
    Amphispiza quinquestriata, Five-striped Sparrow
    Amphispiza bilineata, Black-throated Sparrow
    Artemisiospiza nevadensis, Sagebrush Sparrow
    Artemisiospiza belli, Bell's Sparrow
    Calamospiza melanocorys, Lark Bunting
    Passerculus sandwichensis, Savannah Sparrow
    Ammodramus savannarum, Grasshopper Sparrow
    Centronyx bairdii, Baird's Sparrow
    Centronyx henslowii, Henslow's Sparrow
    Ammospiza leconteii, LeConte's Sparrow
    Ammospiza maritima, Seaside Sparrow
    Ammospiza nelsoni, Nelson's Sparrow
    Ammospiza caudacuta, Saltmarsh Sparrow
    Passerella iliaca, Fox Sparrow
    Melospiza melodia, Song Sparrow
    Melospiza lincolnii, Lincoln's Sparrow
    Melospiza georgiana, Swamp Sparrow
    Zonotrichia albicollis, White-throated Sparrow
    Zonotrichia querula, Harris's Sparrow
    Zonotrichia leucophrys, White-crowned Sparrow
    Zonotrichia atricapilla, Golden-crowned Sparrow
    Junco hyemalis, Dark-eyed Junco
    Junco phaeonotus, Yellow-eyed Junco
    Nesospingus speculiferus, Puerto Rican Tanager
    Spindalis zena, Western Spindalis
    Spindalis portoricensis, Puerto Rican Spindalis
    Icteria virens, Yellow-breasted Chat
    Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus, Yellow-headed Blackbird
    Dolichonyx oryzivorus, Bobolink
    Sturnella magna, Eastern Meadowlark
    Sturnella neglecta, Western Meadowlark
    Icterus portoricensis, Puerto Rican Oriole
    Icterus wagleri, Black-vented Oriole
    Icterus spurius, Orchard Oriole
    Icterus cucullatus, Hooded Oriole
    Icterus pustulatus, Streak-backed Oriole
    Icterus bullockii, Bullock's Oriole
    Icterus gularis, Altamira Oriole
    Icterus graduacauda, Audubon's Oriole
    Icterus galbula, Baltimore Oriole
    Icterus parisorum, Scott's Oriole
    Agelaius phoeniceus, Red-winged Blackbird
    Agelaius tricolor, Tricolored Blackbird
    Agelaius humeralis, Tawny-shouldered Blackbird
    Agelaius xanthomus, Yellow-shouldered Blackbird
    Molothrus bonariensis, Shiny Cowbird
    Molothrus aeneus, Bronzed Cowbird
    Molothrus ater, Brown-headed Cowbird
    Euphagus carolinus, Rusty Blackbird
    Euphagus cyanocephalus, Brewer's Blackbird
    Quiscalus quiscula, Common Grackle
    Quiscalus major, Boat-tailed Grackle
    Quiscalus mexicanus, Great-tailed Grackle
    Quiscalus niger, Greater Antillean Grackle
    Seiurus aurocapilla, Ovenbird
    Helmitheros vermivorum, Worm-eating Warbler
    Parkesia motacilla, Louisiana Waterthrush
    Parkesia noveboracensis, Northern Waterthrush
    Vermivora bachmanii, Bachman's Warbler
    Vermivora chrysoptera, Golden-winged Warbler

[[Page 61307]]

    Vermivora cyanoptera, Blue-winged Warbler
    Mniotilta varia, Black-and-white Warbler
    Protonotaria citrea, Prothonotary Warbler
    Limnothlypis swainsonii, Swainson's Warbler
    Oreothlypis superciliosa, Crescent-chested Warbler
    Oreothlypis peregrina, Tennessee Warbler
    Oreothlypis celata, Orange-crowned Warbler
    Oreothlypis crissalis, Colima Warbler
    Oreothlypis luciae, Lucy's Warbler
    Oreothlypis ruficapilla, Nashville Warbler
    Oreothlypis virginiae, Virginia's Warbler
    Oporornis agilis, Connecticut Warbler
    Geothlypis poliocephala, Gray-crowned Yellowthroat
    Geothlypis tolmiei, MacGillivray's Warbler
    Geothlypis philadelphia, Mourning Warbler
    Geothlypis formosa, Kentucky Warbler
    Geothlypis trichas, Common Yellowthroat
    Setophaga angelae, Elfin-woods Warbler
    Setophaga citrina, Hooded Warbler
    Setophaga ruticilla, American Redstart
    Setophaga kirtlandii, Kirtland's Warbler
    Setophaga tigrina, Cape May Warbler
    Setophaga cerulea, Cerulean Warbler
    Setophaga americana, Northern Parula
    Setophaga pitiayumi, Tropical Parula
    Setophaga magnolia, Magnolia Warbler
    Setophaga castanea, Bay-breasted Warbler
    Setophaga fusca, Blackburnian Warbler
    Setophaga petechia, Yellow Warbler
    Setophaga pensylvanica, Chestnut-sided Warbler
    Setophaga striata, Blackpoll Warbler
    Setophaga caerulescens, Black-throated Blue Warbler
    Setophaga palmarum, Palm Warbler
    Setophaga pinus, Pine Warbler
    Setophaga coronata, Yellow-rumped Warbler
    Setophaga dominica, Yellow-throated Warbler
    Setophaga discolor, Prairie Warbler
    Setophaga adelaidae, Adelaide's Warbler
    Setophaga graciae, Grace's Warbler
    Setophaga nigrescens, Black-throated Gray Warbler
    Setophaga townsendi, Townsend's Warbler
    Setophaga occidentalis, Hermit Warbler
    Setophaga chrysoparia, Golden-cheeked Warbler
    Setophaga virens, Black-throated Green Warbler
    Basileuterus lachrymosus, Fan-tailed Warbler
    Basileuterus rufifrons, Rufous-capped Warbler
    Basileuterus culicivorus, Golden-crowned Warbler
    Cardellina canadensis, Canada Warbler
    Cardellina pusilla, Wilson's Warbler
    Cardellina rubrifrons, Red-faced Warbler
    Myioborus pictus, Painted Redstart
    Myioborus miniatus, Slate-throated Redstart
    Piranga flava, Hepatic Tanager
    Piranga rubra, Summer Tanager
    Piranga olivacea, Scarlet Tanager
    Piranga ludoviciana, Western Tanager
    Piranga bidentata, Flame-colored Tanager
    Rhodothraupis celaeno, Crimson-collared Grosbeak
    Cardinalis cardinalis, Northern Cardinal
    Cardinalis sinuatus, Pyrrhuloxia
    Pheucticus chrysopeplus, Yellow Grosbeak
    Pheucticus ludovicianus, Rose-breasted Grosbeak
    Pheucticus melanocephalus, Black-headed Grosbeak
    Cyanocompsa parellina, Blue Bunting
    Passerina caerulea, Blue Grosbeak
    Passerina amoena, Lazuli Bunting
    Passerina cyanea, Indigo Bunting
    Passerina versicolor, Varied Bunting
    Passerina ciris, Painted Bunting
    Spiza americana, Dickcissel
Subfamily DACNINAE
    Cyanerpes cyaneus, Red-legged Honeycreeper
    Coereba flaveola, Bananaquit
    Tiaris olivaceus, Yellow-faced Grassquit
    Tiaris bicolor, Black-faced Grassquit
    Loxigilla portoricensis, Puerto Rican Bullfinch
    Sporophila morelleti, Morelet's Seedeater
* * * * *

    Dated: October 29, 2018.
Andrea Travnicek,
Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary--Water and Science, Exercising the 
Authority of the Assistant Secretary for Fish and Wildlife and Parks.
 [FR Doc. 2018-25634 Filed 11-27-18; 8:45 am]