Know Your Community – A Social Science Approach

An underlying need for the Urban Program is a better understanding of the factors that facilitate or inhibit connecting urban audiences with wildlife and nature. To address this need, the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service led a collaborative research effort with U.S. Geological Survey and North Carolina State University to understand urban audiences, identify barriers to engagement in wildlife-dependent recreation, and identify strategies for the USFWS to overcome these barriers.

What do community residents living near urban refuges think?

workshop map california
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Don Edwards San Francisco Bay (No workshop information available at this time)

oregon
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Tualatin River National Wildlife Refuge (No workshop information available at this time)

colorado
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Rocky Mountain Arsenal (No workshop information available at this time)

minnesota
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Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge (No workshop information available at this time)

florida
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Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge (No workshop information available at this time)

D.C.
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Potomac River National Wildlife Refuge Complex (No workshop information available at this time)

John Heinz
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John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge at Tinicum (No workshop information available at this time)


What is working on the ground?

Interview refuge staff and partner organization representatives Five Key Institutional Barriers that Inhibit Program Access and Opportunity for Diverse Constituents (Allison & Hibbler, 2004):

  1. The inability of agency to recognize and respond appropriately to changing nature of communities served
  2. The ethnic composition of staff which did not reflect community diversity
  3. Misguided or ineffective responses to programs designed for diverse audiences, despite willingness to offer culturally relevant programming, few demonstrated an integrated and systematic approach to such planning
  4. Language differences between service providers and constituents
  5. The presence of prejudicial attitudes and stereotypes held by some management and staff toward constituents

The institutional barriers identified by Allison and Hibbler (2004) resonate with what we heard from refuge staff and partner organization representatives – see the results reported with the community workshop results below.


What is the state of current understanding?

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Demographics, Participation, Attitudes, and Management Preferences of Texas Anglers

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In order to provide the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department with greater insight on their existing market segment of anglers, a statewide mail survey of 10,000 individuals that purchased a resident fishing license during state fiscal year 2001 was completed. The survey provided fisheries managers with information on anglers’ fishing practices, experiences, attitudes, and opinions on a variety of issues of management concern, as well as a variety of other topics. This was the fifth statewide angler survey since 1989, and longitudinal trends in responses were also assessed. A computer-generated random sample of 10,000 anglers was selected from the fishing license files maintained by Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. Of the anglers sampled, 49% resided in Texas coastal counties to ensure sufficient representation of saltwater anglers. An overall response rate of 40% was achieved in this study. Survey responses were weighted to account for biases associated with anglers' non-response, which enabled population estimates to be generalizable to all individuals that purchased a resident fishing license in Texas.

Citation: Anderson, D. K., & Ditton, R. B. 2004. Demographics, participation, attitudes, and management preferences of Texas anglers. (Human Dimensions of Fisheries Research Laboratory Technical Document HD-624). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University.


Understanding Recreational Angling Participation in Germany: Preparing for Demographic Change

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This study examined demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic factors facilitating the likelihood of participating in recreational angling. It aims to (1) identify predictive factors promoting participation in German recreational angling and (2) search for generalizable variables explaining the likelihood to fish for recreation. Many of the significant demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic variables found in this study were consistent with U.S. data suggesting some generalizability. Given projected trends of demographic change likely affecting the general population structure in Germany, most of the associations found in this study suggest decreased participation in recreational angling in the future. It is a matter of societal values whether targeted marketing and management approaches are implemented to intervene into the likely outcome of demographic change in Germany. Fisheries managers should recognize how demographic change can impact the angling population and the environment in which management occurs. Monitoring demographic effects on angling participation must become an increasingly important part of fisheries planning, development, and management.

Citation: Arlinghaus, R. (2006). Understanding recreational angling participation in Germany: preparing for demographic change. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 11(4), 229-240.


Parks, People and Partnerships

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To provide the NPS and community-based organizations (CBOs) with useful information and tools to improve their outreach efforts through partnerships. Our recommendations focus on three domains of effort for NPS focus: improving information exchange, strengthening logistical support, and enhancing cultural awareness and staff diversity. By addressing these areas, we believe that the NPS will facilitate partnerships with community-based organizations and meaningfully engage underserved audiences not currently visiting national parks.

Citation: Baur, J., DiPrizio, L. M., Fernandes, N. A., Fried, Z., & Sellers, J. (2007). Parks, People and Partnerships (Master’s Thesis). University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.


Culturally Appropriate Environmental Education: An Example of A Partnership With the Hmong American Community

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This article describes a project to develop culturally appropriate environmental education materials for Hmong Americans, including new refugees and elders with little proficiency in English as well as the broader, multigenerational Hmong community. Environmental educators and researchers from the mainstream culture cannot succeed in developing culturally appropriate environmental education approaches without fully partnering with the target community. Partnerships with ethnic communities should be viewed as long-term efforts that require a substantial investment of time. Environmental educators should incorporate the dynamics of sociocultural change as they design educational materials and approaches for ethnic communities.

Citation: Bengston, D. N., Schermann, M. A., Hawj, F., & Moua, M. K. (2012). Culturally appropriate environmental education: an example of a partnership with the Hmong American community. Applied Environmental Education & Communication. 11(1), 1-8.


Listening to Neglected Voices: Hmong Americans and Public Lands in Minnesota and Wisconsin

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The objective of this study was to listen to the Hmong American community and learn about their experiences, perspectives, needs, and concerns related to public lands. The ultimate goal is to help land managers, planners, and policy-makers be more responsive to the needs of Hmong and to better serve the Hmong community. Recommendations for managers included cultural training for staff, increased staff diversity, training for community, and increased signage. The pervasiveness of environmental racism we found and the unique circumstances of Hmong Americans suggest the need for in-depth investigation from an environmental justice perspective.

Citation: Bengston, D. N., Schermann, M. A., Moua, M., & Lee, T. T. (2008). Listening to neglected voices: Hmong Americans and public lands in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Society and Natural Resources. 21(10), 876-890.


Recreational Rates and Future Land-Use Preferences for Four Department of Energy Sites: Consistency despite Demographic and Geographical Differences

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The objective of this study was to interview people with different relationships to four US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. While these data on recreational rates can be used to assess the potential risk to people using contaminated sites and to aid in setting clean-up standards based on potential risk, the information on land-use preferences can be used by managers to determine future use and to plan for such use. This information is particularly relevant to the Department of Energy’s "Risk-based End State Vision."

Citation: Burger, J. (2004). Recreational rates and future land-use preferences for four Department of Energy sites: Consistency despite demographic and geographical differences. Environmental Research, 95(2), 215-223.


Fishing in Urban New Jersey: Ethnicity Affects Information Sources, Perception, and Compliance

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This paper examines fishing behavior, sources of information, perceptions, and compliance with fishing advisories as a function of ethnicity for people fishing in the Newark Bay Complex of the New York-New Jersey Harbor. The authors were also interested in determining whether there is subsistence angling in the Newark Bay Complex. This is part of a larger study to understand the angling behavior of people in New Jersey, motivated by a desire to reduce the potential risk from contaminated fish and shellfish. These results indicate a willingness to comply with advisories regardless of ethnicity, but a vast difference in the base knowledge necessary to make informed risk decisions about the safety of fish and shellfish. This study indicates that the dissemination of risk information has had less of an impact than authorities would like to believe, and that the differences between expert risk assessments and the perceptions of the public are still great. They are greater for Hispanics and blacks than for whites, and this difference must be addressed if risk reduction is to occur.

Citation: Burger, J., Pflugh, K. K., Lurig, L., Von Hagen, L. A., & Von Hagen, S. (1999). Fishing in urban New Jersey: Ethnicity affects information sources, perception, and compliance. Risk Analysis, 19(2), 217-229.


Consumption Patterns and Why People Fish

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To examine the consumption patterns and the reasons for fishing of people fishing in the Newark Bay Complex of the New York-New Jersey harbor. Of particular interest are ethnic differences in the reasons for fishing that might be useful in understanding the dissonance between consumption advisories and consumption patterns. Since some people do not follow consumption advisories, it is of public health policy interest to understand why people fish and what they eat. Often the contaminants in shellfish differ from those in fish; the risks are thus different, and the strategy used to communicate risk or change behavior might differ. Blacks and Hispanics made up a higher percentage of the people at the high end of consumption. The ethnic differences in knowledge, consumption, and reasons for angling suggest that targeted risk communication is required to reach all of the angling public. This could be done through ethnically oriented community and health groups. More attention should be paid to the importance of angling in the lives of this population, while explaining the risks to at-risk populations.

Citation: Burger, J. (2002). Consumption patterns and why people fish. Environmental Research, 90(2), 125-135.


Factors in Exposure Assessment: Ethnic and Socioeconomic Differences in Fishing and Consumption of Fish Caught along the Savannah River

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To examine differences in fishing rates and fish consumption of 258 people interviewed while fishing along the Savannah River, as a function of age, education, ethnicity, employment history, and income, and test the assumption that the average consumption of fish is less than the recreational value of 19 kg/year assumed by risk assessors. Site-specific information on both demographics and fish consumption is essential to the development of both risk assessment and risk management. It is impossible to target the population at risk if sufficient information on the population is not available. These data indicate that some fishermen are exceeding the limits advised by South Carolina. Examining only averages does not give a complete picture of the consumption patterns of those potentially most at risk, but systematically biases towards a low estimate. The data further suggest that the factors that contribute to the total amount of fish eaten per year ( = exposure) include ethnicity, education, and age. The reasons for the high fish consumption in people with less and more education deserves further study.

Citation: Burger, J., Stephens, W. L., Boring, C. S., Kuklinski, M., Gibbons, J. W., & Gochfeld, M. (1999). Factors in exposure assessment: Ethnic and socioeconomic differences in fishing and consumption of fish caught along the Savannah River. Risk Analysis, 19(3), 427-438.


Outdoor Recreation and Nontraditional Users: Results of Focus Group Interviews with Racial and Ethnic Minorities

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To understand ethnic minorities’ interests and needs related to outdoor recreation in Oregon, and how agencies such as Oregon State Parks, the U.S. Forest Service, and local park and recreation authorities can better respond to these nontraditional users. Many recommendations are provided for each group. Outdoor recreation managers will need to consider that ethnic and racial groups may have different outdoor recreation preferences, constraints, and information needs than the traditional outdoor recreation participant.

Citation: Burns, R. C., Covelli, E., Graefe, A. (2008). Outdoor recreation and nontraditional users: results of focus group interviews with racial and ethnic minorities. In Chavez, D. J., Winter, P. L., & Absher, J. D. (Eds.), Recreation visitor research: studies of diversity (pp. 12-137). (Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-210). U.S. Forest Service.


Public Attitudes toward Wildlife Are Changing: A Trend Analysis of New York Residents

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To examine (1) What are the trends in wildlife attitudes and values held by New York State residents? (2) How are differences in attitudes related to a variety of variables that have been important in research, including age, sex, stakeholder type (hunter, landowner, general outdoor recreationist), and rural/nonrural residence. Our research suggests the need for re-evaluation of the hypothesis that wildlife attitudes are evolving toward a more protectionist view. Future research should continue to examine trends in attitudes toward wildlife as well as ask the question: What are the reasons behind any measured changes in attitude dimensions?

Citation: Butler, J. S., Shanahan, J., & Decker, D. J. (2003). Public attitudes toward wildlife are changing: A trend analysis of New York residents. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 31(4), 1027-1036.


Gardens and Birdwatching: Recreation, Environmental Management and Human-Nature Interaction in an Everyday Location

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This situated study explores how a popular leisure activity (birdwatching) occurs in an everyday locality (gardens) as a way of illustrating how relationships between human activity and non-human presence combine to modify and shape environments. This study supports the argument that the relationship between humans and landscape needs to be understood as experiential, involving the subjectivities of people. As first-hand contact with nature can be a powerful stimulus to the development of environmental attitudes and relationships, it might be expected that garden birds provide an appeal to, and engagement with, nature that is immediate, familiar and frequent. Gardens provide humans with contact with those elements of nature that are tolerant of, or oblivious to, human influence.

Citation: Cammack, P. J., Convery, I., & Prince, H. (2011). Gardens and birdwatching: recreation, environmental management and human-nature interaction in an everyday location. Area, 43(3), 314-319.


Recreation Visitor Research: Studies of Diversity

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This study of Latino recreationists to Forest Service day use sites in two canyons in southern California examined perceptions about the importance of particular ecosystem services and the availability of natural areas to provide these ecosystem services. It is important to understand both public perceptions about the importance of particular ecosystem services and the availability of natural areas to provide these ecosystem services. Managers of these natural areas in southern California might want to consider communication and educational programs focusing on describing the benefits to Latinos from natural areas, especially emphasizing regulating and cultural services. It might be an opportunity to increase knowledge levels about what natural areas do for people. Awareness can lead to an informed public and protected natural areas.

Citation: Chavez, D. J. (2008). Connecting Latinos with nature. In Chavez, D. J., Winter, P. L., & Absher, J. D. (Eds.), Recreation visitor research: studies of diversity (pp. 157-162). (Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-210). U.S. Forest Service.


Opinions of Latino Outdoor Recreation Visitors at Four Urban National Forests

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This article reports participation, preference, and perception results from day-use visitor contact surveys conducted on four urban national forests in Southern California between 2001 and 2004, with a focus on areas where Latinos recreate. Managers of urban-proximate day-use sites can better manage with detailed specific information about participation patterns, site preferences, and visitor perceptions. The results suggest that management decisions about serving these groups consider the range of activity options identified, that there is a consistent desire for facilities and amenities, and that the Latino visitors are likely to continue to recreate in these places and will tell others about it, probably leading to increased use by these respondent groups in the future.

Citation: Chavez, D. J., & Olson, D. D. (2009). Opinions of Latino outdoor recreation visitors at four urban national forests. Environmental Practice, 11(4), 263-269.


Trail Use among Latinos: Recognizing Diverse Uses among a Specific Population

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The goal of this study was to gain a greater understanding of how Latinos use trail spaces in order to provide a foundation for working with Latinos to increase active use of trails and greenways. In general, this study illustrates the need for a fusion of park design and management with the cultural preferences and expectations of user groups. Cultural understanding on the part of trail managers and designers is essential to best serve a growing Latino population as well as successfully encourage physical activity. Our survey and observational data together suggest the need for organizing family-oriented events along the trail as well introducing trail design features that will encourage walking by recognizing the preferences of Latino visitors. We suggest that park managers work with local Latino community leaders to organize family fitness events on weekends and conduct those events in both Spanish and English. We suggest the improving trails’ usage by women should be a goal of recreation providers. It may be accomplished, for example, by organizing mothers walking groups. A circular trail around a central children’s play area would provide mothers with an opportunity to walk while still supervising children. Future research of Latino trail use should seek to shed light on the reasons why these large groups do not engage in physical activity during their time at the park.

Citation: Cronan, M. K., Shinew, K. J., & Stodolska, M. (2008). Trail use among Latinos: Recognizing diverse uses among a specific population. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 26(1), 62-86.


Similarities and Differences in the Outdoor Recreation Participation of Racial/Ethnic Groups: An Example from Illinois

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This paper suggests a more comprehensive approach to researching recreation participation of racial/ethnic groups, which focuses on similarities as well as differences between groups along several dimensions of participation. Look beyond simple comparisons of activity rates to (1) the ranking of activities by percent of the group participating, (2) the average number of activities engaged in by members of the group, and (3) percent of the group that does not participate in any of the activities.

Citation: Dwyer, J. F. (2000). Similarities and differences in the outdoor recreation participation of racial/ethnic groups: An example from Illinois. In Kyle, G. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 1999 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium (pp. 98-105). (Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-269). U.S. Forest Service.


Urban Perceptions of National Forests: Three Examples from the Northern United States

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To determine perceptions by the residents of the Boston, Detroit, and Minneapolis Metropolitan areas in regards to the management and use of proximate National Forests. This study is an initial effort under the "Urban Connections" project, which guides the establishment of working relationships between the managers of public lands in largely rural areas and the residents of Metropolitan Areas within a half-day drive. There is ample room for outreach efforts such as the Urban Connections program. These efforts can build on the high level of personal significance that individuals place on the National Forests. In future research studies, perhaps focus group discussions and studies using conjoint analysis can deepen our understanding of people/NationaI Forest interactions and provide improved guidance for building urban connections. All findings were relatively uniform across the three Metropolitan Areas, suggesting the possibility of comparable findings in similar metropolitan areas of the Eastern Region.

Citation: Dwyer, J. F. (2003). Urban perceptions of national forests: Three examples from the northern United States. In Schuster, R. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2002 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium (pp. 159-162). (Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-302). U.S. Forest Service.


Linkages in the Use of Recreation Environments across the Urban to Ex-Urban Spectrum by Urban Residents

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To identify the patterns of use across the twenty recreation sites and assess how site use varied by racial/ethnic group, place of residence, and a variety of other demographic characteristics. Study results suggest that to provide a broad spectrum of urban residents with opportunities for outdoor recreation, as well as experiences and information on the management and use of natural resources, it is likely to take an effort that focuses on a fairly wide range of urban sites. For Chicago and Cook County organizations seeking to develop synergistic messages across sites, it may be useful to start with sites within one of the factors identified in this study. Important questions about how to best design and operate an outreach effort across a number of urban sites include (1) the effectiveness of the various diverse sites in providing key messages to visitors, (2) how the various messages at each site can be coordinated in an effective matter to achieve synergism, and (3) how to best encourage individuals to visit a larger range of sites.

Citation: Dwyer, J. F., & Barro, S. C. (2002). Linkages in the use of recreation environments across the urban to ex-urban spectrum by urban residents. In: Todd, S. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2001 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium (pp. 202-207). (Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-289). U.S. Forest Service.


Trends in Participation Rates for Wildlife-Associated Outdoor Recreation Activities by Age and Race/Ethnicity: Implications for Cohort-Component Projection Models

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This study looks at trends in activity participation rates by age and race/ethnicity and explores their implications for projections made by cohort-component projection models. Further testing for changes in the relative patterns across racial/ethnic groups will require data for additional years and the inclusion of additional explanatory variables in the models for predicting the number of participants. In the meantime it may be useful to monitor changes in participation rates over time and explore their implications for future participation.

Citation: Dwyer, J. F., & Marsinko, A. (1998). Trends in participation rates for wildlife-associated outdoor recreation activities by age and race/ethnicity: Implications for cohort-component projection models. In Vogelsong, H. G. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 1997 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium (pp. 252-256). (Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-241). U.S. Forest Service.


Outdoor Recreation Behaviors and Preferences of Urban Racial/Ethnic Groups: An Example from the Chicago Area

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To study outdoor recreation behaviors and preferences of Non-Hispanic White Americans, African Americans and Hispanic Americans in Cooke County, Illinois. Urban racial/ethnic groups' recreation preferences and behaviors are complex and diverse. This should inform the development of policies, programs, and plans for providing important outdoor recreation opportunities for urban populations; as well as future research. Care should be taken to avoid stereotyping particular groups or using simple explanations of their outdoor recreation behavior.

Citation: Dwyer, J. F., & Barro, S. C. (2001). Outdoor recreation behaviors and preferences of urban racial/ethnic groups: An example from the Chicago area. In Gerard, K. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2000 Northeastern recreation research symposium (pp. 159-164). (Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-276). U.S. Forest Service.


Urban Park and Forest Participation and Landscape Preference: A Comparison between Blacks and Whites in Philadelphia and Atlanta

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To explore inter-ethnic differences in the use of, preference for, and attitudes about metropolitan parks, with the goal of providing information to urban foresters and arborists to better manage and maintain parks and landscapes used by multiple racial groups. By studying Black and White subjects drawn from the populations in two metropolitan areas, the current research broadened the basis of generalization for these findings. It is clear from the results of this and other studies that successful urban park and forest management is not just a matter of cultural assimilation and acculturation. It is vital for urban foresters and arborists to understand and respond to differences in participation and the expectations of diverse users. Furthermore, urban foresters and arborists should be aware of and consider the spirit of volunteerism that African Americans have and continue to exhibit in their neighborhoods and communities. The negative impacts of discrimination should be understood and avoided in management and maintenance and discrimination should be distinguished as an explanatory variable in research examining urban park and forest participation and landscape preference.

Citation: Elmendorf, W. F., Willits, F. K., Sasidharan, V., & Godbey, G. (2005). Urban park and forest participation and landscape preference: A comparison between blacks and whites in Philadelphia and Atlanta, U.S. Journal of Arboriculture, 31(6), 318-326.


Urban Park and Forest Participation and Landscape Preference: A Review of the Relevant Literature

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To perform a non-systematic review and discussion of relevant literature. If urban foresters, arborists, and others involved in public landscape management and maintenance are to make urban parks and forests more open, appealing, and safe to all users, they need to understand the realities of the differences among constituent groups and consider them in their planning, management, and maintenance strategies.

Citation: Elmendorf, W. F., Willits, F. K., & Sasidharan, V. (2005). Urban park and forest participation and landscape preference: A review of the relevant literature. Journal of Arboriculture, 31(6), 311-317.


Dropping out and Dropping In: A Study of Factors for Changing Recreational Fishing Participation

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To understand the factors that cause changes in recreational fishing participation over time. Agencies can develop fishing opportunities close to where people live and actively promote a variety of benefits-based fishing products to maintain a higher public awareness of recreational fishing. Outreach efforts should go beyond traditional clinics and printed materials to recognize the different educational needs of angler groups based on their level of involvement with recreational fishing. Municipal recreation programs, nonprofit sports organizations, and many other groups are often looking for new recreational activities for their clients, particularly activities that can involve families. Partnering with these agencies can yield important benefits such as cost sharing, program planning and execution, and marketing. Management agencies need staff with full-time marketing capabilities for identifying and prioritizing angler segments and targeting effective messages to particular angler groups like those identified in this paper. Fishing programs, activities, and services should be targeted close to where people live to facilitate access and easier participation. Additional studies need to be completed in other states.

Citation: Fedler, A. J., & Ditton, R. B. (2001). Dropping out and dropping in: A study of factors for changing recreational fishing participation. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 21(2), 283-292.


Social Stratification in Recreational Fishing Participation: Research and Policy Implications

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Using the multiple stratification hierarchy perspective, this study examined the combined effects of age, race and ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status on recreational fishing. Four policy implications are: (1) Programs that introduce women and girls to fishing or provide opportunities for women and girls to continue participation should continue to receive financial and other forms of support. (2) Efforts to introduce fishing to Latinos and African Americans should focus on intrapersonal (e.g., increasing knowledge and familiarity) and interpersonal (e.g., providing partners or peer-groups) constraints to provide satisfying and comfortable first and early experiences. (3) Fishing opportunities should be promoted to a wide range of socioeconomic status groups. (4) Recruitment of new anglers requires focused understanding of how different sources of inequality work simultaneously to inhibit participation. More empirical studies are needed to specifically shed light on why fishing participation does not always exhibit racial/ethnic effects observed for other outdoor recreation activities. Further research could investigate the nature of constraints to fishing socialization as well as patterns of ceasing and continuing participation among Latino and African American anglers. Another promising line of research might be to investigate the style differences among different ethnic groups, especially in the case of little or no inter-ethnic variation.

Citation: Floyd, M. F., Nicholas, L., Lee, I., Lee, J.-H., & Scott, D. (2006). Social stratification in recreational fishing participation: Research and policy implications. Leisure Sciences, 28(4), 351-368.


Who Buys Fishing and Hunting Licenses in Texas? Results from a Statewide Household Survey

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To examine the extent of current fishing and hunting license purchases and identify socioeconomic and demographic factors that influence license purchases among Texas residents. It is important that program developers consider potential differences in how different ethnic or gender groups relate to fishing and hunting activities and the outdoors in general. This study suggests the need for strategies to encourage participation among women and ethnic minorities in the state of Texas. Also, although fishing can and does occur without a license, in fiscal terms, the act of participation and purchasing a license is the most highly desirable result. In the long-run, the impact on funding to states generated by Sport Fish Restoration and Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration programs through license purchases could be substantial. Specific research needed might include studies of variation in factors beyond demographics, such as style of fishing, motives, species preference, harvest disposition (e.g., preference for catch-and-release), setting preferences, and social organization (e.g., family trips vs. organized trips). Similar information on women’s preferences is also needed. How does style of participation differ between men and women?

Citation: Floyd, M. F., & Lee, I. (2002). Who buys fishing and hunting licenses in Texas? Results from a statewide household survey. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 7(2), 91-106.


Trend Analysis of Wildlife Recreation Participation: A Cross-Regional Comparison

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The purpose of this study is to identify the determinants of sport hunting and nonconsumptive recreation, and to analyze whether these determinants are constant over time and across regions. State policy makers must be cautious as they wrestle with the issues of funding sources for wildlife recreation and placating the various stakeholders. Policy actions which affect wildlife resources may not only impact the speci?c activity targeted by the action, but also any complementary activities. In short, different approaches may be necessary for the various regions of the United States and continuing research is warranted to monitor these trends. A need also exists to continue the NSFHWAR with comparable methodologies so as to compare trends going forward from the 1991 sample.

Citation: Ford, J. (2008). Trend analysis of wildlife recreation participation: A cross-regional comparison. In Fountain, P. D. (Ed.), Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association of Collegiate Marketing Educators (2008), Oklahoma City, OK. 417-425.


Gender and Ethnic Variations in Urban Park Preferences, Visitation, and Perceived Benefits

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The purpose of this paper was to examine how gender and ethnicity, separately and in combination, are associated with: 1) the attributes or characteristics of parks that are seen as most desirable or important; 2) the frequency and types of park visitation that occur, and 3) the perceived benefits of parks for residents and their communities. Park and recreation managers need to call into account the ethnic composition of their constituencies. Further research in the differences in ethnic park preferences and use is needed if effective implementation is to be accomplished. Moreover, ethnic differences in the importance and "support" given to urban parks and open spaces may mean park and recreation professionals need to muster support for their services in different ways and to different degrees based upon the ethnic characteristics of potential users. The availability of parks and open spaces represent desirable amenities, and underscore the importance of making these facilities accessible and desirable for all citizens.

Citation: Ho, C.-h., Sasidharan, V., Elmendorf, W., Willits, F. K., Graefe, A., & Godbey, G. (2005). Gender and ethnic variations in urban park preferences, visitation, and perceived benefits. Journal of Leisure Research, 37(3), 281-306.


Perceived Benefits of Recreational Fishing to Hispanic-American and Anglo Anglers

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The purpose of this study is to investigate whether Hispanic-Americans who have negotiated many of the structural and interpersonal constraints of participating in recreational fishing (as evident by their purchase of a fishing license) exhibit differences from Anglo licensed anglers on five constructs related to the perceived benefits of recreational fishing: escaping individual stressors, the importance of others, being in a natural environment, interacting with fish, and achievement. In this study, ethnicity accounted for 0.5 to 4% of the variance in scores. Although statistically significant and meaningful from a theoretical standpoint, many of these differences may not be observable or seen as meaningful by practitioners. Decision makers must decide what percentage difference in perceived benefits is meaningful enough to warrant new management strategies that provide for the benefits sought by various groups. Researchers will need to make a concerted effort to investigate cultural differences using similar constructs. Other research results can be added to the meta-analysis presented here if they have measures of the same constructs, and match samples of Hispanic and Anglos in a similar fashion.

Citation: Hunt, K. M., & Ditton, R. B. (2001). Perceived benefits of recreational fishing to Hispanic-American and Anglo anglers. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 6(3), 153-172.


Freshwater Fishing Participation Patterns of Racial and Ethnic Groups in Texas

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The goal of this paper was to understand differences in the recreational fishing behavior of African-American, Mexican-American, and Anglo anglers in Texas. Given present evidence of segregated communities, fisheries programs and services should direct efforts not only to large, urban areas in general, but specifically to non-Anglo communities there. Managers should focus on the species preferences and styles of participation appropriate for different cultural groups. More research that seeks to understand the extent of differences among various angler subpopulations in various regions of the United States is needed if managers expect to meet current and future angler needs. Stratified sampling seeking to overrepresent minority groups needs to be strongly considered by researchers.

Citation: Hunt, K. M., & Ditton, R. B. (2002). Freshwater fishing participation patterns of racial and ethnic groups in Texas. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 22(1), 52-65.


Acculturation via Nature-Based Outdoor Recreation: A Comparison of Mexican and Chinese Ethnic Groups in the United States

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This research considers acculturation by Mexican and Chinese groups in the United States and how participation in five nature-based outdoor recreation activities may be an indicator of acculturation to American society. Results from this study are intended to help raise awareness among environmental professionals of the different ways nature may be perceived by various cultural groups and also to alert managers of the important role natural resources can play in acculturating immigrants to US society. To assist non-traditional groups in outdoor recreation participation, managers need to be aware of barriers encountered by these groups that may not exist for traditional participants. They should use multi-lingual signs. Where practical, resource agencies could help to ensure that public transportation routes are established from ethnic communities to resource areas. Managers should be cognizant of the different recreation styles of various groups and the need to design recreation facilities, where appropriate, to accommodate varying group sizes.

Citation: Johnson, C. Y., Bowker, J. M. & Cordell, H. K. (2005). Acculturation via nature-based outdoor recreation: A comparison of Mexican and Chinese ethnic groups in the United States. Environmental Practice, 7(4), 257-272.


On-Site Wildland Activity Choices among African Americans and White Americans in the Rural South: Implications for Management

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To compare wildland activity choices for a sample of rural African Americans and Whites who visited wildland settings in and around the Apalachicola National Forest. We also look at intra-racial (same race, different gender) variations for activity participation. With a better understanding of the activities preferred by currently underrepresented groups, managers can redirect resources to specific recreation opportunities or site attributes for targeted groups. Many specific suggestions are made, such as emphasizing that the forest provides opportunities for group-related activities for social and civic clubs and religious groups. Managers could also stress that safety is a management priority and perhaps make uniformed enforcement personnel more visible.

Citation: Johnson, C. Y., & Bowker, J. M. (1999). On-site wildland activity choices among African Americans and white Americans in the rural south: Implications for management. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 17(1), 21-39.


A Discriminant Analysis of Social and Psychological Factors Influencing Fishing Participation

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This study identifies the social and psychological factors that influenced fishing participation for a sample of 1,050 Lake Ontario anglers. Managers must consider how people are socialized into fishing at each life stage, and have specific strategies for each life stage. They can make fishing equipment available to children through fishing equipment loaner programs at parks, campgrounds, and other areas frequented by children. Skill development could also be enhanced through the inclusion of outdoor/fishing skill development courses in school curriculums, and by including or enhancing fishing skill development activities in youth organizations. Holding fishing activities that encourage social interaction such as family festivals that include fishing events can help increase participation.

Citation: Kuehn, D. (2006). A discriminant analysis of social and psychological factors influencing fishing participation. In Proceedings of the 2005 northeastern recreation research symposium (pp. 410-419). (Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-341). U.S. Forest Service.


Factors That Influence Sales of Wildlife-Related Specialty License Plates

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To analyze data for 39 states to identify factors that influence sales of wildlife-related specialty license plates. Wildlife conservation groups likely could enhance the flow of revenues to their organizations by finding the political skill to raise their plate price. Consumers simply are not buying wildlife-related license plates based on price considerations.

Citation: Laband, D. N., Pandit, R., & Sophocleus, J. P. (2009). Factors that influence sales of wildlife-related specialty license plates. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 14(1), 61-70.


Children's Time Outdoors: Results and Implications of the National Kids Survey

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The National Kids Survey is a study to establish a baseline for detecting trends in children's activities and time spent outdoors. Results suggest that, contrary to popular beliefs, many children today are spending a substantial amount of time outdoors. However, the nature of children’s outdoor time may be changing. Future research efforts should continue to monitor these trends and measure the frequency and type of children’s outdoor activities across diverse recreation settings. Park and recreation professionals may need to embrace the expanding role of technology. Park managers could also cultivate relationships with local schools to ensure that children get outside and enjoy positive outdoor nature experiences early in their lives. Managers could specifically target teens through outdoor recreation programming that emphasizes peer interactions. Efforts to provide and maintain athletic courts and fields or sponsor regular athletic tournaments for kids could especially benefit minority children, a group who displays a strong affinity for team sports-related activities. Managers should strive to conceptualize recreation from the family-based perspective.

Citation: Larson, L. R., Green, G. T., & Cordell, H. K. (2011). Children's time outdoors: Results and implications of the national kids survey. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 29(2), 1-20.


Participation in Wildlife Watching: A Multiple Hierarchy Stratification Perspective

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This article employed the multiple hierarchy stratification perspective and investigated the extent to which gender, age, level of education, level of income, race/ethnicity, and residential status are related to Americans’ participation in wildlife-watching close to home as well as away from home. To make activities and resources more accessible to marginalized groups, agencies need to: 1) recognize the growing popularity of non-consumptive wildlife-related recreation and more actively engage in issues related to wildlife watching; 2) establish more effective communication channels with their clienteles. 3) take into account the distribution of wildlife watching population and establish outreach strategies that give visibility to the needs of marginalized groups. 4) create programs that seek to create formative experiences in wildlife watching for groups who have historically eschewed the great outdoors.

Citation: Lee, K. J., & Scott, D. (2011). Participation in wildlife watching: A multiple hierarchy stratification perspective. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 16(5), 330-344.


Changing Hispanic Demographics: Challenges in Natural Resource Management

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The objective of our paper is to provide wildlife professionals with a better understanding of Hispanic demographics and culture. We identify shared Hispanic cultural characteristics, such as family, socioeconomic factors, and language, and their importance in planning wildlife outreach programs. We recommend 1) future research with Hispanics and natural resources, and 2) improvements to wildlife programming. For the latter, wildlife professionals should consider family programming, bilingual education, and increasing awareness of conservation issues among Hispanics. Though our discussion focuses on Texas, implications from our review have merit in other states experiencing significant increases in the Hispanic population (e.g., California, Georgia, Iowa, North Carolina).

Citation: Lopez, R. R., Lopez, A., Wilkins, R. N., Torres, C. C., Valdez, R., Teer, J. G., & Bowser, G. (2005). Changing Hispanic demographics: Challenges in natural resource management. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 33(2), 553-564.


In Search of Belonging: Immigrant Experiences of Outdoor Nature-Based Settings in New Zealand

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This paper identifies how engagement with national and regional parks is a measure of the politics of integration for new settlers in New Zealand society. This research raises a number of important questions about the nature of leisure and the politics of the environment in New Zealand. In multicultural New Zealand outdoor nature-based recreation, those who participate and those who do not, what they see and what it means to them provides a window on contemporary societal, environmental and cultural politics. Ultimately, parks as social institutions have a role to play in sustaining our habitat, but they must address an increasingly diverse constituency.

Citation: Lovelock, K., Lovelock, B., Jellum, C., & Thompson, A. (2011). In search of belonging: Immigrant experiences of outdoor nature-based settings in New Zealand. Leisure Studies, 30(4), 513-529.


(2010) Longitudinal Analysis of Fishing Behavior among Texas Anglers (1990-2006)

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To examine changes in the social, demographic, and psychological characteristics of Texas anglers over time by compiling five statewide surveys into one large data set for trend analysis. This study demonstrates the potential for using secondary data to document baseline participation and to identify change over time, as well as examining data from regional populations. Many recreational trend studies still rely on national surveys, while attention should be paid to regional populations and to related social and environmental changes – factors which can impact fishing mode and motives. Finally, as anglers increasingly report motivations related to social and environmental factors, researchers and managers need to look beyond motives to understand their behaviors. Other forms of longitudinal study, such as panel surveys (i.e., researching the same anglers over time) could be used.

Citation: Lu, J., Schuett, M. A., Wolber, N. & Ditton, R. (2010) Longitudinal analysis of fishing behavior among Texas anglers (1990-2006). In Proceedings of the 2009 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium (pp. 128-134). (Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-66). U.S. Forest Service.


Creating Racially/Ethnically Inclusive Partnerships in Natural Resource Management and Outdoor Recreation: The Challenges, Issues, and Strategies

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This study was conducted as part of a larger study to gain insight into institutional, systemic or structural, societal, and other factors that may be confounding efforts by the National Park Service. This study sought to answer, “What are the challenges and issues affecting collaborative efforts to get racial and ethnic minority community groups involved with Boston Harbor Islands National Park Area planning, outdoor recreation, and natural resource stewardship efforts?” Four major recommendations for creating racially and ethnically inclusive collaboration and partnerships are offered: (1) The key to designing racially and ethnically inclusive partnerships is to recognize minorities as legitimate stakeholders and to invite all relevant minority- based community organizations and community leaders to participate in initial partnership formation and problem definition. (2) To succeed in creating inclusive collaboration and partnerships, National Parks and public land management agencies must interpret their missions and goals more broadly and extend themselves outside their traditional boundaries. (3) In order to attract and maintain the support of racial and ethnic minorities, National Parks have to both make their activities and programs relevant and demonstrate their relevance to the lives of racial and ethnic minorities. (4) Creating and maintaining effective collaboration and partnerships with racial and ethnic minorities requires establishing genuine personal relationships between key representatives of partner agencies and organizations. This paper also includes a list of 9 future research issues and questions.

Citation: Makopondo, R. O. B. (2006). Creating racially/ethnically inclusive partnerships in natural resource management and outdoor recreation: The challenges, issues, and strategies. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 24(1), 7-31.


Why Are Public Values toward Wildlife Changing?

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Study Objective: This article overviews a research program designed to examine wildlife value orientation shift in the U.S. The societal factors theorized to affect value shift and wildlife value orientations reinforce the need to monitor wildlife value orientations over time. A frequent interest of wildlife managers is in changing values toward wildlife. The theory presented here suggests that is an unrealistic goal. It may be possible to change the public’s attitudes on a specific issue, but values and value orientations are shaped by the broader conditions of society. It is quite important for managers to understand the composition of values and value orientations within the public.

Citation: Manfredo, M., Teel, T., & Bright, A. (2003). Why are public values toward wildlife changing? Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 8(4), 287-306.


Wildlife and the Illinois Public: A Benchmark Study of Attitudes and Perceptions

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The objectives were to: (1) conduct a benchmark study of selected attitudes, perceptions, and knowledge of Illinois residents relative to wildlife and related issues; (2) compare these factors for the residents in the Chicago metropolitan area with residents in the rest of the state; and (3) consider the findings in the context of the ongoing discussion about involving citizens with increasingly diversified interests in wildlife management. This survey shows a strong need for environmental education. More emphasis could be placed on the benefits gained by nongame wildlife species through programs that are primarily designed to improve hunting. Environmental education professionals need to aggressively strengthen ecological knowledge and reinforce the links between the scientific community, state and federal natural resource agencies, and the public. Given that the public exhibits varying degrees of understanding of wildlife issues close to home, we question the wisdom of allowing the ballot box to dictate wildlife management decisions.

Citation: Mankin, P. C., & Warner, R. E., Anderson, W. L. (1999). Wildlife and the Illinois public: A benchmark study of attitudes and perceptions. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 27(2), 465-472.


Trends in Participation Rates for Wildlife-Associated Recreation by Race/Ethnicity and Gender: 1980-2001

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This study looks at trends in participation rates in wildlife-associated recreation activities by race/ethnicity and gender among participants 16 years of age and older. The effects of the changes in the survey are addressed along with the implications for future analyses. Methodological changes in the survey could have affected the results of this study and may also constrain future studies. Methodological changes have resulted in the reduction of the number of observations. This affects the analysis of activities among some minority groups and it raises questions about the use of these datasets for this type of analysis in the future.

Citation: Marsinko, A., & Dwyer, J. (2005). Trends in participation rates for wildlife-associated recreation by race/ethnicity and gender: 1980-2001. In Proceedings of the 2004 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium (pp. 251-255). (Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-326). U.S. Forest Service.


Wildlife-Associated Recreation in the North Central Region: Participation Patterns and Management Implications

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To examine participation in wildlife-associated recreation in the region and in each state, to compare the region to the remainder of the United States, and to compare states within the region in order to provide managers with some insight into the patterns and challenges in the region. The activities examined are hunting, fishing, and wildlife watching. The diversity of participation patterns within the region affects public natural resource managers and suggests treating the region as subunits to more effectively address resource management issues. An education program or marketing campaign can be implemented more effectively if the location of the clientele can be narrowed down as much as possible. This study did not address whether increasing or decreasing the amount of forest land in a state would increase or decrease hunting, which warrants further research.

Citation: Marsinko, A., & Dwyer, J. (2002). Wildlife-associated recreation in the north central region: Participation patterns and management implications. In Proceedings of the 2001 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium (pp. 63-68). (Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-289).


African American and Hispanic American Sportsmen in the North Central Region

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The purposes of this paper are to characterize African American and Hispanic American sportsmen (hunters and anglers) in the North Central Region of the US, compare these sportsmen to African American and Hispanic American nonparticipants in the region as well as African American and Hispanic American sportsmen from outside the region, and investigate factors that are correlated with hunting and fishing participation by these important groups in the region. The profiles presented here as well as the cross-activity relationships are important to managers and others who are interested in identifying participants, particularly among minority groups. The profiles help identify the client groups. They help answer questions such as "Who is the African American hunter in the North Central region and how does this individual differ from the African American non-hunter"? They also help identify how participants in the region differ from those outside the region, which reflects, in part, the characteristics of the region.

Citation: Marsinko, A., & Dwyer, J. (2003). African American and Hispanic American sportsmen in the north central region. In Proceedings of the 2002 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium (pp. 28-32). (Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-302). U.S. Forest Service.


American Indian Gathering and Recreation Uses of National Forests

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The purpose of this study was to identify and understand the American Indian gathering and outdoor recreation uses of national forests near a reservation. In addition, the study sought to understand: the significance of these activities and their locations to tribal members; how these activities relate to place meanings; and the conflicts encountered by tribal members. The implications from both study areas indicate that Forest Service managers should pay more attention to cooperative approaches, and potential co-management of forest resources that are near American Indian reservations. Managers need to be more sensitive to American Indians’ uses and values associated with national forests and other protected lands that are close to reservations. They also need to be aware of the history of government and tribal relations, as well as tribal member traditional and historic uses of forests. The following are some specific recommendations for working with tribes. Allow for increased consultation and reflection time in the planning process. Face to face contact is very important. Trust is an important issue, and it takes time and personal contact to develop trust and respect. Understand how tribal councils and Indian governments function. Realize that Indian governmental decisions are influenced by traditional values and often guided by input from elders and culture committees. And lastly, managers in these cooperative management efforts need to focus on where, what and how to meet the needs of American Indians on national forests, in addition to the needs of other stakeholders.

Citation: McAvoy, L., Shirilla, P. & Flood, J. (2005). American Indian gathering and recreation uses of national forests. In Proceedings of the 2004 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium (pp. 81-87). (Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-326). U.S. Forest Service.


Integrating Information on Wildlife Values and Barriers to Participation in Natural-Based Programs to Improve Agency Efforts for Connecting Families to Nature (Master's Thesis)

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This thesis presents two manuscripts that explored how information on barriers to participation in nature-based programs and wildlife value orientations could be used to enhance the reach and effectiveness of agencies in connecting children to nature. (Paper 1): To explore how information on wildlife value orientations and barriers to participation in nature-based programs might be integrated to improve agencies’ educational initiatives. (Paper 2): To use past research and theory to develop a qualitative methodology to measure wildlife value orientations in a focus group setting. The focus of this paper was on developing a technique to assess wildlife value orientations among diverse populations of various cultures and ethnicities. (Paper 1): Barriers and wildlife-related interests may need to be evaluated separately in thinking about ways to develop more targeted nature-based opportunities in the future. Using wildlife value orientations to inform nature-based programs can assist in the movement to connect children and families to nature by helping wildlife agencies develop more targeted educational initiatives. Results also point to the need for additional research to determine if findings can be applied to other populations and geographic locations. (Paper 2): This unique contribution of a qualitative assessment procedure extends the application of well-developed theory and links to a large, previous body of work on wildlife value orientations. The adaptability of this non-traditional technique lends itself to assessments of wildlife value orientations among diverse cultures, thereby enhancing our ability to further understand the relationship between wildlife and humans in future investigations.

Citation: McCoy, C. (2010). Integrating information on wildlife values and barriers to participation in natural-based programs to improve agency efforts for connecting families to nature (Master’s thesis). Colorado State University.


The Influence of Gender on Participation for Nonresidential Birdwatchers in New York State

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Study Objective: The objective of this study is to identify similarities and differences in initiation, participation rates, and characteristics of birdwatching between males and females. From a promotional or marketing standpoint, males and females might respond differently to marketing strategies targeted at attracting birdwatchers. Males might be motivated by messages that emphasize sharing knowledge about birds and birdwatching with other people, whereas females might be motivated by messages that highlight experiencing birdwatching around the home. Programs and other efforts that enable birdwatchers to share their knowledge with others should be considered.

Citation: Sali, M. J., & Kuehn, D. (2008). The influence of gender on participation for nonresidential birdwatchers in New York state. In Proceedings of the 2007 northeastern recreation research symposium (pp.160-167). (Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-23).


Ethnicity and Variations in Wildlife Concern: Exploring the Socio-Structural and Socio-Psychological Bases of Wildlife Values

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To develop a conceptual model to examine the socio-structural and socio-psychological construct of wildlife concern within ethnic populations, by employing environmental concern paradigms. The proposed model can be utilized by urban forestry and park researchers for the following purposes: identifying social demographic and social psychological predictors of attitudes toward urban and community forestry, parks and wildlife of ethnic minority communities; and identifying outdoor recreation participation characteristics of ethnic minority communities. Also, identifying behavioral intentions of ethnic minorities in regard to urban and community forestry, parks and wildlife; examining regional variation in regard to the previous through urban area comparisons; developing outreach environmental education frameworks for educating ethnic minority communities regarding the importance and value of urban forestry, parks and wildlife.

Citation: Sasidharan, V., & Thapa, B. (1999). Ethnicity and variations in wildlife concern: Exploring the socio-structural and socio-psychological bases of wildlife values. In W. Shaw et al. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Urban Wildlife Conservation, Tucson, AZ, May 1-5 (pp. 305-315). University of Arizona, Tucson.


Race, Ethnicity, and Natural Resources in the United States: A Review

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This article reviews the literature on racial discrimination and ethnic differences in valuing and using natural resources. Results highlight the need for serious attention to racial and ethnic diversity in natural resource management and policy. Ethnocentrism in the natural resource field comes into play in many ways but may be most pernicious in cases of scientific uncertainty when managers and policy makers tend to fall back on culturally and professionally coded models that may have biases built into them. There is a need for greater attention to race and ethnicity by all in the natural resource field, and also for greater diversify among professionals in the field itself. A broader and more inclusive view of natural resource values, use, and management will both better serve a diverse U.S. population and attract more diversity to the natural resource professions.

Citation: Schelhas, J. (2002). Race, ethnicity, and natural resources in the United States: A review. Natural Resources Journal, 42(4), 723-763.


Sociodemographics, Motivations, and Behavior: The Case of Texas Anglers 1989-2004

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Study Objective: This study sought to explore recreational anglers’ human dimensions indicators over time through the use of six cross-sectional datasets on a state level. The objective was to explore trends in sociodemographics, motivations, and behavior of recreational anglers. This study adds to a limited body of research that has used multiple datasets in examining outdoor recreation behavior. Motivational differences over time are still in need of continued research as managers must not assume that certain populations or sub-groups fish for some of the same reasons that past research has indicated. Change takes place at the societal or population level; hence, scientists may need to consider a “bigger picture” when trying to assess recreation behavior and motives. Needs and values of recreation users should also be explored cross-culturally in order to determine how changes over time are occurring in American society and in other nations and cultures. There is also a need for more data-sharing among public land managing agencies so that future research could be based on a catalog of past studies.

Citation: Schuett, M. A., Lu, J., Ditton, R. B., & Tseng, Y. P. (2010). Sociodemographics, motivations, and behavior: The case of Texas anglers 1989-2004. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 15(4), 247-261.


Hunting and Rural Socialization: Contingent Effects of the Rural Setting on Hunting Participation

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This paper examines how the relationship between the rural setting and hunting participation is affected by gender and family socialization. The overall “rural effect” is reduced precisely because it is particular and contingent on the effects of other variables, rather than general and widespread. Therefore research that seeks general patterns of difference between urban and rural areas may fail to uncover the more specific differences that exist in urban and rural subpopulations, especially as social change continues to alter rural places and people.

Citation: Stedman, R. C., & Heberlein, T. A. (2001). Hunting and rural socialization: Contingent effects of the rural setting on hunting participation. Rural Sociology, 66(4), 599-617.


The Texas Saltwater Angler Population: A Longitudinal Perspective (1989-2005)

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This paper presents a longitudinal analysis of selected human-dimensions indicators of the Texas saltwater fishing population. Researchers or managers can scrutinize the changing directions in resource use and satisfaction magnitude over time with a longitudinal perspective and perhaps reach different conclusions from time series research results. Fishery interests will need to understand more about females and their attitudes toward and expectations from angling. For Hispanics, a secure and supportive social space for shared experiences with family and extended family is an important management goal.

Citation: Tseng, Y.-P., & Ditton, R. B. (2007). The Texas saltwater angler population: A longitudinal perspective (1989-2005). In Proceedings of the 2006 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium (pp. 234-239). (Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-14). U.S. Forest Service.


A Qualitative Investigation of the Urban African-American and Latino Adolescent Experience with Wildlife

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This article attempted to explain how urban African-American and Latino adolescents experience wildlife and how these experiences shape their interest in and appreciation for wildlife. Wildlife professionals can help foster an enduring interest in and connection to wildlife by developing programs and materials that reach urban children and their parents and that focus on the day-to-day environments where most of the participants encountered wildlife. Wildlife professionals should utilize the existing social structure of urban communities. The data suggest that it is not so much the type of activity that is important as it is the nature (e.g., safe, positive, exciting) and frequency of the encounters. Additional research is necessary to investigate particular strategies that might facilitate a close relationship to nature and its wildlife inhabitants in relation to the specific role adults play in shaping a child’s perspective on wildlife.

Citation: Van Velsor, S. W., & Nilon, C. H. (2006). A qualitative investigation of the urban African-American and Latino adolescent experience with wildlife. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 11(5), 359-370.


A Study of the Relationships of Deer Hunters Participation Intensity and Constraints

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This study examined hunting participation with respect to hunters’ overall perceptions of constraints, hunting participation intensity rates, demographics, and social-psychological data. In addition, differences between male and female hunters were examined to determine whether constraints varied based on hunting intensity rates that differ by gender. Results suggest men tend to perceive more constraints than women, particularly when it involves family and work commitments for low to moderate deer hunting participants. Study results identify barriers to participation that could lead to declining hunting participation.

Citation: Weddell, M. S., Anderson, D. M., Rodgers, E. D. & Wright, B. A. (2007). A study of the relationships of deer hunters participation intensity and constraints. In Proceedings of the 2006 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium (pp. 447-450). (Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-14). U.S. Forest Service.


Anglers' Appraisals of the Risks of Eating Sport-Caught Fish from Industrial Areas: Lessons from Chicago's Calumet Region

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Study Objective: We conducted a participant observation study of recreational fishing in the industrialized Calumet region of northwest Indiana and southeast Chicago to gauge the extent of fishing for consumption and to learn about perceptions of the risks of eating contaminated fish. Natural resource managers face the challenge of providing for fishing activities while also providing the necessary information for anglers to assess the risk and benefits of eating and sharing their catch. This research makes it clear that existing advisories and detailed fish consumption risk information is failing to reach Calumet’s angling community. Outreach through new channels, providing information aimed at minimizing risk through preparation techniques, and providing information in accessible formats are all important steps in this process. Managers should consider reaching out beyond fishing-oriented groups into the local community and overcoming perceptions of mistreatment that are held by some Black and Latino anglers. Local officials may want to concentrate on communicating avoidance of the highest risk areas, and encourage better species, size, and preparation choices at safer sites.

Citation: Westphal, L. M., Longoni, M., LeBlanc, C. L. & Wali, A. (2008). Anglers' appraisals of the risks of eating sport-caught fish from industrial areas: Lessons from Chicago’s Calumet region. Human Ecology Review, 15(1), 46-62.


Beach Recreation, Cultural Diversity and Attitudes toward Nature

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This paper develops a conceptual model emphasizing relationships between beach-going, and individual characteristics, geographical access, coastal knowledge, interaction with coastal environments, and attitudes toward nature. The survey data and analysis provide some support for our conceptual model of beach use, as well as the specific hypotheses we tested. Both the ethnicity and marginality perspectives are supported by our findings. Finer measures of assimilation and race/ethnicity would help to reduce the essentialism associated with categorical measures of immigrant status. Environmental attitude measures, particularly those related to animals, which have received less attention in the literature, also need further refinement. Qualitative work could explore in more depth how environmental attitudes are linked to recreational choices. It may be important for coastal zone managers to develop additional avenues for providing accurate information about beach safety and closures. Increasing public transportation from inland communities to the beach might be critical for those residents who experience access barriers related to geography.

Citation: Wolch, J., & Zhang, J. (2004). Beach recreation, cultural diversity and attitudes toward nature. Journal of Leisure Research, 36(3), 414-443.


Leisure Preferences and Open Space Needs in an Urban Chinese American Community

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This paper addresses three research objectives: (1) To characterize leisure patterns of the Chinese American community in Chicago's Chinatown in terms of activities, frequency, and location; (2) To understand preferences and problems relative to leisure and recreation, in general and in relation to new park and open space development; (3) To identify variations in leisure activities and open space preferences as a function of age, gender, generational status, and other factors. Some leisure activities carry multiple meanings and are not differentiated from non-leisure within the Asian American groups. Thus for some groups, traditional measures of activity participation may mask important concepts of leisure and its place in everyday life. The meaning and significance of culturally-based environmental preferences must be further explored. Future research should identify how designs and facilities can be made more appropriate, safe, and attractive for those who will use them.

Citation: Zhang, T., & Gobster, P. H. (1998). Leisure preferences and open space needs in an urban Chinese American community. Journal of Architectural Planning and Research, 15(4), 338-355.


Sociocultural perspectives of trapping revisited: A comparative analysis of activities and motives 1994 and 2000

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The purpose of this study was to assess changes in participation and motives of Vermont trappers from 1994 to 2000. The varied motivations of trappers indicate that policy makers and some wildlife managers must discontinue considering trappers as unithematic in why they trap, rather such policy makers must understand that implementation of policy initiatives may have varying effects on different groups of trappers. Future research needs to continue to monitor motivations and sociocultural aspects of trapping if it is to remain an effective wildlife management strategy and means to maintain lifestyle benefits for a specialized subgroup of society. Research also should address the effect of trapping on the development and maintenance of a sense of place.

Citation: Zwick, R. R., Glass, R., Royar, K. & Decker, T. (2002). Sociocultural perspectives of trapping revisited: A comparative analysis of activities and motives 1994 and 2000. In Proceedings of the 2001 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium (pp. 118-123). (Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-289). U.S. Forest Service.


Perceived Opportunities and Constraints on Participation in a Massachusetts Youth Hunt

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This study examined parent/guardian and youth participant attitudes toward a special youth hunt in Massachusetts and constraints toward participating in such a hunt. The study objectives were to: 1) determine the opportunities that would be important to both parents and youth for youth to participate in a specialized youth hunt, and concomitant differences in those perceived opportunities; 2) determine the extent of participation in hunting and shooting activities by both parents and youth who participated in the programs; and 3) examine the perceived constraints on youth in participating in hunting activities and the youth hunts. The commonalities among parents and youth provide an opportunity for Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife to develop hunting and shooting opportunities that include both parents and youth. Policy means can be developed to help retain the existing hunting population.

Citation: Zwick, R., Flaherty, J., Solan, D., Tisa, M., & Langlois, S. (2006). Perceived opportunities and constraints on participation in a Massachusetts youth hunt. In Proceedings of the 2005 northeastern recreation research symposium (pp. 254-261). (Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-341). U.S. Forest Service.



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