• Elementary school students letting loose on a field trip to Don Edwards San Francisco Bay NWR. Credit: Justine Belson/USFWS

    Elementary school students letting loose on a field trip to Don Edwards San Francisco Bay NWR. Credit: Justine Belson/USFWS

  • Deer at Rocky Mountain Arsenal with the Denver skyline. Credit: Mike Mauro/USFWS

    Deer at Rocky Mountain Arsenal with the Denver skyline. Credit: Mike Mauro/USFWS

  • A group of youth “Puddle Stompers” from Head Start find a rough-skinned newt at Tualatin River NWR. Credit: USFWS

    A group of youth “Puddle Stompers” from Head Start find a rough-skinned newt at Tualatin River NWR. Credit: USFWS

  • Youth Fishing Day at Minnesota Valley NWR. Credit: Joanna Gilkeson/USFWS

    Youth Fishing Day at Minnesota Valley NWR. Credit: Joanna Gilkeson/USFWS

Know Your Community

A Social Science Approach

An underlying need for the Urban Program is a better understanding of the factors that facilitate or inhibit connecting urban audiences with wildlife and nature. To address this need, the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service led a collaborative research effort with U.S. Geological Survey and North Carolina State University to understand urban audiences, identify barriers to engagement in wildlife-dependent recreation, and identify strategies for the USFWS to overcome these barriers.

Visit the Human Dimensions Portal »

What do community residents living near urban refuges think?

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Read the report on workshops with urban community representatives to understand barriers, motivations, and strategies for connecting urban audiences with refuges, wildlife, and the outdoors: Barriers and Strategies to Connecting Urban Audiences to Wildlife and Nature

Workshops with community leaders near seven urban refuges revealed how outdoor recreation opportunities benefit urban residents; the barriers to participate in the outdoors; and strategies for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to better connect and engage urban residents. Common themes heard include:

Here’s some of what we’ve heard from conversations with residents in urban areas across the country…

What barriers prevent greater access or enjoyment of outdoor recreation opportunities by urban communities?

  • Feelings of otherness for minorities: uncomfortable being the only minority in the outdoors and not being represented in the cultural and historical dialogue about America’s natural landscapes and conservation
  • Fear for safety, health, and discomfort in the outdoors
  • Negative cultural stigmas about working outdoors

“I told my grandmother I was going to be a wildlife biologist and work outdoors. She said, ‘No, no, we worked too hard for you to be outdoors.’ People equate working in an office with upper-level positions. There is still thinking like that among Latinos. It’s a very real barrier... My husband’s dad didn’t think he had a real career because he was outside teaching kids to fish.” (statement from a community workshop participant)

What can be done to promote greater participation in outdoor recreation and use of refuges by urban communities?

  • We can’t just say “come visit the refuge.” Residents that fear the outdoors need more support when being introduced to nature and partnering with trusted community organizations is a good way to provide that support.
  • Urban protected areas are themselves a great strategy for introducing people to nature because they are less removed from the city and therefore less intimidating for some people – we should promote them and make them more accessible!
  • Enhance youth volunteer recruitment so youth can learn about career opportunities in natural resources management and gain valuable work experience. By focusing on career opportunities, refuges can play a role in developing “conservation leaders” for the next generation.

Workshops

Other Publications:

Research Partners:

USGS Logo North Carolina State University College of Natural Resources logo.


What is working on the ground?

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Most research on participation in outdoor and wildlife-dependent recreation focuses on individual and society-level factors. Few studies examine agencies and organizations and the institutional factors that may affect their ability to attract diverse constituents.

Read the results of interviews with refuge staff to understand practitioners’ perspectives on factors that promote or impeded the ability of our agency to connect with diverse urban audiences:

Barriers and Strategies to Connecting Urban Audiences to Wildlife and Nature

Several of the institutional barriers identified by refuge staff have also been identified in other studies of barriers to inclusion in recreation:

Five Key Institutional Barriers that Inhibit Program Access and Opportunity for Diverse Constituents (Allison & Hibbler, 2004):

  1. The inability of agencies to recognize and respond appropriately to the changing nature of communities served.
  2. The ethnic composition of agencies’ staff does not reflect community diversity.
  3. Despite a willingness to offer culturally relevant programming, few demonstrate an integrated and systematic approach to such planning and efforts are often misguided and/or ineffective.
  4. Language differences between service providers and constituents.
  5. The presence of prejudicial attitudes and stereotypes held by some management and staff toward constituents.

Citation: Allison, M. T., and Hibbler, D. K. (2004). Organizational barriers to inclusion: Perspectives from the recreation professional. Leisure Sciences, 26(3), 261–280.


What is the state of current understanding?

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“Race, Ethnicity, Urban Populations, and Wildlife-Dependent Recreation: A Review and Synthesis of the Literature”

A review of existing literature provided a better understanding of barriers and motivations of racial and ethnic minorities and urban populations to participate in the outdoors. This review revealed trends from past research and recommendations for management strategies, summarized below.

Connecting diverse and urban populations to nature: Recommendations from the Literature

1. Develop facilities and amenities

  • Tables and seating arrangements for larger groups
  • Safe and clean restrooms
  • Shore-based fishing opportunities
  • On-site equipment rental service
    • Partner with recreation outfitter
    • Mobile equipment supplier

2. Target specific races or ethnicities

  • African American
    • Utilize fishing as a “pull” activity to increase visitation
    • Stock fishing areas
  • Latino
    • Keep sites free of litter and graffiti
    • Increase knowledge and familiarity
    • Provide information through Latino organizations (e.g., farm workers associations, health clinics, community centers, small businesses)
    • Provide information through television, especially Spanish language channels
  • Asian Americans
    • Utilize existing organizations to deliver information
    • Trust with key informants is important
    • Publicize health, culture, and educational benefits
  • Native Americans
    • Understand history of past use of lands and how it became public land

3. Provide group recreation opportunities

  • Focus on providing social space rather than sporting experiences
  • Educate parents about how their support affects their children’s participation
  • Organize family fishing events
  • Show single-parent families in advertisements
  • Provide social events such as fishing derbies and teen retreat weekends for youth

4. Form partnerships with local organizations

  • Involve community organizations in planning processes
  • Integrate outdoor/fishing skill development courses in school curriculum
  • Include or enhance skill development activities in youth organizations
  • Work with partner organizations who can provide on-site guidance about flora and fauna

5. Educate the public

  • Educate people about the benefits of nongame species as part of programs that are primarily designed to improve hunting skills
  • Provide effective risk communication on exposure to contaminants for groups that exhibit higher levels of fish consumption
  • Educate the public using students, interns, local residents or a Master Angler program similar to Master Gardeners
  • Be aware of distribution and quality of facilities, services, programs and staff, paying attention to areas that serve minorities

6. Provide local recreation and target low income residents

  • Direct efforts to specific non-Anglo communities, not just to large urban areas
  • Focus on close to home, day-to-day environments where people encounter wildlife
  • Promote rural angling opportunities close to urban centers as an escape
  • Consider the impacts of fees for recreation, particularly for minorities and women

7. Improve communication channels

  • Simplify the information/permitting system for organized group festivals
  • Develop materials specifically for visitors new to the outdoors
  • Increase staff visits to local communities
  • Send information home with schoolchildren to be read or translated to parents
  • Develop a calendar showing local, state and federal recreation events in the area
  • Utilize pre-existing informal social networks

8. Increase staff diversity and cultural awareness

  • Hire more bilingual and racially/ethnically diverse staff to lessen perceptions of discrimination and improve service to diverse clientele
  • Recruit minority youth for student internships
  • Provide staff with ongoing cultural competency training to reduce unintentional stereotyping

Literature Search Tool

Click here to explore the literature

Want to learn more about the research in this area? Use the search tool to select specific topics, like fishing or a specific demographic group, and you’ll get a list of relevant references with short description and a link to the journal article or report.

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Demographics, participation, attitudes, and management preferences of Texas anglers

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Additional Link: http://static.texashuntfish.com/media/2007/09/04/orig/2ba2d6e0-cde8-420a-807f-995a977edbfc.pdf

The study purpose was to assess the current characteristics, species preferences, general fishing habits, attitudes, motivations, and expenditures of Texas resident anglers. This was the fifth statewide angler survey since 1989, and longitudinal trends were also assessed. A random sample of 10,000 Texas residents who purchased a 2001 Texas fishing license was selected. A mail survey was developed to assess anglers’ behaviors, attitudes, and preferences towards fisheries management practices as well as other issues. 3,124 individuals participated. Data are provided for each group’s demographics, participation and experience, species preferences, motivations and attitudes, fishing trip characteristics, satisfaction and constraints to participation. This study’s most important finding may be that we have seen little, if any, change in gender, racial, and ethnic characteristics of the population of Texas anglers since the first statewide surveys in 1989. There have been numerous programs directed toward urban areas where disproportionate numbers of minority racial and ethnic groups reside and towards women in an effort to increase their respective low rates of fishing participation. These efforts have apparently not been successful. There is an increased need to know more about angler sub-populations (seniors, women, African-Americans, and Hispanic-Americans) not well represented in the study.

Citation: Anderson, D. K., & Ditton, R. B. (2004). Demographics, participation, attitudes, and management preferences of Texas anglers. (Human Dimensions of Fisheries Research Laboratory Technical Document HD-624). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University.


Constraints to recreational fishing: Concepts and questions to understand underrepresented angling groups

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Additional Link: http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/9569

This paper discusses past, current, and future leisure constraints research. Three issues are considered that could involve greater constraints among ethnic minority groups: income level, place of residence, and social structure. If new angler groups are not catered to by fisheries managers, there may be fewer anglers in the future, and consequently a reduction in public funding and support for fisheries management. Research points to the need to examine whether individuals from underrepresented groups have stopped fishing, never started fishing, or are fishing less than they would like. Leisure constraints research could be combined with information about ethnic minority groups and women.

Citation: Anderson, L., Loomis, D., & Salz, R. (2005). Constraints to recreational fishing: Concepts and questions to understand underrepresented angling groups. In Proceedings of the 2004 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium (pp. 70-74). (Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-326). U.S. Forest Service.


Understanding recreational angling participation in Germany: preparing for demographic change

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Additional Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10871200600802889

This study examined demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic factors facilitating the likelihood of participating in recreational angling. It aimed to (1) identify predictive factors promoting participation in German recreational angling and (2) search for generalizable variables explaining the likelihood to fish for recreation. A nationwide telephone survey of German households was conducted. The final sample included 5,274 (92%) non-anglers and 474 (8%) active anglers aged 14 and over. The probability of being an angler was significantly higher for males with full-time working status, living in Eastern Germany, in rural areas and near to the coast. Educational level and household size were negatively related to angling participation. Increasing net monthly household income increased the odds of participation in fishing. Close access to saltwater was more influential for angling participation than access to freshwater. Many of the significant demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic variables found in this study were consistent with U.S. data suggesting some generalizability. Given projected trends of demographic change likely affecting the general population structure in Germany, most of the associations found in this study suggest decreased participation in recreational angling in the future. It is a matter of societal values whether targeted marketing and management approaches are implemented to intervene. Fisheries managers should recognize how demographic change can impact the angling population and the environment in which management occurs. Monitoring demographic effects on angling participation must become an increasingly important part of fisheries planning, development, and management.

Citation: Arlinghaus, R. (2006). Understanding recreational angling participation in Germany: preparing for demographic change. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 11(4), 229-240.


Parks, People and Partnerships (Master’s Thesis)

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Additional Link: http://hdl.handle.net/2027.42/50482

This study’s purpose was to provide the NPS and community-based organizations (CBOs) with useful information and tools to improve their outreach efforts through partnerships. In addition to the review of relevant literature and examination of model partnership programs, the study is based on semi-structured interviews with NPS staff and with management staff at 15 CBOs representing faith-based organizations, female organizations, urban nature centers, and youth organizations in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. The primary focus of interviews was on the challenges and benefits to partnerships. CBO Interviewees were composed of 21 executive officers or program directors. Eight NPS staff were interviewed. Despite recognition of perceived barriers, all interviewees were interested in building partnerships. Furthermore, both NPS and CBO participants saw common benefits afforded by such arrangements. A lengthy and well-organized list of recommendations focuses on three domains of effort for NPS focus: improving information exchange, strengthening logistical support, and enhancing cultural awareness and staff diversity. By addressing these areas, the authors believe that the NPS will facilitate partnerships with community-based organizations and meaningfully engage underserved audiences not currently visiting national parks.

Citation: Baur, J., DiPrizio, L. M., Fernandes, N. A., Fried, Z., & Sellers, J. (2007). Parks, People and Partnerships (Master’s Thesis). University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.


Culturally appropriate environmental education: an example of a partnership with the Hmong American community

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Additional Link: http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/42190

This article describes a project to develop culturally appropriate environmental education materials for Hmong Americans, including new refugees and elders with little proficiency in English as well as the broader, multigenerational Hmong community. First, interviews with Hmong natural resource professionals from California, Minnesota and Wisconsin were structured around a set of questions designed to elicit key conservation education needs in the Hmong community and explore cultural characteristics that would aid in the design of culturally appropriate educational approaches. Second, partnering with the Hmong arts and theater community, the authors created a DVD with a variety of entertaining and educational segments. Conservation and education messages involved fire safety and prevention; hunting and fishing rules, hunting safety; "leave no trace" principles; gathering non-timber forest products; and responsible use of public lands. Environmental educators and researchers from the mainstream culture cannot succeed in developing culturally appropriate environmental education approaches without fully partnering with the target community. Partnerships with ethnic communities should be viewed as long-term efforts that require a substantial investment of time. Environmental educators should incorporate the dynamics of sociocultural change as they design educational materials and approaches for ethnic communities.

Citation: Bengston, D. N., Schermann, M. A., Hawj, F., & Moua, M. K. (2012). Culturally appropriate environmental education: an example of a partnership with the Hmong American community. Applied Environmental Education & Communication. 11(1), 1-8.


Listening to neglected voices: Hmong Americans and public lands in Minnesota and Wisconsin

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Additional Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08941920701684197

The objective of this study was to listen to the Hmong American community and learn about their experiences, perspectives, needs, and concerns related to public lands in order to help land managers, planners, and policy-makers be more responsive to their needs. A series of five focus groups was conducted. One focus group in St. Paul, Minnesota, two in La Crosse,Wisconsin, and two in Eau Claire,Wisconsin. Participating in traditional activities on public lands gives Hmong a sense that they are preserving their culture by connecting with aspects of their time-honored way of life and the beliefs and values associated with it. The most frequently mentioned activities were “family fun," fishing, hunting, hiking/walking, and picnicking/barbecuing. Hunting, fishing, and gathering activities have high subsistence value to many. Harassment directed at Hmong on public lands is common. Recommendations for managers included cultural training for staff, increased staff diversity, training for community, and increased signage. The pervasiveness of environmental racism the found and the unique circumstances of Hmong Americans suggest the need for in-depth investigation from an environmental justice perspective.

Citation: Bengston, D. N., Schermann, M. A., Moua, M., & Lee, T. T. (2008). Listening to neglected voices: Hmong Americans and public lands in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Society and Natural Resources. 21(10), 876-890.


Animal-related attitudes and activities in an urban population

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Additional Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.2752/089279304786991783

This study used a mail survey of the general population of Trondheim, Norway to determine their attitudes toward common urban animals and their participation in animal-oriented activities. A transect was selected, originating in the city center and ending in less densely populated suburban areas. The results show that people most like small birds, squirrels, butterflies, hedgehogs, ducks, geese and dogs, and dislike bats, snails, invertebrate species, mice and rats. Birds of prey, foxes, cats, bumblebees, magpies, pigeons, badgers, gulls, grasshoppers and crows received a neutral ranking. Effect of age, gender and education on attitudes and activities is reported. It is of importance for urban planners to know that as people grow older, residential animal-related activities increase in frequency, and that bird and insect observations increase in importance. As older people often spend more time closer to their homes, opportunities for wildlife experiences in residential areas should be made more available. Protection of desirable animals and their habitats should be attended to by urban planners. Simultaneously, the dislike expressed for animals of high ecological importance creates psychological barriers to efforts to protect their existence. More information about the ecological value of unpopular species should be considered.

Citation: Bjerke, T., & Østdahl, T. (2004). Animal-related attitudes and activities in an urban population. Anthrozoos, 17(2), 109-129.


Recreational rates and future land-use preferences for four Department of Energy sites: Consistency despite demographic and geographical differences

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Additional Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2003.10.005

This paper synthesizes several surveys from four US Department of Energy (DOE) sites in the states of South Carolina, Idaho, Nevada, and New York. People were interviewed at local and regional events, which included people who actually used the sites for hunting, people living directly adjacent to the sites, and members of the general public who might use these sites if the lands were more available to the public. The questionnaire was divided into parts dealing with demography, recreational activities, and future land use. Despite demographic and recreational rate differences, there was remarkable agreement about desirability of future land uses. Maintaining these DOE sites as National Environmental Research Parks and using them for nonconsumptive recreation rated the highest. The lowest rated future land uses were current and additional nuclear waste storage and the building of homes and factories. People who participated in a recreational activity rated those future land uses higher than nonusers. While these data on recreational rates can be used to assess the potential risk to people using contaminated sites and to aid in setting clean-up standards based on potential risk, the information on land-use preferences can be used by managers to determine future use and to plan for such use.

Citation: Burger, J. (2004). Recreational rates and future land-use preferences for four Department of Energy sites: Consistency despite demographic and geographical differences. Environmental Research, 95(2), 215-223.


Fishing in urban New Jersey: Ethnicity affects information sources, perception, and compliance

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Additional Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.1999.tb00401.x

This paper examines fishing behavior, sources of information, perceptions, and compliance with fishing advisories as a function of ethnicity for people fishing in the Newark Bay Complex of the New York-New Jersey Harbor. Three-hundred fishermen were interviewed on-site. The results indicate a willingness to comply with advisories regardless of ethnicity, but a vast difference in the base knowledge necessary to make informed risk decisions about the safety of fish and shellfish. In general, the knowledge base was much lower for Hispanics, was intermediate for blacks, and was greatest for whites. This study indicates that the dissemination of risk information has had less of an impact than authorities would like to believe, and that the differences between expert risk assessments and the perceptions of the public are still great. These differences must be addressed if risk reduction is to occur. This is part of a larger study to understand the angling behavior of people in New Jersey, motivated by a desire to reduce the potential risk from contaminated fish and shellfish.

Citation: Burger, J., Pflugh, K. K., Lurig, L., Von Hagen, L. A., & Von Hagen, S. (1999). Fishing in urban New Jersey: Ethnicity affects information sources, perception, and compliance. Risk Analysis, 19(2), 217-229.


Consumption patterns and why people fish

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Additional Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/enrs.2002.4391

This study sought to examine the consumption patterns and the reasons for fishing of people fishing in the highly polluted Newark Bay Complex. Of particular interest were ethnic differences in the reasons for fishing that might be useful in understanding the dissonance between consumption advisories and consumption patterns. Researchers approached and interviewed 267 anglers. The questionnaire was divided into four parts dealing with demographics, consumption behavior), knowledge of advisories, and reasons for angling. Results show that people in the Newark Bay Complex go fishing largely to relax, be outdoors, commune with nature, and for recreation, rather than primarily as a source of food. Although there were ethnic differences in consumption patterns, there were no ethnic differences in why people fish. There was wide variation in consumption patterns within each ethnic group. 8-25% of the people ate more than 1500g of fish per month. About 70% are eating crabs even though there is a total ban on both harvest and consumption. Consumption patterns were negatively correlated with mean income and positively correlated with mean age. Since some people do not follow consumption advisories, it is of public health policy interest to understand why people fish and what they eat. The ethnic differences in knowledge, consumption, and reasons for angling suggest that targeted risk communication is required to reach all of the angling public. This could be done through ethnically oriented community and health groups.

Citation: Burger, J. (2002). Consumption patterns and why people fish. Environmental Research, 90(2), 125-135.


Factors in exposure assessment: Ethnic and socioeconomic differences in fishing and consumption of fish caught along the Savannah River

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Additional Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.1999.tb00418.x

This study examined differences in fishing rates and fish consumption of 258 people interviewed while fishing along the Savannah River near a Department of Energy nuclear facility. The questionnaire contained questions about fishing behavior, consumption patterns, cooking patterns, warnings and safety of the fish, age, education, ethnicity, employment history, and income. Overall, ethnicity, age, and education contributed to variations in fishing behavior and consumption. Site-specific information on both demographics and fish consumption is essential to the development of both risk assessment and risk management. These data indicate that some fishermen are exceeding the limits advised by South Carolina. Examining only averages does not give a complete picture of the consumption patterns of those potentially most at risk, but systematically biases towards a low estimate. The data further suggest that the factors that contribute to the total amount of fish eaten per year ( = exposure) include ethnicity, education, and age. The reasons for the high fish consumption in people with less and more education deserves further study.

Citation: Burger, J., Stephens, W. L., Boring, C. S., Kuklinski, M., Gibbons, J. W., & Gochfeld, M. (1999). Factors in exposure assessment: Ethnic and socioeconomic differences in fishing and consumption of fish caught along the Savannah River. Risk Analysis, 19(3), 427-438.


Outdoor recreation and nontraditional users: results of focus group interviews with racial and ethnic minorities

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Additional Link: http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/40632

This study was designed to understand ethnic minorities’ interests and needs related to outdoor recreation in Oregon, and how agencies such as Oregon State Parks, the U.S. Forest Service, and local park and recreation authorities can better respond to these nontraditional users. A series of 4 focus group interviews were conducted. They were composed of African American respondents (Portland, Oregon), Asian American respondents (Portland, Oregon), and Latino respondents (Medford and Hermiston, Oregon). The themes that emerged from the focus groups are organized by ethnicity and grouped into categories of current and previous recreation experiences, benefits sought, constraints, and media and recreation opportunities. Although variations are reported between and within the three groups, some general findings exist. The social context is a very important aspect of recreation among minorities. The family group is especially important. Safety is a major concern affecting outdoor recreation participation and includes two elements: personal safety and safety for children. Ethnic minorities have little awareness of the recreation opportunities available, and better information is needed. Ethnic minorities are interested in outdoor recreation, but their extent and type of participation are related to the degree of acculturation.

Citation: Burns, R. C., Covelli, E., Graefe, A. (2008). Outdoor recreation and nontraditional users: results of focus group interviews with racial and ethnic minorities. In Chavez, D. J., Winter, P. L., & Absher, J. D. (Eds.), Recreation visitor research: studies of diversity (pp. 12-137). (Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-210). U.S. Forest Service.


Public attitudes toward wildlife are changing: A trend analysis of New York residents

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Additional Link: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3784448

This study combines data from 17 archived surveys conducted by Cornell University during 1984-1996, which containing a standard scale to measure wildlife attitudes and values. It sought to examine (1) What are the trends in wildlife attitudes and values held by New York State residents? (2) How are differences in attitudes related to a variety of variables that have been important in research, including age, sex, stakeholder type (hunter, landowner, general outdoor recreationist), and rural/nonrural residence? Attitudes about wildlife reflect four broad themes. The "social benefits" theme is characterized by responses to items about the appreciation and existence of wildlife. The "communication benefits" theme focuses on observing and talking about wildlife. The "problem tolerance" theme clusters around items concerning risks associated with human-wildlife interaction. The "traditional conservation" theme includes items involving management for sustainable use. Analysis indicated declining problem tolerance in New York, regardless of stakeholder group. Traditional conservation attitudes have gained proponents among men. Communication attitudes have been consistently high in New York, although there is evidence of a growing division of rural and nonrural residents' agreement that communication is important. This research suggests the need for re-evaluation of the hypothesis that wildlife attitudes are evolving toward a more protectionist view. Future research should continue to examine trends in attitudes toward wildlife as well as ask the question: What are the reasons behind any measured changes in attitude dimensions?

Citation: Butler, J. S., Shanahan, J., & Decker, D. J. (2003). Public attitudes toward wildlife are changing: A trend analysis of New York residents. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 31(4), 1027-1036.


Gardens and birdwatching: recreation, environmental management and human-nature interaction in an everyday location

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Additional Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4762.2011.00992.x

This British study explored how a popular leisure activity (birdwatching) occurs in an everyday locality (gardens) as a way of illustrating how relationships between human activity and non-human presence combine to modify and shape environments. The study used 32 semi-structured interviews of birdwatcher, which successfully captured the complex variety of interactions and relationships between humans, birds and gardens. Data were analyzed using the grounded theory constant comparison method. This was part of a larger study of the interactions between local places and birdwatching. Respondents revealed a wide and disparate spectrum of responses to their gardens and to how they made use of their gardens in their normal birdwatching activities. Fifty-five per cent of the respondents had manipulated their gardens for birds. This study supports the argument that the relationship between humans and landscape needs to be understood as experiential, involving the subjectivities of people. As first-hand contact with nature can be a powerful stimulus to the development of environmental attitudes and relationships, it might be expected that garden birds provide an appeal to, and engagement with, nature that is immediate, familiar and frequent. Gardens provide humans with contact with those elements of nature that are tolerant of, or oblivious to, human influence.

Citation: Cammack, P. J., Convery, I., & Prince, H. (2011). Gardens and birdwatching: recreation, environmental management and human-nature interaction in an everyday location. Area, 43(3), 314-319.


Connecting Latinos with nature

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Additional Link: http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/40627

This study of Latino recreationists at Forest Service day use sites in two canyons in southern California examined perceptions about the importance of particular ecosystem services and the availability of natural areas to provide these ecosystem services. A self-administered survey was provided, which measured cultural and regulating components of ecosystem services. These Latino respondents strongly agreed with the importance of managing natural areas for several of the cultural services items and almost all of the regulating services items. In order of importance, they felt it was most important to manage natural areas for regulating services such as protection of water quality, protection of wildlife, improved air quality, and protection of plants, as well as cultural services such as swimming, visitor safety, camping, day hiking, picnicking at developed sites, scenic values, stream play, and watching wildlife. The Latino respondents also felt that more areas needed to be set aside for particular regulating and cultural services. It is important to understand both public perceptions about the importance of particular ecosystem services and the availability of natural areas to provide these ecosystem services. Managers of these natural areas in southern California might want to consider communication and educational programs focusing on describing the benefits to Latinos from natural areas.

Citation: Chavez, D. J. (2008). Connecting Latinos with nature. In Chavez, D. J., Winter, P. L., & Absher, J. D. (Eds.), Recreation visitor research: studies of diversity (pp. 157-162). (Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-210). U.S. Forest Service.


Opinions of Latino outdoor recreation visitors at four urban national forests

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Additional Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1466046609990317

This article reports participation, preference, and perception results from day-use visitor contact surveys conducted on four urban national forests in Southern California between 2001 and 2004, with a focus on areas where Latinos recreate. Researchers found significant differences in racial and ethnic group use across the forests. The data indicate many similarities among the Latino visitors. There were commonalities in participation in outdoor recreation activities, the relative importance of site attributes, and perceptions reported about their recreation experiences. At all four areas, picnic/barbecues and stream playing were among the activities usually engaged in. Activities usually engaged in at the areas were development dependent (picnicking/barbecuing, camping, and off-highway vehicle riding), natural area dependent (watching wildlife and driving for pleasure), or water dependent (stream play and fishing). Managers of urban-proximate day-use sites can better manage with detailed specific information about participation patterns, site preferences, and visitor perceptions. The results suggest that management decisions about serving these groups consider the range of activity options identified, that there is a consistent desire for facilities and amenities, and that the Latino visitors are likely to continue to recreate in these places and will tell others about it, probably leading to increased use by these respondent groups in the future.

Citation: Chavez, D. J., & Olson, D. D. (2009). Opinions of Latino outdoor recreation visitors at four urban national forests. Environmental Practice, 11(4), 263-269.


Trail use among Latinos: Recognizing diverse uses among a specific population

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Additional Link: http://js.sagamorepub.com/jpra/article/view/1334

The goal of this study in Chicago’s Lincoln Park was to gain a greater understanding of how Latinos use trail spaces in order to provide a foundation for working with Latinos to increase active use of trails and greenways. On-site surveys examined Latinos’ visitation, trail use, motivations, factors that detract from their experience, and the importance they place on particular trail characteristics in facilitating leisure time physical activity. These survey results indicate that some of the most popular activities along the trail included sitting/relaxing/resting as well as talking/socializing, while the most popular physical activity was walking. Fishing and bird/animal watching were less important. Latinos born outside the United States were more likely to birdwatch, wildlife watch, and feed animals along the trail. The most important reasons reported for visiting the trail were being with friends and family, spending time outdoors, and reducing stress. The area surrounding the trail served as a cultural stage on which Latinos were able to reenact the plazas and markets of their homelands. This study illustrates the need for a fusion of park design and management with the cultural preferences and expectations of user groups.

Citation: Cronan, M. K., Shinew, K. J., & Stodolska, M. (2008). Trail use among Latinos: Recognizing diverse uses among a specific population. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 26(1), 62-86.


Similarities and differences in the outdoor recreation participation of racial/ethnic groups: An example from Illinois

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Additional Link: http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/12068/

This paper suggests a more comprehensive approach to researching recreation participation of racial/ethnic groups, which focuses on similarities as well as differences between groups along several dimensions of participation. Secondary analysis was performed on data from random phone interviews with statewide Illinois residents conducted in 1987, 1989, 1991, and 1996. Analysis looked at participation rates while taking into account age, residence, household income, gender and household size. When outdoor recreation activities were ranked in order of percent participating within each racial/ethnic group, the rankings were similar across groups. Pleasure walking, pleasure driving, and picnicking were ranked in the top three in all but the "other" category. Results are also given for fishing, hunting and trapping. When racial/ethnic groups are compared in terms of the average days of participation by activity participants, differences between groups are often much smaller than what was observed with activity participation rates. Researchers and managers should look beyond simple comparisons of activity rates to (1) the ranking of activities by percent of the group participating, (2) the average number of activities engaged in by members of the group, and (3) percent of the group that does not participate in any of the activities.

Citation: Dwyer, J. F. (2000). Similarities and differences in the outdoor recreation participation of racial/ethnic groups: An example from Illinois. In Kyle, G. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 1999 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium (pp. 98-105). (Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-269). U.S. Forest Service.


Urban perceptions of national forests: Three examples from the northern United States

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Additional Link: http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/12225

This study’s objective was to determine perceptions by the residents of the Boston, Detroit, and Minneapolis Metropolitan areas in regards to the management and use of proximate National Forests. This study is an initial effort under the "Urban Connections" project. Telephone interviews were utilized. The results suggest that respondents have an image of National Forests as places that are personally important to them and highly valued as natural environments. Respondents reported that they make a significant number of visits to the nearby National Forests. They placed a high priority on the natural attributes of the National Forests and want the Forest Service to engage in management activities that protect, preserve, restore, and maintain these attributes and the areas that support them. They placed a lower priority on the use of the National Forests for outdoor recreation (particularly consumptive recreation like fishing and hunting), mining, logging, and providing access and facilities for users. There is ample room for outreach efforts such as the Urban Connections program. These efforts can build on the high level of personal significance that individuals place on the National Forests. In future research studies, perhaps focus group discussions and studies using conjoint analysis can deepen our understanding of people/NationaI Forest interactions and provide improved guidance for building urban connections. All findings were relatively uniform across the three Metropolitan Areas, suggesting the possibility of comparable findings in similar metropolitan areas of the Eastern Region.

Citation: Dwyer, J. F. (2003). Urban perceptions of national forests: Three examples from the northern United States. In Schuster, R. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2002 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium (pp. 159-162). (Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-302). U.S. Forest Service.


Linkages in the use of recreation environments across the urban to ex-urban spectrum by urban residents

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Additional Link: http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/17375

This study sought to identify the patterns of use across twenty recreation sites in the Chicago area and assess how site use varied by a variety of demographic characteristics. A random digit dialing phone survey was used to ask about participation in different activities, preferences for site attributes and levels of naturalness, and visits to recreation areas outside Illinois. Five site factors were revealed that varied in the type of experiences provided, level of naturalness, and proximity to Chicago. Analysis of use over the 20 sites suggests complex patterns that include clusters of sites according to location and similar experiences provided. Particular sites tend to have unique market areas and customer profiles. To provide a broad spectrum of urban residents with opportunities for outdoor recreation, as well as experiences and information on the management and use of natural resources, it is likely to take an effort that focuses on a fairly wide range of urban sites. Important questions about how to best design and operate an outreach effort across a number of urban sites include (1) the effectiveness of the various diverse sites in providing key messages to visitors, (2) how the various messages at each site can be coordinated in an effective matter to achieve synergism, and (3) how to best encourage individuals to visit a larger range of sites.

Citation: Dwyer, J. F., & Barro, S. C. (2002). Linkages in the use of recreation environments across the urban to ex-urban spectrum by urban residents. In: Todd, S. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2001 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium (pp. 202-207). (Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-289). U.S. Forest Service.


Trends in participation rates for wildlife-associated outdoor recreation activities by age and race/ethnicity: Implications for cohort-component projection models

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Additional Link: http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/17188

This study uses secondary data provided by the National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation. It looks at nationwide trends in activity participation rates by age and race/ethnicity and explores their implications for projections made by cohort-component projection models. Data on hunting, fishing, and observing wildlife around the home were analyzed from 1980, 1985, and 1990. The results show that participation rates by age and racial/ethnic background for hunting, fishing, and wildlife observation around the home do change over time, and the changes can have implications for the projections made by cohort-component projection models. These results suggest that forces for change in participation rates in an activity appear to be operating similarly across age and race/ethnicity. Examining trends in activity participation rates by age and race/ethnicity over the 10 year time span, researchers did not see evidence of participation rates becoming more similar across racial/ethnic groups or that older individuals are beginning to behave more like their younger counterparts. Further testing for changes in the relative patterns across racial/ethnic groups will require data for additional years and the inclusion of additional explanatory variables in the models for predicting the number of participants. In the meantime it may be useful to monitor changes in participation rates over time and explore their implications for future participation.

Citation: Dwyer, J. F., & Marsinko, A. (1998). Trends in participation rates for wildlife-associated outdoor recreation activities by age and race/ethnicity: Implications for cohort-component projection models. In Vogelsong, H. G. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 1997 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium (pp. 252-256). (Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-241). U.S. Forest Service.


Outdoor recreation behaviors and preferences of urban racial/ethnic groups: An example from the Chicago area

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Additional Link: http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/12482

This study sought to study outdoor recreation behaviors and preferences of Non-Hispanic White Americans, African Americans and Hispanic Americans in Cooke County, Illinois. Respondents were contacted in a phone survey using random digit dialing and a quota for each ethnic group. Question topics included participation in recreation activities, importance of site attributes, level of naturalness, importance of outdoor recreation, and site of outdoor recreation. Respondents were sampled from general population, rather than focusing on neighborhoods where specific ethnicities predominated. 618 Whites (non-Hispanic), 647 African Americans, 346 Hispanic Americans responded to the survey. There were significant differences among the samples for the three racial/ethnic groups in the following demographic characteristics: age, gender, location of residence, education, income and household size. Simple comparisons were made across groups for participation in 43 diverse outdoor activities and use of 20 diverse places. All groups reported that outdoor recreation was important to them. Urban racial/ethnic groups' recreation preferences and behaviors are complex and diverse. This should inform the development of policies, programs, and plans for providing important outdoor recreation opportunities for urban populations; as well as future research. Care should be taken to avoid stereotyping particular groups or using simple explanations of their outdoor recreation behavior.

Citation: Dwyer, J. F., & Barro, S. C. (2001). Outdoor recreation behaviors and preferences of urban racial/ethnic groups: An example from the Chicago area. In Gerard, K. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2000 Northeastern recreation research symposium (pp. 159-164). (Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-276). U.S. Forest Service.


Urban park and forest participation and landscape preference: A comparison between blacks and whites in Philadelphia and Atlanta

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Additional Link: http://joa.isa-arbor.com/request.asp?JournalID=1&ArticleID=215&Type=2

The study objective was to explore inter-ethnic differences in the use of, preference for, and attitudes about metropolitan parks, with the goal of providing information to urban foresters and arborists to better manage and maintain parks and landscapes used by multiple racial groups. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to samples of residents in the metropolitan areas of Atlanta, Georgia; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Differences between Blacks and Whites were assessed in their frequency of park visitation, perceived benefit to their communities, types of activities (solitary or group), preferences in park landscapes and facilities, and expressed willingness to participate in park maintenance. Blacks visited parks slightly less frequently than Whites in the same areas. Blacks were slightly less likely than Whites to perceive benefits from urban parks and forests. Most respondents of both races agreed that parks improved overall health, social well-being, environmental quality, and spiritual well-being. Other differences and similarities are reported. Successful urban park and forest management is not just a matter of cultural assimilation and acculturation. It is vital for urban foresters and arborists to understand and respond to differences in participation and the expectations of diverse users. Furthermore, urban foresters and arborists should be aware of and consider African Americans’ spirit of volunteerism. The negative impacts of discrimination should be understood and avoided in management and maintenance and discrimination should be distinguished as an explanatory variable.

Citation: Elmendorf, W. F., Willits, F. K., Sasidharan, V., & Godbey, G. (2005). Urban park and forest participation and landscape preference: A comparison between blacks and whites in Philadelphia and Atlanta, U.S. Journal of Arboriculture, 31(6), 318-326.


Urban park and forest participation and landscape preference: A review of the relevant literature

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Additional Link: http://joa.isa-arbor.com/request.asp?JournalID=1&ArticleID=214&Type=2

This paper is a non-systematic review and discussion of relevant literature related to urban parks and forest participation and landscape preference. Findings show that race continues to be an important factor. African Americans, more than Whites, prefer developed facilities and services; and Whites more likely than Blacks prefer undeveloped and more nature-based settings. It is reasonable to assume that racial discrimination can exist in the landscapes of urban parks and forests and affect decision making and participation. Discrimination should be distinguished as an explanatory variable in research examining urban park and forest participation and landscape preference. The author discusses a number of theoretical explanations historically used to account for racial variation in urban park and forest participation and landscape preference. These alternatives include marginality, ethnicity or subcultural variation, and discrimination. If urban foresters, arborists, and others involved in public landscape management and maintenance are to make urban parks and forests more open, appealing, and safe to all users, they need to understand the realities of the differences among constituent groups and consider them in their planning, management, and maintenance strategies.

Citation: Elmendorf, W. F., Willits, F. K., & Sasidharan, V. (2005). Urban park and forest participation and landscape preference: A review of the relevant literature. Journal of Arboriculture, 31(6), 311-317.


Dropping out and dropping in: A study of factors for changing recreational fishing participation

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Additional Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1577/1548-8675(2001)021%3C0283:DOADIA%3E2.0.CO;2

This study used two statewide mail surveys five years apart to observe a group of Texas anglers. It sought to understand the factors associated with continued participation and nonparticipation in recreational fishing. Participation patterns did not vary by race, household size and composition, and marital status. Women comprised a larger percentage of recent dropouts and inactive anglers. Results showed that nearly 25% of the anglers in a particular year will become inactive within 1 or 2 years. “A lack of time" was cited as the most common constraint and the most important reason for quitting fishing. Agencies can develop fishing opportunities close to where people live and actively promote a variety of benefits-based fishing products to maintain a higher public awareness of recreational fishing. Outreach efforts should go beyond traditional clinics and printed materials to recognize the different educational needs of angler groups based on their level of involvement with recreational fishing. Partnering with these other recreation groups can yield important benefits such as cost sharing, program planning and execution, and marketing. Management agencies need staff with full-time marketing capabilities for identifying and prioritizing angler segments and targeting effective messages. Additional studies need to be completed in other states.

Citation: Fedler, A. J., & Ditton, R. B. (2001). Dropping out and dropping in: A study of factors for changing recreational fishing participation. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 21(2), 283-292.


Fish consumption risk perception among anglers in an industrial urban area

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Additional Link: http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/35625

This project was designed to collect basic information through semi-structured field interviews with 170 Calumet anglers about whether they were eating their catch and what they thought about the potential health risks of eating fish from industrial waters. Supplemental interviews were conducted with people like bait shop owners, local fish fry attendees, and conservation officers. There was widespread uncertainty about how people can know what is safe or unsafe to eat. Blacks were the most likely to have eaten fish from Calumet waters, followed by Hispanics and then Whites. Official guidebooks or advisories are not reliable for distributing important fish consumption information. Outreach efforts might want to target non-angling groups like church social clubs or block groups. It may be effective to convey key information to Calumet anglers in person as often as possible. A “Master Anglers” program could produce local citizen experts to disseminate information to others. People in law enforcement roles should work on building relationships and credibility with anglers before attempting to do informational outreach. Additional suggestions for reaching out to Calumet anglers include focusing on the biggest known risks and targeting the most at-risk populations. Written and verbal communication need to be in multiple languages and need to be sensitive to cultural issues.

Citation: Fisher, C. L., Westphal, L. M., & Longoni, M. (2010). Fish consumption risk perception among anglers in an industrial urban area. In Proceedings of the 2009 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium (pp. 48-56). (Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-66). U.S. Forest Service.


Social stratification in recreational fishing participation: Research and policy implications

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Additional Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01490400600745860

Using the multiple stratification hierarchy perspective, this study used a telephone survey of 3,000 Texas residents to examine the combined effects of age, race and ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status on recreational fishing. Gender, race/ethnicity, and age were the most consistent predictors across the three dependent variables. Gender and age exhibited a negative effect on fishing participation across the three models. Results for race/ethnicity were mixed. An analysis of predicted probabilities did not reveal strong evidence of a multiple stratification hierarchy in recreational fishing. The findings suggest that initial exposure to fishing, rather than continuing participation, is most impacted by a combination of stratification factors. Four policy implications are: (1) Programs that introduce women and girls to fishing or provide opportunities for women and girls to continue participation should continue to receive financial and other forms of support. (2) Efforts to introduce fishing to Latinos and African Americans should focus on intrapersonal (e.g., increasing knowledge and familiarity) and interpersonal (e.g., providing partners or peer-groups) constraints to provide satisfying and comfortable first and early experiences. (3) Fishing opportunities should be promoted to a wide range of socioeconomic status groups. (4) Recruitment of new anglers requires focused understanding of how different sources of inequality work simultaneously to inhibit participation.

Citation: Floyd, M. F., Nicholas, L., Lee, I., Lee, J.-H., & Scott, D. (2006). Social stratification in recreational fishing participation: Research and policy implications. Leisure Sciences, 28(4), 351-368.


Who buys fishing and hunting licenses in Texas? Results from a statewide household survey

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Additional Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10871200290089364

A statewide household telephone survey of Texas residents was conducted to examine the extent of current fishing and hunting license purchases and identify socioeconomic and demographic factors that influence license purchases among Texas residents. The analysis measures fishing and hunting participation, fishing and hunting license purchases, and selected socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. About one-third (30.3%) of the sample purchased some type of fishing license; 18.5% held a hunting license. Gender and race were the most consistent predictors of license purchases. Hispanic respondents and African-Americans were significantly less likely to have purchased any type of fishing and hunting license. It is important that program developers consider potential differences in how different ethnic or gender groups relate to fishing and hunting activities and the outdoors in general. This study suggests the need for strategies to encourage participation among women and ethnic minorities. Also, although fishing can and does occur without a license, in fiscal terms, the act of participation and purchasing a license is the most highly desirable result, especially considering funding to states by Sport Fish Restoration and Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration programs.

Citation: Floyd, M. F., & Lee, I. (2002). Who buys fishing and hunting licenses in Texas? Results from a statewide household survey. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 7(2), 91-106.


Trend analysis of wildlife recreation participation: A cross-regional comparison

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Additional Link: http://www.sbaer.uca.edu/research/acme/2008/p68.pdf

The purpose of this study is to identify the determinants of sport hunting and nonconsumptive recreation, and to analyze whether these determinants are constant over time and across regions. The study used data for Pennsylvania and Texas from the 1991 and 2001 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation. This study uses a series of logistic regression models to estimate the joint decision patterns regarding wildlife recreation participation. The results clearly show that while strong interrelationships exist between participation in consumptive and nonconsumptive wildlife recreation and that these activities are complementary, these patterns are not constant across regions and time. State of residence is a major factor influencing hunting participation but not nonconsumptive recreation. Income levels and residence in a metropolitan area were primary predictors for participation in nonconsumptive recreation in 1990 but not in 2000. Policy actions which affect wildlife resources may not only impact the specific activity targeted by the action, but also any complementary activities. In short, different approaches may be necessary for the various regions of the United States and continuing research is warranted to monitor these trends.

Citation: Ford, J. (2008). Trend analysis of wildlife recreation participation: A cross-regional comparison. In Fountain, P. D. (Ed.), Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association of Collegiate Marketing Educators (2008), Oklahoma City, OK. 417-425.


Managing urban parks for a racially and ethnically diverse clientele

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Additional Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01490400252900121

Study objectives were to: (1) develop an on-site sampling design and interview procedure to survey racial and ethnic minority park users; (2) identify park users’ patterns, activities, preferences, and perceptions of safety, and compare these findings across racial and ethnic groups; and, (3) identify minority-specific information about preferences for particular locations within the park, incidents of racial discrimination, and ethnicity. On-site surveys of 898 users of Lincoln Park were initiated in 1990. Park users shared a core set of interests, preferences, and concerns about the park and its management. But there were also some important differences among and within racial and ethnic groups with respect to park use patterns, participation, and reports of racial discrimination. Asians were more active in fishing. Park managers should investigate the quantity and quality of facilities, services, programs, and staff throughout the park, paying particular attention to areas that serve minority clientele. Many suggestions are offered on the topics of: access and park use, participation and preferences, social action and interaction, discrimination, and ethnicity. Qualitative, ethnographic methods may be the logical way to explore in depth the meaning and values that leisure experiences have for different cultural groups.

Citation: Gobster, P. H. (2002). Managing urban parks for a racially and ethnically diverse clientele. Leisure Sciences, 24(2), 143-159.


Outdoor recreation in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska: Trends in activity participation

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Additional Link: http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/32762

This literature review synthesizes the state of knowledge about outdoor recreation uses and trends in Oregon, Washington, and Alaska, but with a nationwide consideration. The intended audience is national forest recreation planners and managers. Topics are covered such as participation rates in various activities, known relations between sociodemographic factors and participation, and trends in the region’s population that are likely to influence future demand for recreation. The focus, however, is limited to outdoor recreational activities that occur on public lands. The information comes from various national and regional studies and includes government-sponsored and private market research. A great many findings are summarized. Wildife-related recreation trends are explicity reviewed (pp. 29-33). This publication identifies several important themes: (1) Authors were favorably impressed with the rigor of the research methods employed. (2) Authors found many large differences in the estimates of activity participation among the Statewide Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan (SCORP) studies, market survey data, and the National Survey of Recreation and the Environment (NSRE). (3) Few sources reviewed made concrete projections about the magnitude of anticipated changes for outdoor recreation activities. The best recommendation may be to monitor recreation activity closely, and carefully consider each activity independently of the others.

Citation: Hall, T. E., Heaton, H. & Kruger, L. E. (2009). Outdoor recreation in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska: Trends in activity participation. (Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-778). Portland, OR: U.S. Forest Service. 108 p.


Gender and ethnic variations in urban park preferences, visitation, and perceived benefits

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Additional Link: http://js.sagamorepub.com/jlr/article/view/536

The purpose of this paper was to examine how gender and ethnicity, separately and in combination, are associated with: 1) the attributes or characteristics of parks that are seen as most desirable or important; 2) the frequency and types of park visitation that occur, and 3) the perceived benefits of parks for residents and their communities. Questionnaires were mailed to samples of households in Atlanta, GA and Philadelphia, PA. There were five target ethnic groups (African-American, Hispanic, Chinese-American, Japanese-American, and Korean-American) as well as random "resident" households. Although women were more likely than men to evaluate some park characteristics as "important," there were no significant gender differences/ variation in the types of visits or the perceived benefits of parks. There was significant ethnic variation in preferred park attributes, frequency and type of visits, and perceptions of the positive and negative effects of parks. However, the effects of ethnicity were not found to differ for men and women. Ethnic differences in the importance and "support" given to urban parks and open spaces may mean park and recreation professionals need to muster support for their services in different ways and to different degrees based upon the ethnic characteristics of potential users.

Citation: Ho, C.-h., Sasidharan, V., Elmendorf, W., Willits, F. K., Graefe, A., & Godbey, G. (2005). Gender and ethnic variations in urban park preferences, visitation, and perceived benefits. Journal of Leisure Research, 37(3), 281-306.


Barriers to participation for Latino people at Dodge Nature Center

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Additional Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.3200/JOEE.37.4.33-44

The authors sought to identify barriers to participation for Latino people at Dodge Nature Center (DNC) in West St. Paul, MN. They used a multi-method approach, which included collecting demographic information, surveying the DNC staff, and semi-structured interviews with 15 Latino community leaders and parents from the Early Childhood Family Education (ECFE) Program. All parents were women, and all but one spoke only Spanish. They employed social field theory to examine and explain the factors influencing Latino participation at DNC. Interviews with Latino community members identified four major factors influencing the participation of Latino people at DNC: (a) familiarity of Latino people with DNC, (b) general atmosphere at DNC, (c) language in which DNC programs are delivered, and (d) cost of DNC programs. The researchers gave three major suggestions to the DNC Board of Directors: (a) increase outreach to Latino community members, (b) offer programs and materials in Spanish, and (c) provide financial assistance for low-income families.

Citation: Hong, A., & Anderson, D. H. (2006). Barriers to participation for Latino people at Dodge Nature Center. The Journal of Environmental Education, 37(4), 33-44.


Perceived benefits of recreational fishing to Hispanic-American and Anglo anglers

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Additional Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/108712001753461266

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether Hispanic-Americans who have negotiated many of the structural and interpersonal constraints of participating in recreational fishing (as evident by their purchase of a fishing license) exhibit differences from Anglo licensed anglers on five constructs related to the perceived benefits of recreational fishing: escaping individual stressors, the importance of others, being in a natural environment, interacting with fish, and achievement. This study used secondary data analysis of four Texas statewide angler surveys conducted from 1989–1997. The study focused on males only because of insufficient sample size for female Hispanic anglers. Anglos placed significantly greater importance on escaping individual stressors and being in a natural environment. Hispanic-American males placed greater importance on achievement, defined here in terms of the competence testing aspects of fishing. No statistical difference was found on the importance of interacting with fish. Ethnicity accounted for 0.5 to 4% of the variance in scores. Although statistically significant and meaningful from a theoretical standpoint, many of these differences may not be observable or seen as meaningful by practitioners. Decision makers must decide what percentage difference in perceived benefits is meaningful enough to warrant new management strategies that provide for the benefits sought by various groups.

Citation: Hunt, K. M., & Ditton, R. B. (2001). Perceived benefits of recreational fishing to Hispanic-American and Anglo anglers. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 6(3), 153-172.


Freshwater fishing participation patterns of racial and ethnic groups in Texas

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Additional Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1577/1548-8675(2002)022%3C0052:FFPPOR%3E2.0.CO;2

The goal of this paper was to understand differences in the recreational fishing behavior of African-American, Mexican-American, and Anglo anglers in Texas. Secondary analysis was performed using data obtained from four independent statewide angler surveys. Results indicated significant differences among racial and ethnic groups for 10 participation variables. Anglo males were more likely than all other racial and gender groups to participate in licensed recreational fishing. Additionally, Anglo males were more likely than African-American or Mexican-American males to have started fishing at an earlier age, to have more years of fishing experience, to live in a household with a powerboat, to fish more days from a boat, to belong to a fishing club or organization, to fish in tournaments, and to have less varied species preferences. Differences in terms of with whom minority anglers fished most often were significant in two studies. Whereas all groups fished most often in groups consisting of family and friends, African-American males fished alone to a greater extent than anticipated. Given present evidence of segregated communities, fisheries programs and services should direct efforts not only to large, urban areas in general, but specifically to non-Anglo communities there. Managers should focus on the species preferences and styles of participation appropriate for different cultural groups.

Citation: Hunt, K. M., & Ditton, R. B. (2002). Freshwater fishing participation patterns of racial and ethnic groups in Texas. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 22(1), 52-65.


African-American and Anglo anglers' attitudes toward the catch-related aspects of fishing

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Additional Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10871200701442825

This study sought to determine differences between African Americans and Anglos with respect to importance attached to four constructs related to the catch-related aspects of recreational fishing: catching something, catching a lot of fish, catching large fish, and retaining fish. This research relied on secondary data obtained from four independent statewide surveys of licensed anglers conducted in Texas between 1991 and 1999. Angler’s race served as the independent variable. African Americans had stronger attitudes toward catching large numbers of fish, catching large fish, and retaining the fish they catch than Anglos. African Americans and Anglos did not differ on the catching something construct. Results supported subcultural theory explaining differences in attitudes between race and ethnic groups. Group differences were useful for better understanding consumptive behavior and environmental justice. Fisheries management involves more than simply providing opportunities for nontraditional clientele and must involve more than a marginality perspective. Because group preferences for catch differ, species preferences and experience preferences deserve attention in future research studies. Where contamination risks and African-American populations coincide, fishery managers and public health agencies should consider ethnic differences in consumption patterns.

Citation: Hunt, K. M., Floyd, M. F., & Ditton, R. B. (2007). African-American and Anglo anglers' attitudes toward the catch-related aspects of fishing. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 12(4), 227-239.


Arkansas urban resident fishing site preferences, catch related attitudes, and satisfaction

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Additional Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10871200903443316

This study used mail questionnaires to develop profiles of licensed anglers living within urban areas located throughout the state of Arkansas. The objectives were to: (a) identify and profile the angling behavior and demographics of licensed anglers residing in Arkansas urban communities with urban fishing programs and (b) categorize anglers based on the percentage of their fishing trips spent on urban waters to compare their angling behavior, preferences, satisfaction, and demographics. The study population consisted of Arkansas residents that purchased a state-wide fishing license in 2007, and lived within five urban communities. Anglers that predominately fished urban waters were 34% more likely to be non-white than anglers that fished rural waters exclusively. Urban anglers placed greater importance on catch, on-site amenities, while rural anglers placed greater importance on the scenic beauty of a site and the ability to escape the trappings of the urban environment. Urban fisheries managers should concentrate on three key areas for success in targeting potential anglers in urban environments: (a) Maintain high catch rates; (b) Coordinate with local park managers and law enforcement to provide a clean and safe environment; (c) Promote rural angling opportunities that are close to urban centers, but in a more rural setting.

Citation: Hutt, C. P., & Neal, J. W. (2010). Arkansas urban resident fishing site preferences, catch related attitudes, and satisfaction. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 15(2), 90-105.


Acculturation via nature-based outdoor recreation: A comparison of Mexican and Chinese ethnic groups in the United States

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Additional Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1466046605050398

This research considers acculturation by Mexican and Chinese groups in the United States and how participation in five nature-based outdoor recreation activities may be an indicator of acculturation to American society. Data for this study are from the 2000 National Survey on Recreation and the Environment (NSRE), which is a random-digit-dial telephone survey of more than 80,000 households nationally. The selected activities were birding, developed camping, primitive camping, hiking, and mountain biking. Results show Chinese immigrant participation is distinguished only slightly from Mexican immigrant participation; no differences were found between US-born Chinese and US-born Mexicans. Within-group comparisons show immigrant Chinese participation to be more aligned with US-born Chinese participation than immigrant Mexican participation to US-born Mexican participation. Environmental professionals should be aware of the different ways nature may be perceived by various cultural groups and the important role natural resources can play in acculturating immigrants to US society. Managers need to be aware of barriers encountered by non-traditional groups that may not exist for traditional participants. They should use multi-lingual signs. Where practical, resource agencies could help to ensure that public transportation routes are established from ethnic communities to resource areas. Managers should be cognizant of the different recreation styles of various groups and the need to design recreation facilities to accommodate varying group sizes.

Citation: Johnson, C. Y., Bowker, J. M. & Cordell, H. K. (2005). Acculturation via nature-based outdoor recreation: A comparison of Mexican and Chinese ethnic groups in the United States. Environmental Practice, 7(4), 257-272.


On-site wildland activity choices among African Americans and white Americans in the rural south: Implications for management

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Additional Link: http://js.sagamorepub.com/jpra/article/view/1647

This study used mail questionnaires of 286 households to compare wildland activity choices for rural African Americans and Whites who visited wildland settings in and around the Apalachicola National Forest. Intra-racial (same race, different gender) variations for activity participation was also examined. The results show no racial differences for consumptive activities like fishing and hunting; however, African Americans are significantly less likely than Whites to participate in most forms of nonconsumptive activities like camping and hiking. Greater gender differences in activity participation were found for Whites than for African Americans. With a better understanding of the activities preferred by currently underrepresented groups, managers can redirect resources to specific recreation opportunities or site attributes for targeted groups. Many specific suggestions are made, such as emphasizing that the forest provides opportunities for group-related activities for social and civic clubs and religious groups. Managers could also stress that safety is a management priority and perhaps make uniformed enforcement personnel more visible.

Citation: Johnson, C. Y., & Bowker, J. M. (1999). On-site wildland activity choices among African Americans and white Americans in the rural south: Implications for management. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 17(1), 21-39.


On-site wildland activity choices among African Americans and white Americans in the rural south: Implications for management

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Additional Link: http://js.sagamorepub.com/jpra/article/view/1647

This study used mail questionnaires of 286 households to compare wildland activity choices for rural African Americans and Whites who visited wildland settings in and around the Apalachicola National Forest. Intra-racial (same race, different gender) variations for activity participation was also examined. The results show no racial differences for consumptive activities like fishing and hunting; however, African Americans are significantly less likely than Whites to participate in most forms of nonconsumptive activities like camping and hiking. Greater gender differences in activity participation were found for Whites than for African Americans. With a better understanding of the activities preferred by currently underrepresented groups, managers can redirect resources to specific recreation opportunities or site attributes for targeted groups. Many specific suggestions are made, such as emphasizing that the forest provides opportunities for group-related activities for social and civic clubs and religious groups. Managers could also stress that safety is a management priority and perhaps make uniformed enforcement personnel more visible.

Citation: Johnson, C. Y., & Bowker, J. M. (1999). On-site wildland activity choices among African Americans and white Americans in the rural south: Implications for management. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 17(1), 21-39.


A discriminant analysis of social and psychological factors influencing fishing participation

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Additional Link: http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/22320

This study identifies the social and psychological factors that influenced fishing participation for a sample of 1,050 Lake Ontario licensed anglers in New York State. A mail survey was used that included questions on angler demographics, levels of fishing participation, and the social and psychological concepts influencing angler participation. The analysis of demographic variables indicates that the sample is largely representative of married Caucasian anglers residing in rural areas and small cities. Elements identified as strongly influencing fishing participation for both males and females were opportunity, perceived ability, and fishing-related customs during childhood; affiliation, opportunity, and commitment during adolescence; and affiliation and commitment during adulthood. Managers must consider how people are socialized into fishing at each life stage, and have specific strategies for each life stage. They can make fishing equipment available to children through fishing equipment loaner programs at parks, campgrounds, and other areas frequented by children. Skill development could also be enhanced through the inclusion of outdoor/fishing skill development courses in school curriculums, and by including or enhancing fishing skill development activities in youth organizations. Holding fishing activities that encourage social interaction such as family festivals that include fishing events can help increase participation.

Citation: Kuehn, D. (2006). A discriminant analysis of social and psychological factors influencing fishing participation. In Proceedings of the 2005 northeastern recreation research symposium (pp. 410-419). (Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-341). U.S. Forest Service.


Factors that influence sales of wildlife-related specialty license plates

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Additional Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10871200802562380

Data was analyzed for 39 states to identify factors that influence sales of wildlife-related specialty license plates. Sales were not statistically influenced by specialty plate price, the number of other specialty plates available, or the requirement to display two plates. There was some evidence that sales are positively related to income. In addition, sales appeared to be influenced positively by the percent of individuals who engage in wildlife-related recreation. Strong ethnicity impacts on sales of wildlife plates were not observed, but researchers did find consistent evidence that sales were related negatively to the percentage of the population in the 18–24 age range. There was evidence that sales of wildlife plates are significantly higher in the South than elsewhere in the United States. Wildlife conservation groups likely could enhance the flow of revenues to their organizations by finding the political skill to raise their plate price. Consumers simply are not buying wildlife-related license plates based on price considerations.

Citation: Laband, D. N., Pandit, R., & Sophocleus, J. P. (2009). Factors that influence sales of wildlife-related specialty license plates. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 14(1), 61-70.


Children's time outdoors: Results and implications of the national kids survey

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Additional Link: http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/39414

The purpose of this study was to study to establish a baseline for detecting trends in children's activities and time spent outdoors by using a random digit dialing nationwide telephone survey. Participants or their guardians were asked about a variety of topics including time children spend outdoors, common outdoor activities, and reasons for not spending time outdoors. Results show that most children spent at least two hours outdoors daily, contrary to popular belief. Playing or simply hanging out was the most common outdoor activity. Outdoor, nature-based activities such as bird watching and wildlife viewing (30.7%) or hiking, camping, and fishing (29.0%) were not as common, but were more common among White and Hispanic children than African American children. The most common reasons for not spending time outside were interest in other activities such as listening to music, art, or reading. Children’s outdoor time was strongly correlated with the amount of time their parents/guardians were spending outdoors. The nature of children’s outdoor time may be changing. Park and recreation professionals may need to embrace the expanding role of technology. Park managers could also cultivate relationships with local schools. Managers could specifically target teens through outdoor recreation programming that emphasizes peer interactions. Efforts to provide and maintain athletic courts and fields and tournaments for kids could especially benefit minority children.

Citation: Larson, L. R., Green, G. T., & Cordell, H. K. (2011). Children's time outdoors: Results and implications of the national kids survey. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 29(2), 1-20.


Participation in wildlife watching: A multiple hierarchy stratification perspective

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Additional Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10871209.2011.597825

This study analyzes secondary data from the National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation to investigate the extent to which gender, age, level of education, level of income, race/ethnicity, and residential status are related to Americans’ participation in wildlife-watching close to home as well as away from home. Results showed that race/ethnicity was the best predictor of wildlife watching activities. Elderly White females who live in rural areas and have college degrees and high household incomes had the highest rates of participation in wildlife watching close to home. In contrast, young White males who live in rural areas and possess college degrees and high household incomes had the highest participation rates in wildlife watching away from home. To make activities and resources more accessible to marginalized groups, agencies need to: 1) recognize the growing popularity of non-consumptive wildlife-related recreation and more actively engage in issues related to wildlife watching; 2) establish more effective communication channels with their clienteles. 3) take into account the distribution of wildlife watching population and establish outreach strategies that give visibility to the needs of marginalized groups. 4) create programs that seek to create formative experiences in wildlife watching for groups who have historically eschewed the great outdoors.

Citation: Lee, K. J., & Scott, D. (2011). Participation in wildlife watching: A multiple hierarchy stratification perspective. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 16(5), 330-344.


A cross-regional comparison of recreation patterns of older hunters

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Additional Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01490400306559

Mail surveys were used to study outdoor recreation patterns among older hunting license holders in Pennsylvania and Colorado to better understand aspects of five trends that promise to impact outdoor recreation preferences, behavior, and management priorities: Sunbelt population growth, declining residential stability, urbanization, aging, and increasing levels of formal education. Results showed that samples were similar in age, gender, and ethnicity, but Pennsylvania respondents were more likely to have lived their entire lives in the state and had spent more of their adult lives in rural areas. Pennsylvania respondents hunted more frequently and were more likely to gather wild foods. Colorado respondents were more likely to fish, and they participated in more nonconsumptive activities. Education, rural/urban differences, and residential stability had a limited ability to predict differences in consumptive activities. Age, education, and residential stability predicted differences in nonconsumptive activities. Although some studies have demonstrated links between outdoor recreation behavior and rural/urban differences, this study found little support for that connection. Results suggest that cultural differences between regions may be more important than socio-demographic characteristics for understanding of outdoor recreation patterns in the past, present, and future.

Citation: Li, C.-L., Zinn, H. C., Barro, S. C., & Manfredo, M. J. (2003). A cross-regional comparison of recreation patterns of older hunters. Leisure Sciences, 25(1), 1-16.


Changing Hispanic demographics: Challenges in natural resource management

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Additional Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.2193/0091-7648%282005%2933%5B553:CHDCIN%5D2.0.CO;2

The objective of this paper is to provide wildlife professionals with a better understanding of Hispanic demographics and culture. It identifies shared Hispanic cultural characteristics, such as family, socioeconomic factors, and language, and their importance in planning wildlife outreach programs. Though the discussion focuses on Texas, implications from the review have merit in other states experiencing significant increases in the Hispanic population. First, the authors highlight changing Hispanic demographics in the United States to better understand future challenges for natural resource agencies and wildlife managers. Second, the authors discuss Hispanic demographics and their importance to understanding the Hispanic culture. They identify important cultural characteristics and offer suggestions about how understanding Hispanic culture can benefit natural resource agencies in public outreach programs or other decision-making processes. The authors recommend 1) future research with Hispanics and natural resources, and 2) improvements to wildlife programming. For the latter, wildlife professionals should consider family programming, bilingual education, and increasing awareness of conservation issues among Hispanics.

Citation: Lopez, R. R., Lopez, A., Wilkins, R. N., Torres, C. C., Valdez, R., Teer, J. G., & Bowser, G. (2005). Changing Hispanic demographics: Challenges in natural resource management. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 33(2), 553-564.


In search of belonging: Immigrant experiences of outdoor nature-based settings in New Zealand

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Additional Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02614367.2011.623241

This paper identifies how engagement with national and regional parks is a measure of the politics of integration for new settlers in New Zealand society. Researchers used in-depth, face to face, open-ended interviews with 25 recent immigrants to Auckland and Wellington, New Zealand. The study explored how new immigrants engage with non-human nature in protected areas – national and regional parks, their perceptions of these areas and what the implications are for the provision of leisure experiences in these spaces and places. Results show that recent immigrants in New Zealand bring with them environmental values and expectations of what recreational participation in outdoor nature-based settings should and might entail. Recent migrant perceptions of these natural habitats throw into relief assumed givens about the role of national parks and the social and cultural function that these institutions have fulfilled since their inception in New Zealand society. Being able to locate one’s self in nature-based settings is central to migrant integration, yet for a significant group of immigrants this is not always possible in New Zealand. In multicultural New Zealand outdoor nature-based recreation, those who participate and those who do not, what they see and what it means to them provides a window on contemporary societal, environmental and cultural politics.

Citation: Lovelock, K., Lovelock, B., Jellum, C., & Thompson, A. (2011). In search of belonging: Immigrant experiences of outdoor nature-based settings in New Zealand. Leisure Studies, 30(4), 513-529.


(2010) Longitudinal Analysis of Fishing Behavior among Texas Anglers (1990-2006)

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Additional Link: http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/35654

This study sought to examine changes in the social, demographic, and psychological characteristics of Texas anglers over time by using trend analysis of five statewide surveys of licensed Texas anglers. The questionnaires contained information on anglers’ demographics, participation, catch and non-catch motivations, resource use indicators, and attitudes and opinions on a variety of resource management issues. The following changes were observed between 1990 and 2006: 1) Fishing participation, especially saltwater fishing, increased; 2) male and minority participation increased; 3) the average age of anglers rose; and 4) the number of anglers from rural areas decreased. There were also changes in fishing motivations. For example, getting away from the demands of other people and being with friends declined in importance. The number of anglers motivated by social factors and a desire to be in a natural environment increased. This study demonstrates the potential for using secondary data to document baseline participation and to identify change over time. Attention should be paid to regional populations and to related social and environmental changes – factors which can impact fishing mode and motives. Also, as anglers increasingly report motivations related to social and environmental factors, researchers and managers need to look beyond motives to understand their behaviors.

Citation: Lu, J., Schuett, M. A., Wolber, N. & Ditton, R. (2010) Longitudinal analysis of fishing behavior among Texas anglers (1990-2006). In Proceedings of the 2009 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium (pp. 128-134). (Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-66). U.S. Forest Service.


Creating racially/ethnically inclusive partnerships in natural resource management and outdoor recreation: The challenges, issues, and strategies

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Additional Link: http://js.sagamorepub.com/jpra/article/view/1413

This study sought to investigate the issues affecting efforts to get racial and ethnic minority community groups involved with Boston Harbor Islands National Park Area planning, outdoor recreation, and natural resource stewardship efforts. Qualitative research methods were used, including participant observation, document analysis, personal interviews, and informal discussions. Results show that collaboration and partnerships are viable mechanisms for enhancing racial and ethnic diversity in natural resource management, environmental conservation education, and outdoor recreation, however, there are major challenges and constraints. Whether and how racial and ethnic minorities got involved were influenced by: (1) the process through which the Partnership was established; (2) problems related to the structure of the Partnership and Advisory Council; (3) gaps in the missions, goals, and values of the Partnership and minority-based organizations; (4) the approaches, challenges, and difficulties in the Partnership’s public involvement process; (5) the presence of sensitive leaders with the skills and commitment to racial and cultural diversity; and (6) the relevance of partnership activities and programs to the lives of racial and ethnic minorities. Four major recommendations are offered: (1) Recognize minorities as legitimate stakeholders and invite all relevant minority-based community organizations to participate in initial partnership formation and problem definition. (2) Public land management agencies must interpret their missions and goals more broadly. (3) National Parks have to make their activities and programs relevant and demonstrate their relevance to the lives of racial and ethnic minorities. (4) Establish genuine personal relationships between key representatives of partner agencies and organizations.

Citation: Makopondo, R. O. B. (2006). Creating racially/ethnically inclusive partnerships in natural resource management and outdoor recreation: The challenges, issues, and strategies. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 24(1), 7-31.


Why are public values toward wildlife changing? Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 8(4

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Additional Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/716100425

This article overviews a long-term research program designed to examine wildlife value orientation shift in the U.S. and reports data from the first phase. 3216 residents of six western states (Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, North Dakota, and South Dakota) were surveyed using mail-back questionnaires to assess Materialist/Post-Materialist values, wildlife value orientations, attitudes toward selected management actions, participation in wildlife-related recreation activities, and sociodemographic characteristics. The sample was underrepresented by younger age categories and by females. Results found that the proportion of “traditionalists” (those with Materialist values and a utilitarian orientation toward wildlife) within a state is strongly and inversely related to level of income, urbanization, and education, and positively related to residential stability. The societal factors theorized to affect value shift and wildlife value orientations reinforce the need to monitor wildlife value orientations over time. A frequent interest of wildlife managers is in changing values toward wildlife. The theory presented here suggests that is an unrealistic goal. It may be possible to change the public’s attitudes on a specific issue, but values and value orientations are shaped by the broader conditions of society. It is quite important for managers to understand the composition of values and value orientations within the public.

Citation: Manfredo, M., Teel, T., & Bright, A. (2003). Why are public values toward wildlife changing? Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 8(4), 287-306.


Wildlife and the Illinois public: A benchmark study of attitudes and perceptions

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Additional Link: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3783915

The study used a telephone survey of 805 Illinois adults to: (1) conduct a benchmark study of selected attitudes, perceptions, and knowledge of Illinois residents relative to wildlife and related issues; (2) compare these factors for the residents in the Chicago metropolitan area with residents in the rest of the state; and (3) consider the findings in the context of the ongoing discussion about involving citizens with increasingly diversified interests in wildlife management. Topics were chosen to represent a variety of wildlife-related issues, such as protecting endangered species, managing game populations, participating in wildlife-related activities, perceived wildlife problems, knowledge of ecological concepts, and awareness of wildlife agencies. In general, results show that a high percentage of residents believed that wild animals add value to their lives and that conservation education should be a priority. More emphasis could be placed on the benefits gained by nongame wildlife species through programs that are primarily designed to improve hunting. Environmental education professionals need to aggressively strengthen ecological knowledge and reinforce the links between the scientific community, state and federal natural resource agencies, and the public. The authors question the wisdom of allowing the ballot box to dictate wildlife management decisions.

Citation: Mankin, P. C., & Warner, R. E., Anderson, W. L. (1999). Wildlife and the Illinois public: A benchmark study of attitudes and perceptions. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 27(2), 465-472.


Trends in participation rates for wildlife-associated recreation by race/ethnicity and gender: 1980-2001

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Additional Link: http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/9601

This study looks at trends in participation rates in wildlife-associated recreation activities by race/ethnicity and gender among participants 16 years of age and older. It uses the 1980, 1985, 1990, 1996, and 2001 National Surveys of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation. The effects of the changes in the survey are addressed along with the implications for future analyses. Hunting was the activity with the greatest disparity in participation by gender and race/ethnicity. However, more women are participating in this activity and there appeared to be an early trend toward more similar participation rates by gender within racial/ethnic groups. Hunting participation by females appears to have decreased or leveled off later in the study period. Other activities have had similar participation rates for men and women over the entire study period. Methodological changes in the survey could have affected the results of this study and may also constrain future studies. Methodological changes have resulted in the reduction of the number of observations. This affects the analysis of activities among some minority groups and it raises questions about the use of these datasets for this type of analysis in the future.

Citation: Marsinko, A., & Dwyer, J. (2005). Trends in participation rates for wildlife-associated recreation by race/ethnicity and gender: 1980-2001. In Proceedings of the 2004 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium (pp. 251-255). (Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-326). U.S. Forest Service.


Wildlife-associated recreation in the north central region: Participation patterns and management implications

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Additional Link: http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/17352

This study sought to examine participation in hunting, fishing, and wildlife watching in the North Central region of the United States and in each state, to compare the region to the remainder of the United States, and to compare states within the region in order to provide managers with some insight into the patterns and challenges in the region. The study used the 1996 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation. Results show that compared to the remainder of the country, the North Central region as a whole is demographically similar in terms of mean age, education, household income, and gender, but it has a higher proportion of Whites and a slightly lower proportion of people residing in urban areas. Residents of the region are more likely to have hunted and/or fished during their lifetime, have hunted and/or fished in 1995, and are more likely to participate in nonconsumptive wildlife-associated recreation activities. Within the region, there is considerable diversity in household income and ethnicity. States within the region range from predominately white rural to ethnically diverse urban. Wildlife-associated recreation participation differs considerably among states. The diversity of participation patterns within the region affects public natural resource managers and suggests treating the region as subunits to more effectively address resource management issues.

Citation: Marsinko, A., & Dwyer, J. (2002). Wildlife-associated recreation in the north central region: Participation patterns and management implications. In Proceedings of the 2001 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium (pp. 63-68). (Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-289).


African American and Hispanic American sportsmen in the north central region

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Additional Link: http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/12096

This study characterizes African American and Hispanic American sportsmen in the North Central Region of the US, compares these sportsmen to African American and Hispanic American nonparticipants in the region as well as African American and Hispanic American sportsmen from outside the region, and investigates factors that are correlated with hunting and fishing participation by these important groups in the region. The analysis is based on the 1995-1996 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife- Associated Recreation. Results provide detailed profiles and comparisons of subgroups based on participation, age, education, income, employment, type of wildlife-dependent recreation, and urban/rural residence. For example, African American hunters in the North Central region tend to be older, more likely to be retired, earn less, and more likely to reside in rural areas than African American non-hunters in the region. The profiles presented here as well as the cross-activity relationships are important to managers and others who are interested in identifying participants. The profiles help identify the client groups. They also help identify how participants in the region differ from those outside the region, which reflects, in part, the characteristics of the region.

Citation: Marsinko, A., & Dwyer, J. (2003). African American and Hispanic American sportsmen in the north central region. In Proceedings of the 2002 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium (pp. 28-32). (Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-302). U.S. Forest Service.


American Indian gathering and recreation uses of national forests

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Additional Link: http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/9571

Using semi-structured interviews, this paper identifies and describes the patterns of gathering and outdoor recreation uses of the Chippewa National Forest (Minnesota) by Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe members; and, the use patterns of six national forests in northwest Montana by the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes. The paper also identifies constraints and conflicts tribal members encounter while using the forests and makes recommendations regarding the management of national forests in light of tribal members’ use of these lands. The implications from both study areas indicate that Forest Service managers should pay more attention to cooperative approaches, and potential co-management of forest resources that are near American Indian reservations. Managers need to be more sensitive to American Indians’ uses and values associated with national forests and other protected lands that are close to reservations. They also need to be aware of the history of government and tribal relations, as well as tribal member traditional and historic uses of forests. Examples of specific recommendations include: Allow for increased consultation and reflection time in the planning process. Face to face contact is very important. Trust is an important issue, and it takes time and personal contact to develop trust and respect.

Citation: McAvoy, L., Shirilla, P. & Flood, J. (2005). American Indian gathering and recreation uses of national forests. In Proceedings of the 2004 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium (pp. 81-87). (Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-326). U.S. Forest Service.


Integrating information on wildlife values and barriers to participation in natural-based programs to improve agency efforts for connecting families to nature (Master’s thesis)

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Additional Link: http://hdl.handle.net/10217/39123

This thesis presents two manuscripts that explored how information on barriers to participation in nature-based programs and wildlife value orientations could be used to enhance the reach and effectiveness of agencies in connecting children to nature. The first paper used a quantitative mail survey parents in urbanized areas of Wake County, North Carolina to assess wildlife value orientations, barriers to participation in nature-based programs, and sociodemographics. Results indicated that there was not much of a relationship between barriers and wildlife-related interests of the respondents. Using wildlife value orientations to inform nature-based programs can assist in the movement to connect children and families to nature by helping wildlife agencies develop more targeted educational initiatives. The second paper used four focus groups of Latino and Chinese-Americans in inner New York City to develop a qualitative methodology to assess wildlife value orientations among diverse populations of various cultures and ethnicities. Participants were shown a number of photographs depicting human-wildlife interactions and were then encouraged to discuss their thoughts and reactions to each photograph. Results revealed that the focus group methodology was effective in eliciting wildlife value orientations. Four wildlife value orientation types recognized from previous literature were identified.

Citation: McCoy, C. (2010). Integrating information on wildlife values and barriers to participation in natural-based programs to improve agency efforts for connecting families to nature (Master’s thesis). Colorado State University.


The influence of gender on participation for nonresidential birdwatchers in New York state

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Additional Link: http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/13853

The objective of this study was to identify similarities and differences in initiation, participation rates, and characteristics of birdwatching between males and females. A mail survey asked 797 New York State residents who were members of birdwatching organizations about their birdwatching initiation, participation, and activity characteristics. The sample was largely representative of Caucasians (99 percent) who were married, highly educated, and residing in rural areas or small cities and suburbs. The respondents were also likely to be middle-aged or older. The sample was almost equally split between males and females. The majority of male and female respondents were initiated into birdwatching by themselves and many birdwatch alone. Males reported higher median participation rates than did females for in-state, out-of-state, and total birdwatching trips. Men and women reported choosing similar birdwatching locations but owned somewhat different types of equipment. From a promotional standpoint, males and females might respond differently to marketing strategies targeted at attracting birdwatchers. Males might be motivated by messages that emphasize sharing knowledge about birds and birdwatching with other people, whereas females might be motivated by messages that highlight experiencing birdwatching around the home. Efforts that enable birdwatchers to share their knowledge should be considered.

Citation: Sali, M. J., & Kuehn, D. (2008). The influence of gender on participation for nonresidential birdwatchers in New York state. In Proceedings of the 2007 northeastern recreation research symposium (pp.160-167). (Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-23).


Ethnicity and variations in wildlife concern: Exploring the socio-structural and socio-psychological bases of wildlife values

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Additional Link: extension.arizona.edu/pubs/snr07043j.pdf

This paper proposes a conceptual model to examine the socio-structural and socio-psychological construct of wildlife concern within ethnic populations, by employing environmental concern paradigms. The proposed model includes 5 components as follows: social demographic characteristics, social psychological characteristics, attitudes towards urban forestry and wildlife, urban park use and related outdoor recreation characteristics, and behavioral intentions. The proposed model can be utilized by urban forestry and park researchers for the following purposes: identifying social demographic and social psychological predictors of attitudes toward urban and community forestry, parks and wildlife of ethnic minority communities; and identifying outdoor recreation participation characteristics of ethnic minority communities. Also, identifying behavioral intentions of ethnic minorities in regard to urban and community forestry, parks and wildlife; examining regional variation in regard to the previous through urban area comparisons; developing outreach environmental education frameworks for educating ethnic minority communities regarding the importance and value of urban forestry, parks and wildlife.

Citation: Sasidharan, V., & Thapa, B. (1999). Ethnicity and variations in wildlife concern: Exploring the socio-structural and socio-psychological bases of wildlife values. In W. Shaw et al. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Urban Wildlife Conservation, Tucson, AZ, May 1-5 (pp. 305-315). University of Arizona, Tucson.


Race, ethnicity, and natural resources in the United States: A review

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Additional Link: http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/21632

This literature review discusses and synthesizes a great number of complex topics on racial discrimination and ethnic differences in valuing and using natural resources. Some of the most relevant topics include discrimination and bias in the conservation movement and natural resource management, as well as natural resource values, use and attitudes. The review indicates that the effects of past and current racial discrimination and ethnocentrism in the natural resource field continue to be felt today, both in individual behavior and in social structures. The review also finds complex linkages between culture and values, natural resource uses, social organization, and ecosystem characteristics. Results highlight the need for serious attention to racial and ethnic diversity in natural resource management and policy. Ethnocentrism in the natural resource field comes into play in many ways but may be most pernicious in cases of scientific uncertainty when managers and policy makers tend to fall back on culturally and professionally coded models that may have biases built into them. There is a need for greater attention to race and ethnicity by all in the natural resource field, and also for greater diversify among professionals in the field itself.

Citation: Schelhas, J. (2002). Race, ethnicity, and natural resources in the United States: A review. Natural Resources Journal, 42(4), 723-763.


Sociodemographics, motivations, and behavior: The case of Texas anglers 1989-2004

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Additional Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10871209.2010.490973

This study used data obtained from six Statewide Surveys of licensed Texas Anglers in order to explore trends in sociodemographics, motivations, and behavior of recreational anglers. A combination of close-ended and open-ended questions was used in the questionnaire, and there were more than 20,000 respondents over a 15-year time period. Results showed that the composition of the respondents changed significantly over time on several variables including age, race/ethnicity, income, and satisfaction. Fishing participation and days fishing were fairly stable. Factor analysis of the motivational items yielded four factors: natural environment/social, challenge/adventure, skill/equipment, and escape/relax. Further analysis showed several significant differences by gender, social group, income, and age. The findings of this research identified important areas of stability and change for Texas anglers. Managers must not assume that certain populations or sub-groups fish for some of the same reasons that past research has indicated. Change takes place at the societal or population level; hence, scientists may need to consider a “bigger picture” when trying to assess recreation behavior and motives. Needs and values of recreation users should also be explored cross-culturally in order to determine how changes over time are occurring. More data-sharing among public land managing agencies would allow future research to be based on past studies.

Citation: Schuett, M. A., Lu, J., Ditton, R. B., & Tseng, Y. P. (2010). Sociodemographics, motivations, and behavior: The case of Texas anglers 1989-2004. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 15(4), 247-261.


Hunting and rural socialization: Contingent effects of the rural setting on hunting participation

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Additional Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1549-0831.2001.tb00086.x

This paper examines how the relationship between the rural setting and hunting participation is affected by gender and family socialization. Data used to explore this question were collected as part of the Continuous National Telephone Survey, which uses random-digit dialing. 769 phone interviews were completed between September 1996 and January 1997. Results show that rural upbringings fostered an increase in hunting primarily when the socialization relationship between agent and target was unlikely to do so and when participation was consistent with gender norms: rural males whose fathers did not hunt were more likely to hunt than urban males whose fathers did not. In no other cases did rural upbringings result in an increased propensity for hunting. The overall “rural effect” is reduced precisely because it is particular and contingent on the effects of other variables, rather than general and widespread. Therefore research that seeks general patterns of difference between urban and rural areas may fail to uncover the more specific differences that exist in urban and rural subpopulations, especially as social change continues to alter rural places and people.

Citation: Stedman, R. C., & Heberlein, T. A. (2001). Hunting and rural socialization: Contingent effects of the rural setting on hunting participation. Rural Sociology, 66(4), 599-617.


The Texas saltwater angler population: A longitudinal perspective (1989-2005)

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Additional Link: http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/12684

This paper presents a longitudinal analysis of selected human-dimensions indicators of the licensed Texas saltwater fishing population. Six statewide angler mail survey data sets from 1989 to 2005 were used. Three groups of human-dimensions indicators were used to identify stability, change, and direction of change in Texas saltwater fishing. The groups were: sociodemographic, recreation behavior, and resource use indicators. Results show that minority (Hispanic, Spanish, and females) participation and the overall participation rate in saltwater fishing did not keep pace with a dramatic population transformation in Texas over the last 16 years. Saltwater anglers have more experience and rate themselves as more skilled over time. This finding suggests there are more high-specialization anglers in the Texas saltwater angler population than previously. The extent of angler satisfaction has been high and increased consistently over time. Researchers or managers can scrutinize the changing directions in resource use and satisfaction magnitude over time with a longitudinal perspective and perhaps reach different conclusions from time series research results. Fishery interests will need to understand more about females and their attitudes toward and expectations from angling. For Hispanics, a secure and supportive social space for shared experiences with family and extended family is an important management goal.

Citation: Tseng, Y.-P., & Ditton, R. B. (2007). The Texas saltwater angler population: A longitudinal perspective (1989-2005). In Proceedings of the 2006 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium (pp. 234-239). (Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-14). U.S. Forest Service.


A qualitative investigation of the urban African-American and Latino adolescent experience with wildlife

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Additional Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10871200600894944

This article attempted to explain how urban African-American and Latino adolescents in Kansas City experience wildlife and how these experiences shape their interest in and appreciation for wildlife. Qualitative interviews were conducted using open-ended and semistructured questions. Results show that urban African-American and Latino adolescents demonstrate differing levels of interest and appreciation for wildlife, ranging from active interest and engagement to a complete disinterest in wildlife. Four general conditions formed the basic framework in the wildlife experience of the adolescents in our study: demographic characteristics, socialization, place of residence, and wildlife encounters. To foster an appreciation for wildlife in urban African-American and Latino adolescents, three general conditions should be present: (a) childhood access to wild places, (b) supportive mentoring from adults, and (c) positive early encounters with a variety of wildlife species. Wildlife professionals can help by developing programs and materials that focus on the day-to-day environments where most of the participants encountered wildlife. Wildlife professionals should utilize the existing social structure of urban communities. The data suggest that it is not so much the type of activity that is important as it is the nature (e.g., safe, positive, exciting) and frequency of the encounters.

Citation: Van Velsor, S. W., & Nilon, C. H. (2006). A qualitative investigation of the urban African-American and Latino adolescent experience with wildlife. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 11(5), 359-370.


A study of the relationships of deer hunters participation intensity and constraints

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Additional Link: http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/12711

This study examined hunting participation with respect to hunters’ overall perceptions of constraints, hunting participation intensity rates, demographics, and social-psychological data. 2,766 licensed Virginia hunters responded to a questionnaire pertaining to types of animal hunted, location in which they hunt, and opinions of regulations on hunting. Differences between male and female hunters were examined. Males were 97 percent of the sample. Significant differences were found between males and females with regard to age first hunted, as well as spouses’ and friends’ attitudes toward hunting. However, no significant differences were found among the various categories of constraints. Males learn to hunt at an earlier age than females and are introduced to the sport mainly by their father (59%). Hunters with high participation perceived fewer barriers and fewer family and work commitments than low intensity hunters. Interestingly, female hunters perceived no barriers to hunting when factoring for participation intensity. Results suggest men tend to perceive more constraints than women, particularly when it involves family and work commitments for low to moderate deer hunting participants. Study results identify barriers to participation that could lead to declining hunting participation.

Citation: Weddell, M. S., Anderson, D. M., Rodgers, E. D. & Wright, B. A. (2007). A study of the relationships of deer hunters participation intensity and constraints. In Proceedings of the 2006 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium (pp. 447-450). (Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-14). U.S. Forest Service.


Anglers' appraisals of the risks of eating sport-caught fish from industrial areas: Lessons from Chicago’s Calumet region

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Additional Link: http://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/pubs/35876

This study of recreational fishing in the industrialized Calumet region of northwest Indiana and southeast Chicago was conducted in order to gauge the extent of fishing for consumption and to learn about perceptions of the risks of eating contaminated fish. Participant observation and roughly 170 unstructured interviews were used. When assessing pollution, anglers relied mainly on their senses, personal experiences, judgment, and/or information from friends, family, and other anglers rather than on written fishing guides, local officials, or the media. When considering consumption risks, they focused on four primary factors: the general environment, water quality, fish characteristics, and observable human health. There were also differences in risk perceptions and fish consumption patterns across racial-ethnic lines. Results show that existing risk information is failing to reach Calumet’s angling community. Outreach through new channels, providing information aimed at minimizing risk through preparation techniques, and providing information in accessible formats are all important steps in this process. Managers should consider reaching out beyond fishing-oriented groups into the local community and overcoming perceptions of mistreatment that are held by some Black and Latino anglers. Local officials may want to concentrate on communicating avoidance of the highest risk areas, and encourage better species, size, and preparation choices at safer sites.

Citation: Westphal, L. M., Longoni, M., LeBlanc, C. L. & Wali, A. (2008). Anglers' appraisals of the risks of eating sport-caught fish from industrial areas: Lessons from Chicago’s Calumet region. Human Ecology Review, 15(1), 46-62.


Beach recreation, cultural diversity and attitudes toward nature

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Additional Link: http://js.sagamorepub.com/jlr/article/view/568

This paper develops a conceptual model emphasizing relationships between beach-going, and individual characteristics, geographical access, coastal knowledge, interaction with coastal environments, and attitudes toward nature. The authors use a telephone survey of Los Angeles County residents to explore beach-going in this urban coastal region characterized by cultural diversity, large immigrant populations, and a rich assemblage of marine wildlife. Findings suggest beach use rates vary significantly by age, race/ethnicity, class, and immigrant status, by distance between home and beach, and by beach recreational activity preferences. Perceived barriers to beach use are documented, how such perceived barriers vary by race/ethnicity, and what, if any, impact such perceptions have on beach use rates. The influence on distance between home and beach on beach going behavior is also considered. Attitudes toward nature also shape decisions about spending leisure time at the beach, and warrant more attention in leisure research. It may be important for coastal zone managers to develop additional avenues for providing accurate information about beach safety and closures. Increasing public transportation from inland communities to the beach might be critical for those residents who experience access barriers related to geography.

Citation: Wolch, J., & Zhang, J. (2004). Beach recreation, cultural diversity and attitudes toward nature. Journal of Leisure Research, 36(3), 414-443.


Leisure preferences and open space needs in an urban Chinese American community

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Additional Link: http://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/pubs/jrnl/1998/nc_1998_zhang_001.pdf

129 face-to-face interviews and 4 focus group discussions were used to address three research objectives: (1) To characterize leisure patterns of the Chinese American community in Chicago's Chinatown; (2) To understand preferences and problems relative to leisure and recreation; (3) To identify variations in leisure activities and open space preferences. The only public park in the core Chinatown area is a 1/3-acre park with some seating and playground equipment for tots. Findings show that although some popular activities are no different from what might be expected for the mainstream Anglo American population, the meaning and significance of these activities have clear and unique ties to Chinese culture are not differentiated from non-leisure within the Asian American groups. Thus for some groups, traditional measures of activity participation may mask important concepts of leisure and its place in everyday life. Preferences for the new Chinatown park development mirror activity preferences, emphasizing facilities that enhance the natural environment for passive activities. Notable differences in activity preferences were found within the sample of respondents according to age, generational status, and other factors.

Citation: Zhang, T., & Gobster, P. H. (1998). Leisure preferences and open space needs in an urban Chinese American community. Journal of Architectural Planning and Research, 15(4), 338-355.


Patterns of wildlife value orientations in hunters' families

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10871200260293324

Study Objective: As one step toward a more complete understanding of possible shifts in wildlife value orientations, this study was designed to: (a) describe the wildlife value orientations of hunters old enough to have adult children; (b) examine perceived patterns of wildlife value orientations among respondents’ family members; and (c) test for relationships between within-family patterns of wildlife value orientations and participant characteristics. This study used a mail survey of Pennsylvania and Colorado hunting license holders 50 or older. A majority approved of wildlife use and hunting but not wildlife rights. Males were least likely to perceive differences between their own beliefs and those of their fathers and sons and most likely to perceive differences between their own beliefs and those of their daughters. Respondents who perceived most differences were likely to report moderate utilitarian value orientations and to have grown up in urban areas, lived in more than one state, and attended college. Results link values shifts to three current trends: urbanization, residential mobility, and increasing education. To the extent that wildlife value orientations are changing, wildlife management agencies must adapt to that change.

Citation: Zinn, H. C., Manfredo, M. J., & Barro, S. C. (2002). Patterns of wildlife value orientations in hunters' families. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 7(3), 147-162.


Sociocultural perspectives of trapping revisited: A comparative analysis of activities and motives 1994 and 2000

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Additional Link: http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/17361

In order to assess changes in participation and motives of licensed Vermont trappers, results of a mail survey from 1994 were compared to a replicated survey in 2000. About 80% of the trappers from 1994 were included in the 2000 sample. Few participation changes were observed, but total days trapping doubled in 2000. Trapping remains a central life interest by which people organize themselves, interact with each other and the natural environment, derive utilitarian satisfaction from the environment, and maintain a sense of autonomy from year to year. Changes in 25 categories of motivations for trapping are presented. The varied motivations of trappers indicate that policy makers and some wildlife managers must discontinue considering trappers as unithematic in why they trap, rather such policy makers must understand that implementation of policy initiatives may have varying effects on different groups of trappers. Future research needs to continue to monitor motivations and sociocultural aspects of trapping if it is to remain an effective wildlife management strategy and means to maintain lifestyle benefits for a specialized subgroup of society. Research also should address the effect of trapping on the development and maintenance of a sense of place.

Citation: Zwick, R. R., Glass, R., Royar, K. & Decker, T. (2002). Sociocultural perspectives of trapping revisited: A comparative analysis of activities and motives 1994 and 2000. In Proceedings of the 2001 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium (pp. 118-123). (Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-289). U.S. Forest Service.


Perceived opportunities and constraints on participation in a Massachusetts youth hunt

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Additional Link: http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/22300.

This study used a mail survey to determine parent/guardian and youth participant attitudes toward a special youth hunt in Massachusetts and constraints toward participating in such a hunt. The study objectives were to: 1) determine the opportunities that would be important to both parents and youth for youth to participate in a specialized youth hunt, and concomitant differences in those perceived opportunities; 2) determine the extent of participation in hunting and shooting activities by both parents and youth who participated in the programs; and 3) examine the perceived constraints on youth in participating in hunting activities and the youth hunts. Parents and youth differed in their perceptions of opportunities and activities important in a youth hunt. An examination of the extent of participation in hunting and shooting activities by parents and the youth revealed similar patterns in hunting various game species. There were few social constraints on youth participating in hunting, but time constraints as a result of school, work, and sports prevented youth from hunting as much as they would like. Parents and their children agreed on several points on what opportunities are important to them to be offered in a specialized youth hunt that could prove helpful to the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife and local sportsmen’s clubs in developing and implementing a specialized youth hunt program.

Citation: Zwick, R., Flaherty, J., Solan, D., Tisa, M., & Langlois, S. (2006). Perceived opportunities and constraints on participation in a Massachusetts youth hunt. In Proceedings of the 2005 northeastern recreation research symposium (pp. 254-261). (Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-341). U.S. Forest Service.


Speaking of justice: exploring ethnic minority perspectives of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area

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Additional Link: http://journals.cambridge.org/article_S1466046611000378

This article offers a view into different cultural experiences and preferences of people of color in the San Francisco Bay Area. For national parks to become representative of the people they serve, we suggest the need to mitigate silent exclusion and move toward proactive inclusion both inside and outside the parks. Key considerations include outreach through more intentional communication strategies, multilingual signage, responding to complaints of discrimination, and more representative hiring practices. Also, researching the effect of immigrant status and biracial or multi-racial populations.

Citation: Roberts, N. S., & Chitewere, T. (2011). Speaking of justice: exploring ethnic minority perspectives of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area. Environmental Practice, 13(04), 354-369.



Other Resources

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Tools for Understanding Audiences webinar & resource list:

This webinar and resource list highlights existing tools and data to better understand visitors, communities, and the socioeconomic landscape related to public lands.

Visit the Human Dimensions Resource Portal

The Human Dimensions Portal was created for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) employees by the Human Dimension Branch of the National Wildlife Refuge System. The portal provides convenient access to human dimensions tools and resources applicable to your conservation work. It also encourages a community of practice for conservation practitioners through a blog and conversation forum; upcoming events; news and announcements; and a directory of social science experts in the Service.


Watch the webinar Tools for Understanding Audiences and download the resource list

This webinar discusses the importance of understanding audiences and context at local, regional, and national levels for your refuge and provides information on tools and resources for you to begin to find the answers.


Check out these Human Dimensions Broadcasts:

Embracing the Cultural Diversity of our Visitors and Stakeholders

An effective conservation strategy includes engagement of people within diverse populations. To be relevant, we need to be innovative, resourceful and also respectful of what’s important to the people we are attempting to reach. In this broadcast, we will more clearly define what we mean by diversity which encompasses culture, ethnicity, economics, age, gender, ability, and explore ways to foster inclusion for conservation.

Engaging with Urban Communities – Connecting People, Conservation, & Public Land Agencies

Presented by Flisa Stevenson, Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Refuge Visitor Services; Gus Medina, Cornell University - Expanding Capacity in Environmental Education Project; Chantel Jimenez, San Diego NWR Complex. May 24, 2012.


Listen to the podcast Understanding a Changing America: A Key to Successful Conservation

Being relevant in our conservation work requires that we understand the demographic changes in the US. In this podcast, Dr. Steve Murdock, Rice University professor and former director of the U.S. Census Bureau, shares some key demographic and socioeconomic trends we are seeing in the US and why a fundamental understanding of these trends is an important part of ensuring successful conservation.


Questions, comments, or if you want to share a tool or resource email us at Human_Dimensions@fws.gov.

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