US Fish & Wildlife Service logo
Southeast Region US Fish & Wildlife Service header


U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Proposes Reintroducting Two Fishes


October 21, 2004

Tim Merritt, 931/528-6481, Ext, 211
Janet Ady,


As part of a broad effort to restore threatened and endangered species in the Tennessee River system, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is proposing to reintroduce two native fishes -- the threatened spotfin chub and endangered boulder darter -- into Shoal Creek, which flows through Lauderdale County, Alabama, and Lawrence County, Tennessee.

The reintroduced fishes will be designated as "nonessential experimental" populations, under the Endangered Species Act. This classification precludes anyone who accidently kills or harms the fish from being in violation of the law, provided that the "take" occurs as part of an otherwise lawful activity. Similarly, Federal or federally funded projects will not be required to be altered or stopped to protect these fish.

"By reintroducing experimental populations of these species into their historical habitat, and promoting other recovery efforts, we hope to improve the species' status to the point where they no longer need Endangered Species Act protection," said Sam D. Hamilton, the Service's Southeast Regional Director. "We have already had some success reintroducing the spotfin chub into Abrams Creek in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park and augmenting the boulder darter population in the Elk River. In 2003, we also began the release of spotfin chubs into the Tellico River with prior designated nonessential experimental status and we believe this effort will be successful also."

These proposed reintroductions are part of a major effort by multiple partners -- including federal and state agencies and conservation groups -- to restore and recover native species in the Tennessee River system.

Conservation Fisheries, Inc., a nonprofit fish conservation organization based in Knoxville, Tennessee, has been working on several efforts in the Tennessee River system:

  • C reintroducing the spotfin chub and three other species into Abrams Creek in Blount County;
  • augmenting boulder darter populations in the Elk River; and,
  • reintroducing the spotfin chub and three other federally listed species into the Tellico River.

The viable populations of spotfin chub that were established in the Tellico River under the previous regulation and that will be established in Shoal Creek if this regulation is finalized will help the species to recover.

"The nonessential experimental population designation for Shoal Creek is the next step in recovery efforts of the boulder darter and spotfin chub," said Gary Myers, Executive Director of the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency. "Coupled with habitat improvements and advances in fish propagation technology, this nonessential experimental population designation will allow efforts to re-establish viable populations of boulder darters and spotfin chubs into Shoal Creek. This designation will certainly assist our recovery efforts for these rare fish."

Support for Conservation Fisheries, Inc.'s reintroduction efforts has come from the Service, Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency, the National Park Service, U.S. Forest Service, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and the Tennessee Aquarium. The proposed reintroduction effort in Shoal Creek, an extension of these other recovery projects, was developed at the request of the Commissioner of the Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources and the Executive Director of the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency.

The spotfin chub was once found throughout the middle and upper reaches of the Tennessee River system, but now occurs in only a few Tennessee River tributaries. This small fish grows to three and a half inches, has a life span of less than four years, and inhabits moderate-to-large streams with pools and stretches of choppy water.

Although boulder darters were once thought to exist only in the Elk River system and Shoal Creek, scientists believe they also inhabited shoals in the Tennessee River and its larger tributaries in Tennessee and Alabama from the Paint Rock River in Madison County, Alabama, downstream to at least Shoal Creek in Lauderdale County, Alabama. Today, the fish no longer survives in Shoal Creek and exists only in the Elk River system in Giles and Lincoln Counties, Tennessee, and Limestone County, Alabama. This fish, which is generally less than 3 inches long, lives in relatively shallow, swift water and is generally associated with boulder and large rock habitat.

Both species were last collected from Shoal Creek in the 1880s but were apparently unable to survive there later, due to pollution of the water and construction of Wilson Dam. However, as the result of the Clean Water Act -- as well as pollution control measures undertaken by State water and natural resources agencies, municipalities, industries, and individuals -- the creek's water quality has greatly improved and its fish have benefitted.

Nonessential experimental population status is a special category under the Endangered Species Act. It allows for reintroduction and protection, and its requirements are far less stringent than those for species that are not in this category.

For example, for nonessential experimental populations, the Act requires that a federal agency outside a National Wildlife Refuge or National Park confer with the Service on actions the agency finds likely to jeopardize the continued existence of the reintroduced species. But the agency is not required by the Act to halt or change an action -- although it would be required to do so for a federally threatened or endangered species that is not a nonessential experimental population. The Service, therefore, does not expect the reintroductions to have an impact on these agencies or their activities.

These less stringent rules ensure that in the event of any accidental and incidental killing or injuring of these reintroduced fish -- provided that the "take" occurs as part of an otherwise lawful activity -- there would be no violation of the Act. For instance, if a person inadvertently kills a reintroduced species while engaged in an otherwise lawful activity such as boating, fishing, or wading, then no violation is considered to have been committed.

"Because of the significant regulatory relief provided through this nonessential experimental population designation, we do not believe that these proposed reintroductions will hinder public use of Shoal Creek or its watershed," Hamilton said.

The Alabama Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries supports the effort to reestablish the spotfin chub and boulder darter in the Shoal Creek basin of Alabama and Tennessee through reintroduction of these species as experimental populations. The agency believes this effort, if successful, will be a positive step towards restoring these two native fish species to portions of their historical range and it supports recovery efforts which could lead eventually to the removal of these species from the Federal list of threatened and endangered species.

Questions regarding these reintroductions should be addressed to Tim Merritt at the Tennessee Field Office, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 446 Neal Street, Cookeville, Tennessee 38501, telephone 931/528-6481, Ext. 211, fax 931/528-7075.

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is the principal federal agency responsible for conserving, protecting and enhancing fish, wildlife and plants and their habitats for the continuing benefit of the American people. The Service manages the 95-million-acre National Wildlife Refuge System, which encompasses 544 national wildlife refuges, thousands of small wetlands and other special management areas. It also operates 69 national fish hatcheries, 64 fishery resources offices and 81 ecological services field stations. The agency enforces federal wildlife laws, administers the Endangered Species Act, manages migratory bird populations, restores nationally significant fisheries, conserves and restores wildlife habitat such as wetlands, and helps foreign governments with their conservation efforts. It also oversees the Federal Aid program, which distributes hundreds of millions of dollars in excise taxes on fishing and hunting equipment to State fish and wildlife agencies.

Boulder darter --

Boulder darter   More Information


Spotfin Chub --

Spotfin Chub


For more information about the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, visit our home page at or

NOTE: You can view our releases or subscribe to receive them -- via e-mail -- at the Service's Southeast Regional home page at Our national home page is at:

Atlanta, GA 30345
Phone: 404/679-7289 Fax: 404/679-7286

Graphic for Clickable Items Click for Privacy Statement Click here for Freedom of Information Act Statement Click here for Disclaimer Statement Click here to Contact the Southeast Region Click here for Sitemap Click here for the Search Engine for US Fish and Wildlife Service Click here for the Regions in the US Fish and Wildlife Service