Tagged monarch butterfly in Minnesota.
Photo by Katie Steiger-Meister/USFWS.
On December 15, 2020, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service announced that listing the monarch as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act is warranted, but precluded by higher priority listing actions. The decision is the result of an extensive status review of the monarch that compiled and assessed the monarch’s current and future status. The monarch is now a candidate under the Endangered Species Act; we will review its status annually until a listing decision is made.
Species Status Assessment Report (5.5 MB PDF)
Pesticide Supplemental Materials (536 KB PDF)
12-month finding presentation (1.6 MB PDF)
Federal Register (261 KB PDF)
Overwintering monarch butterflies in California.
Photo by Lisa Hupp/USFWS.
We continue our active efforts to conserve monarch butterflies, working with partners across the monarch’s range. Sometimes early conservation efforts can prevent the need to list a species under the Endangered Species Act.
When making a listing decision, the Endangered Species Act requires the Service to take into account all conservation efforts being made to protect a species. This policy identifies criteria we use in determining whether formal conservation efforts that have yet to be implemented or to show effectiveness contribute to making listing a species unnecessary. Policy for evaluation of conservation efforts (PECE) when making listing decisions (PDF)
One of the principal ways of identifying appropriate conservation efforts is through the development of a Candidate Conservation Agreement. These are formal, voluntary agreements between the Service and one or more parties to address the conservation needs of candidate species or species likely to become candidates in the near future.
This policy offers assurances as an incentive for non-Federal property owners to implement conservation measures for species that are proposed for listing under the Act, species that are candidates for listing, and species that are likely to become candidates or proposed in the near future.
The Nationwide Candidate Conservation Agreement on Energy and Transportation Lands for monarchs was approved in April 2020.