U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service logo A Unit of the National Wildlife Refuge System
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Hawaiian Islands
National Wildlife Refuge

800 miles northwest of the
main Hawaiian Islands, HI   
E-mail: PMNMLogistics@fws.gov
Phone Number:
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  Wildlife and Habitat

Continued . . .

Nihoa and Necker Islands, Gardner Pinnacles, and La Perouse Pinnacle are cores of old volcanic cones, with sheer cliffs of basalt and no beaches. Laysan and Lisianski Islands are low, flat, sandy islands surrounded by submerged fringing coral reefs. French Frigate Shoals and Pearl and Hermes Reef are true atolls, each with several small, sandy, partially-vegetated islets within a fringing coral reef. Maro Reef has only two small coral heads protruding from the ocean.

Four endangered endemic bird species (Laysan duck, Laysan finch, Nihoa finch, and Nihoa millerbird) breed on the islands, along with 14 million seabirds of 18 species.

The refuge also supports almost the entire population of the endangered Hawaiian monk seal, provides nesting beaches for virtually the entire Hawaiian population of threatened green turtles, and furnishes habitat for 8 endangered plants and numerous other single island endemic plant and terrestrial invertebrate species. Additionally, several thousand species of inshore tropical fish, algae, coral and other marine invertebrates, and other marine organisms inhabit the more than 250,000 acres of marine habitat of the refuge.

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