U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service logo A Unit of the National Wildlife Refuge System
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Wetland Management District

hen duck and young at water's edge
1710 360th St.
Titonka, IA   50480
E-mail: unionslough@fws.gov
Phone Number: 515-928-2523
Visit the Refuge's Web Site:
Waterfowl Production Areas provide habitat for migrating and nesting waterfowl.
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Continued . . .

As the glaciers receded, the lobe that extended into north-central Iowa left behind 7.6 million acres of grasslands and 2-3 million acres of wetlands. However, in the late 1800s, Iowa suffered significant losses in wetland and grasslands as settlers began converting these habitats to cropland. All in all, Iowa has lost more than 90% of its wetlands and 99% of its grasslands to agriculture.

During the 1970's, as wetland and upland restoration practices became more common throughout the region, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Iowa Department of Natural Resources signed an agreement initiating the Small Wetlands Acquisition Program (SWAP) in Iowa. The Iowa Wetland Management District was established to oversee the program. The agreement stated that the Service would provide "Duck Stamp" funds for land acquisitions, and the DNR would supply the personnel necessary to restore and manage the wetland and upland habitat. In 1979, the first tract under the SWAP, located in Emmet County, was acquired.

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