The Cooperative Recovery Initiative has funded 41 projects across the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service through 2015.

Pacific Region Southwest Region Midwest Region

Preventing Extinction of Oregon Silverspot Butterfly
– Restore habitat at Nestucca Bay and Willapa National Wildlife Refuges and introduce this threatened species at Nestucca Bay. Recovery of Golden Paintbrush – Establish additional protected populations and restore prairie at or near Willamette Valley Refuge Complex, OR, for this threatened plant species. Preventing Extinction of Serianthes nelsonii – Seed collection, propagation and planting of this critically endangered large tree endemic to Guam Refuge and Roti Island. Recovery of the Columbian White-tailed Deer – Add grass/forb meadow, wooded plots, corridors of mixed deciduous trees and shrubs for the deer; establish additional populations at Willapa Refuge Complex, WA/OR. Willamette Valley Multi- Species Recovery Project – Baskett Slough, William L. Finley and Ankeny Refuges and partners worked together to recover the Oregon chub. Work continues to recover the Fender's blue butterfly and Bradshaw's lomatium, an herb. Preventing Extinction of 27 Hawaiian Plants – Double the number of these plants on Hakalau Forest and Pacific Islands Refuges and reestablish many.

Riparian Restoration on the Middle Rio Grande to Benefit Rio Grande Silvery Minnow, Southwestern Willow Flycatcher and Western Yellow-billed Cuckoo
– Create additional nursery habitat for the silvery minnow and nesting habitat for migratory birds, remove invasive species and restore floodplain connections at and near Sevilleta Refuge, NM. Strategic Habitat Conservation in the South Texas Coastal Corridor for the Ocelot and Northern Aplomado Falcon – Connect isolated parcels of existing, optimal habitat and restore habitat at or near Lower Rio Grande Valley and Laguna Atascosa Refuges. Conservation of Multiple Endangered Fishes and Other Species – Restore wetland and upland habitat and wildlife corridors in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico for the benefit of five fish, one amphibian and one invertebrate. Red Imported Fire Ant Control —Target the invasive red fire ant in Texas to enable more Attwater's prairie chickens to survive. Rio Hondo Restoration Project/Bitter Lake Invertebrates and Fishes – Expand habitat for Noel's amphipod by re-routing the Rio Hondo river channel and creating a new habitat channel at Bitter Lake Refuge, NM. Sonoran Pronghorn – Establish and conserve populations of endangered

Captive Rearing the Emerald Dragonfly
– Produce captive-reared adults to augment the wild population and preserve high genetic diversity. The dragonfly's Illinois population is near extirpation. Topeka Shiner Recovery in Southwest Minnesota – Create or restore off-channel oxbow pods, improve water quality and stabilize the endangered fish's population in or near Windom Wetland Management District. Whooping Crane Forced Re-nesting to Prevent Extinction – To increase whooping crane hatchling and fledgling rates at Necedah Refuge, WI, encourage re-nesting before black flies emerge. Recovery of the Federally Endangered Iowa Pleistocene Snail – Conduct surveys to determine the status of existing snail colonies, and to protect colonies at and near Driftless Area Refuge. Return of Big River Endangered Freshwater Mussels – Introduce four species of endangered mussels at or near Ohio River Islands Refuge, WV.

Southeast Region Northeast Region Mountain-Prairie Region

Mountain Sweet Pitcher Plant Recovery Initiative
– Increase the size of partially protected sites by acquiring easements of critical habitat at or near Mountain Bogs Refuge, NC/TN. Preventing Extinction of Bartram's Scrub-Hairstreak and Florida Leafwing – Enhance habitat to aid potential reintroduction of the small gray butterfly and create new “stepping stone” habitat patches that include its host plant, Florida leafwing, which grows only in south Florida (Florida Keys Refuge Complex) and some Caribbean islands. Preventing Extinction of Florida Grasshopper Sparrow – Increase quality and capacity of habitat within Everglades Headwaters Refuge to support the sparrow. Includes prescribed grazing and burning, and tree removal. Southwest Puerto Rico Endangered Plant Species – Six federally listed plant species at or near Cabo Rojo and Laguna Cartagena Refuges should benefit from recovery actions such as habitat enhancement with native species, excluding cattle, creating fire breaks and habitat restoration on private lands. Dusky Gopher Frog Breeding Pond Restoration – Establish a new population of the endangered frog at Mississippi Sandhill Crane Refuge.

Puritan Tiger Beetle Habitat in the Connecticut River Watershed
– Restore habitat and establish two populations of the threatened beetle, which is found on the banks of the Connecticut River at Silvio O. Conte Refuge, CT/MA/NH/ VT, and near Stewart B. McKinney Refuge, CT. Red-cockaded Woodpecker Reintroduction – Establish a second viable breeding population in Virginia, at Great Dismal Swamp Refuge and adjacent lands. Recovery of the Karner Blue Butterfly – Rear and release captive butterflies in New Hampshire. Includes seeding of nectar plants, herbicide application, prescribed burning and removal of vegetation. New England cottontail and other species should benefit, too. Endangered Roseate Tern Breeding and Staging Habitat Management and Enhancement – Improve habitat and control predators at refuges and other sites across New England. Seabeach Amaranth Restoration on Atlantic Coast National Wildlife Refuges – In partnership with the Southeast Region, work to prevent extinction of, and then reestablish, this threatened annual plant throughout its natural range from Massachusetts to South Carolina.

Black-footed Ferret Recovery (2014)
– Reintroduce ferrets to Rocky Mountain Arsenal Refuge, CO, to create a self- sustaining population. Black-footed Ferret Recovery (2015) – UL Bend Refuge, MT, and Arapaho Refuge, CO, will be important to recovering this species, which is affected by sylvatic plague and the lack of prairie dogs, its main food source. Lesser Prairie Chicken Conservation and Recovery in Kansas – Restore and enhance habitat, establish/enhance partnerships with landowners and increase the bird's population at or near Quivira and Kirwin Refuges. Wetlands, Watershed and Whooping Cranes – Focus on wetlands with bisected ownership, protect and restore reliable stopover habitat for cranes during spring and fall migrations. Wyoming Toad Recovery – Address a fungus in wild toads, improve tadpole survival and expand Saratoga National Fish Hatchery. Razorback Sucker Recovery – Improve and expand wetland habitat at Ouray Refuge, UT, to provide nursery habitat. Wetlands, Watersheds and Whooping Cranes: A Comprehensive Approach to Wetland Habitat Restoration in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska – Work with private landowners to fill unused irrigation pits near waterfowl production areas, allowing water to flow naturally into wetlands.

Alaska Region Pacific Southwest Region

Spectacled Eider Assessment
– Expand annual land-based nest surveys in the Yukon Delta to provide valid, ground-based samples of all spectacled eider habitat within the survey area. Reintroducing Steller's Eiders to the Yukon Delta – Release captive-bred juvenile Steller's eiders onto Yukon- Kuskokwim Delta sites to establish a self-sustaining breeding population.

Endangered Light-Footed Ridgway's Rail on the Pacific Coast
– Implement a sea-level-rise adaptation strategy and improve cordgrass nesting habitat at or near Seal Beach Refuge, CA. Pahranagat Valley Fishes Cooperative Recovery Proposal – Increase numbers of native chub in the wild by securing more refugia populations and by improving habitat management of cattle in Nevada. Improving Population Stability for Listed Klamath Suckers – Create locations for backup and augmentation of natural populations of endangered Lost River sucker and shortnose sucker fish at and near Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges, OR/ CA. Muddy River Cooperative Recovery Initiative – At and near Moapa Valley Refuge, NV, restore migration corridors and habitat quality for endangered Moapa dace fish while preventing reinvasion of its habitat by aquatic invasive species. Establishment and Monitoring of Devils Hole Pupfish and the Devils Hole Algae and Invertebrate Community at the Ash Meadows Fish Conservation Facility – To reduce the Devils Hole pupfish's extinction risk, establish and manage two refuge populations of the endangered fish at the facility within Ash Meadows Refuge, NV.

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