Subsidence, limited sediment accretion, and sea level rise all contribute to the complete inundation of the Refuge’s Pacific cordgrass (Spartina folisa). During the higher high tides, the water level eliminates natural nesting areas for the rail.
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service - 2015 Cooperative Recovery Initiative Grant California Coastal Conservancy Grant Orange County, OC Parks - Sediment and Application Contract California Department of Fish and Wildlife - Greenhouse Gas Reduction Program U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - Ecosystem Management & Restoration Research Program
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Additional project information can be found in the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Final Environmental Assessment.
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The smallest of the North American terns, they are migratory seabirds that breed primarily along the California coast. Their swallow-like flight gave them their earlier common name, Sea Sparrows. They were listed as Federally Endangered in 1970 mainly due to habitat loss.