History and Culture of the Bitterroot Valley
"In 1864 the pioneers found the Bitterroot Valley a desolate place. There was no irrigation, and since the grasshoppers had visited the country that summer there were no signs of vegetation. Buffalo grass and wildsage covered the ground. There were no roads, railroads, bridges, telephones, or telegraph." Taken from the Missoulian newspaper "When Pioneers First came to the Bitter Root Valley" by the publication "Some Bitterroot Memories 1860-1930".