Mammal species diversity and abundance on the Refuge is tied to wet and dry cycles. The relative abundance and productivity of wetland-dependent species like muskrat and mink tracks along with long-term hydrological and vegetative dynamics. Many mammal species use the uplands such as coyote, American badger, porcupine, white-tailed deer, mule deer, and pronghorn as they move into the area for forage and breeding.
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Sharp-tailed Grouse mating season occurs from late March to late May. More than 60 birds have been seen on the main refuge lek participating in their mating dance.