National Wildlife Refuges work closely with other researchers, universities, and science-based organizations interested in supporting the agency's wildlife conservation mission.  Completion of targeted research allows refuge staff to make informed management decisions.

Published Papers & Reports

American Bittern

Gary Huschle, John E. Toepfer, Wayne L. Brininger, Jr., and David A. Azure. 2002. Capturing Adult American Bitterns. Waterbirds 25:505-508.
David A. Azure, Wayne L. Brininger, John E. Toepfer, Gary Huschle, and Richard D. Crawford. 2000. First Described Renesting Attempt by an American Bittern. Wilson Bulletin 112:271-273.
W. Daniel Svedarsky. 1992. Observations on Nesting of the American Bittern in Northwest Minnesota. Prairie Naturalist 24:241-250.
David A. Azure, David E. Naugle, John E. Toepfer, Gary Huschle, and Richard D. Crawford. 1999. Sexing American Bitterns, Botaurus lentiginosus, Using Morphometric Characteristics. Canadian Field-Naturalist 114: 307-310.