Due to the sensitive nature of Palmyra's ecosystem and the high abundance of apex predators, recreational fishing opportunities are very limited as permits would only be issued to groups who are lead by fishing guide's who are already familiar with the atoll's environment and the refuge regulations.
Recreational bonefishing is conducted at Palmyra on a catch-and-release basis with artificial flies and barbless hooks. A total of eight anglers are allowed in the lagoons at one time, with no more than 2 fishing outings permitted per day. Catch rates are monitored through daily logs and tagging studies in order to assure sustainable fishery conditions.
The offshore sport fishing program at Palmyra allows visitors access to pelagic game-fish, including tuna (ahi), wahoo (ono), and mahi-mahi. Fishing is limited to 8 people per trip, with no more than 2 boats at a time, with up to 3 trips per day. Fishing logs are required for each trip. Only pelagic species are permitted to be kept for on-island consumption.
No sportfish of any kind are permitted to be shipped off the atoll for any reason. No bottom fish or reef fish are allowed to be targeted, and any that are accidentally caught are to be immediately released. Jacks can be fished on a catch-and-release basis, and none are permitted to be consumed or retained for any reason.