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Carolina Wren

Refuge conservation plans are called “comprehensive conservation plans” (CCPs).

  • Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    What is a Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP)?: It is the policy of the US Fish and Wildlife Service to manage all lands within the National Wildlife Refuge System in accordance with an approved comprehensive conservation plan, as required under the National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997. These plans outline a vision for each refuge; guide management decisions; and outline goals, objectives and strategies to achieve the visions and purposes of each refuge unit. The plans will provide other agencies and the public with an understanding of the management strategies to be implemented. These plans further the missions of the US Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Wildlife Refuge System.

    View the Carolina Sandhills NWR's completed CCP.

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  • National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act

    National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997: The NWRS Improvement Act defines a unifying mission for all refuges, including a process for determining compatible uses on refuges, and requiring that each refuge be managed according to a CCP. The NWRS Improvement  Act expressly states that wildlife conservation is the priority of System lands and that the Secretary shall ensure that the biological integrity, diversity, and environmental health of refuge lands are maintained. Each refuge must be managed to fulfill the specific purposes for which the refuge was established and the System mission. The first priority of each refuge is to conserve, manage, and if needed, restore fish and wildlife populations and habitats according to its purpose.

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Page Photo Credits — John Heinz city refuge - USFWS, Great Swamp credit: USFWS, Credit:  USFWS
Last Updated: Apr 14, 2017
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