Wildlife & Habitat


Approximately 216 bird, 47 mammal, and 90 reptile and amphibian species have been documented in this area, many of which depend on the specialized habitat provided by the wetlands of Caddo Lake.

The Caddo Lake National Wildlife Refuge is located in the West Gulf Coastal Plain area, also known in Texas as the Piney Woods. In contrast to the more arid and thinly wooded areas that characterize much of the rest of the State, the refuge is one of the richest examples still in existence of the lush and abundant Piney Woods Belt where rainfall is abundant and rivers and bayous twist through forests teeming with wildlife and a great diversity of aquatic and terrestrial plant specimens.

A number of wildlife and plants here are listed as rare or threatened under national and international laws, including the peregrine falcon, alligator snapping turtle, and the Rafinesque's big-eared bat. The wetlands of Caddo Lake are very important to migratory bird species within the Central Flyway. The area supports one of the highest breeding populations of wood ducks, prothonotary warblers and other birds in the United States. The Lake also supports diverse fish fauna, with as many as 86 species. There are at least 18 species of game fish present in Caddo waters, accounting for the lake’s important sports fishery activity.

Caddo is a naturally-formed lake of some 28,000 to 32,000 acres, depending on water levels. The lake is almost evenly divided between Texas and Louisiana and is the only large naturally-formed lake in Texas, the largest in the American South. Visitors have described it as “the most beautiful lake you will ever see.” Few who have visited Caddo contradict that statement. The wetlands of Caddo Lake are one of the best examples of a mature flooded bald cypress forest in the U.S. and include cypress trees up to 400 years old. The lake also supports one of the most diverse communities of plants in Texas, if not the United States.

In 1993, portions of Caddo Lake and its wetlands became the 13th site in the U.S. to be designated “wetlands of international significance” under the Ramsar Convention.