[Federal Register: September 28, 2005 (Volume 70, Number 187)]
[Page 56735-56736]
From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov]



Fish and Wildlife Service

Recovery Plan for Blackburn's Sphinx Moth (Manduca blackburni)

AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior.

ACTION: Notice of document availability.


SUMMARY: The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (we) announces the 
availability of the Recovery Plan for Blackburn's Sphinx Moth (Manduca 
blackburni) (sphinx moth). This insect taxon is endemic to the main 
Hawaiian Islands.

ADDRESSES: Copies of this recovery plan will be available within 4 
weeks by request form the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Pacific 
Islands Fish and Wildlife Office, 300 Ala Moana Boulevard, Room 3-122, 
Box 50088, Honolulu, Hawaii 96850 (phone: 808-792-9400) and the Hawaii 
State Library 478 S. King Street, Honolulu, Hawaii 96813. An electronic 
copy of the recovery plan is now available on the World Wide Web at: 

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: The Field Supervisor at the above 
Honolulu address.



    Restoring endangered or threatened animals and plants to the point 
where they are again secure, self-sustaining members of their 
ecosystems is a primary goal of our endangered species program. The 
Endangered Species Act (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) (ESA) requires the 
development of recovery plans for listed species unless such a plan 
would not promote the conservation of a particular species. Recovery 
plans help guide the recovery effort by describing actions considered 
necessary for the conservation of the species, establishing criteria 
for downlisting or delisting listed species, and estimating time and 
cost for implementing the measures needed for recovery.
    Section 4(f) of the Act requires that public notice and an 
opportunity for public review and comment be provided during recovery 
plan development. In fulfillment of this requirement, the Draft 
Recovery Plan for the Blackburn's Sphinx Moth (Manduca blackburni) was 
available for public comment from December 18, 2003, through February 
17, 2004 (68 FR 70528). Information presented during the public comment 
period has been considered in the preparation of this final recovery 
plan, and is summarized in the appendix to the recovery plan. We will 
forward substantive comments regarding recovery plan implementation to 
appropriate Federal or other entities so that they can take these 
comments into account during the course of implementing recovery 
    The sphinx moth was federally listed as endangered in 2000 (65 FR 
4770) and 22,440 hectares (55,451 acres) of critical habitat was 
designated in 2003 (68 FR 34710). This insect taxon is currently known 
to occur on three of the seven

[[Page 56736]]

Hawaiian Islands where it historically occurred, including Hawaii, 
Maui, and Kahoolawe. Vegetation types that support the sphinx moth 
include dry to mesic shrub land and forest from sea level to mid-
elevations. Soil and climatic conditions, as well as physical factors, 
affect the suitability of habitat within the species' range.
    Threats include impacts to the sphinx moth's habitat from urban and 
agricultural development, invasion by non-native plant species, habitat 
fragmentation and degradation, increased wildfire frequency, ungulates, 
and direct impacts to the moth from non-native parasitoids and insect 
    The objective of this recovery plan is to provide a framework for 
the recovery of the sphinx moth so that protection by the ESA is no 
longer necessary. Actions necessary to accomplish this objective 
include: (1) Protection, management, restoration of habitat, and 
control of threats; (2) expanding existing wild Nothocestrum spp. host 
plant populations; (3) conducting additional research essential to 
recovery of the sphinx moth; (4) development and implementation of a 
detailed monitoring plan for the sphinx moth; (5) reestablishing and 
augmentation of wild sphinx moth populations within its historic range; 
(6) developing and providing information for the public on the sphinx 
moth; (7) validating recovery objectives which includes refining/
revising the downlisting and delisting criteria; and (8) develop a 
post-delisting monitoring plan.

    Authority: The authority for this action is section 4(f) of the 
Endangered Species Act, 16 U.S.C. 1533(f).

    Dated: August 26, 2005.
David J. Wesley,
Acting Regional Director, Region 1, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
[FR Doc. 05-19331 Filed 9-27-05; 8:45 am]