[Federal Register: October 12, 2001 (Volume 66, Number 198)]
[Proposed Rules]               
[Page 52281-52300]
From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov]

[[Page 52281]]


Part V

Department of the Interior


Fish and Wildlife Service


50 CFR Part 10

General Provisions; Revised List of Migratory Birds; Proposed Rule

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Fish and Wildlife Service

50 CFR Part 10

RIN 1018-AB72

General Provisions; Revised List of Migratory Birds

AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior.

ACTION: Proposed rule.


SUMMARY: We propose to revise the List of Migratory Birds by (1) adding 
1 species that belongs to a family covered by the Canadian and Mexican 
treaties and that is now known to occur and breed regularly in the 
United States; (2) adding 2 species covered by the Japanese and Russian 
treaties that were mistakenly omitted from previous lists; (3) adding 1 
species of regular occurrence in the United States that now belongs to 
a protected family as a result of a recent taxonomic revision; (4) 
adding 26 newly recognized species; (5) removing 1 species that is no 
longer considered valid; (6) changing the English (common) and 
scientific names of 78 species to conform with modern nomenclature; and 
(7) correcting an error in the common (English) name of 1 species. The 
net result of these proposed changes is the addition of 29 species (25 
by name only), which will bring the total number of protected species 
to 861; only 4 of the 29 proposed additions are not currently covered 
by the existing list as former subspecies of a listed species.

DATES: Comments must be submitted on or before November 13, 2001.

ADDRESSES: Written comments may be mailed to the Chief, Division of 
Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 4401 North 
Fairfax Drive, Room 634, Arlington, VA 22203. Alternatively, comments 
may be e-mailed, with Migratory Birds in the subject line, to John L. 
Trapp (john_trapp@fws.gov). The complete file for this rule will be 
available for public inspection during normal business hours, by 
appointment, at the above address.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jon Andrew, Chief, Division of 
Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, telephone: 
(703) 358-1714.


What Statutory Authority Does the Service Have for This Rulemaking?

    We have statutory authority and responsibility for enforcing the 
Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) in 16 U.S.C. 703-711, the Fish and 
Wildlife Improvement Act of 1978, 16 U.S.C. 712, and 16 U.S.C. 742a-j. 
The MBTA implements treaties between the United States and four 
neighboring countries for the protection of migratory birds, as 
    (1) Canada: Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds, 
August 16, 1916, United States-Great Britain (on behalf of Canada), 39 
Stat. 1702, T.S. No. 628;
    (2) Mexico: Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds and 
Game Mammals, February 7, 1936, United States-United Mexican States 
(=Mexico), 50 Stat. 1311, T.S. No. 912;
    (3) Japan: Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds and 
Birds in Danger of Extinction, and Their Environment, March 4, 1972, 
United States-Japan, 25 U.S.T., 3329 T.I.A.S. No. 7990; and
    (4) Russia: Convention for the Conservation of Migratory Birds and 
Their Environment, United States-Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 
(=Russia), November 26, 1976, 92 Stat. 3110, T.I.A.S. 9073, 16 U.S.C. 

What Is the Purpose of The Proposed Rulemaking?

    Our purpose is to inform the public of the species protected by 
regulations designed to enforce the terms of the MBTA. These 
regulations are found in Title 50, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), 
Parts 10, 20, and 21. We regulate most aspects of the taking, 
possession, transportation, sale, purchase, barter, exportation, and 
importation of migratory birds. An accurate and up-to-date list of 
species protected by the MBTA is essential for regulatory purposes.

Why Is The Proposed Amendment to the List of Migratory Birds 

    The proposed amendment is needed to (1) add a species that belongs 
to a protected family and that is now known to occur and breed 
regularly in the United States, (2) add two species covered by the 
Japanese and Russian treaties that were mistakenly omitted from 
previous lists, (3) add a species of regular occurrence in the United 
States that now belongs to a protected family as a result of recent 
taxonomic revisions, (4) add 26 newly recognized species by name, (5) 
remove a species that is no longer considered valid, (6) change the 
common (English) and scientific names of 78 species to conform with 
modern nomenclature, and (7) correct an error in the existing list. 
Twenty-nine species will be added by name, but in fact only four will 
be newly covered (the other 25 having previously been covered as 
subspecies of a listed species).
    The List of Migratory Birds (50 CFR 10.13) was last revised on 
April 5, 1985 (50 FR 13710). In a proposed rule published May 9, 1995 
(60 FR 24686), we suggested adding 20 species, removing 1 species, and 
revising the common (English) or scientific names of 23 previously 
listed species to conform with the most recent nomenclature. The 
proposed amendments were a response to five published supplements to 
the 6th (1983) edition of the American Ornithologists' Union's (AOU's) 
Check-list of North American birds. Knowing that additional amendments 
would be necessary following the anticipated publication of a 7th 
edition of the Check-list, we elected to delay publication of a final 
rule until after the appearance of the revised Check-list. The 1995 
proposed rule generated just two public comments, from the American 
Ornithologists' Union and the Association of Scientific Collections. 
The comments of those organizations, mostly editorial in nature, are 
incorporated into this document, as appropriate.
    Following publication of the 7th edition of the Check-list in July 
1998, administrative workloads and staff shortages prevented work on a 
final rule until September 2000. Because of the 5-year delay since 
publication of the proposed rule, plus the many new changes 
necessitated by the 7th edition of the Check-list, we are issuing 
another proposed rule. This will provide the public with an opportunity 
to review and comment on all of the desired changes that have come to 
light since publication of the 1995 proposed rule.

What Scientific Authorities Does the Service Use To Amend the List 
of Migratory Birds?

    Although bird names (common and scientific) are relatively stable, 
there is still a need for standardized usage to avoid confusion in 
communications. We follow the Check-list of North American birds (AOU 
1998), as amended (AOU 1999, 2000), on matters of taxonomy, 
nomenclature, and the sequence of species and other higher taxonomic 
categories (orders, families, subfamilies). For the few species that 
occur outside the geographic area covered by the Check-list (AOU 1998, 
1999, and 2000), we follow Monroe and Sibley (1993). Citations for 
these authorities follow:

American Ornithologists' Union. 1998. Check-list of North American 
birds. 7th Edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC. 
829 pp.

[[Page 52283]]

American Ornithologists' Union. 1999. Notice from the Committee on 
Classification and Nomenclature. Auk 116: 282-283.
American Ornithologists' Union. 2000. Forty-second supplement to the 
American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American birds. 
Auk 117: 847-858.
Monroe, B. L., Jr., and C. G. Sibley. 1993. A world checklist of 
birds. Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn. 393 pp.

What Criteria Does the Service Use To Identify Species Eligible for 
Protection by the MBTA?

    The treaties with Canada and Mexico indicate, by scientific names 
of families or groups or by the common (English) names of species or 
groups of species, which birds were intended to be covered. We 
generally do not include species of purely accidental or casual 
occurrence in the United States, even if they belong to one of the 
named families or groups. Similarly, we do not list species whose 
occurrence in the United States is strictly the result of intentional 
human introduction(s).
    The Japanese and Russian treaties list individual species of birds 
that are covered. For 35 of these species, the scientific (genus or 
species) name currently recognized by scientific authorities (AOU 1998 
and 1999, Monroe and Sibley 1993) differs from that which appears in 
the treaties. The following cross-reference provides a linkage between 
the scientific names used in this list and those that appear in the 
appendices to the Japanese and Russian treaties. The first name is the 
modern equivalent adopted here, and the second name is that which 
appears in one or another of the treaties. These changes do not revise 
the appendices to either the Japanese or the Russian treaty (indicated 
by J or R):

Accipiter gularis (Japanese Sparrowhawk) is listed as Accipiter 
virgatus (J & R);
Actitis hypoleucos (Common Sandpiper) is listed as Tringa hypoleucos 
(J & R);
Aethia psittacula (Parakeet Auklet) is listed as Cyclorrhynchus 
psittacula (R);
Anas americana (American Wigeon) is listed as Mareca americana (J);
Anas clypeata (Northern Shoveler) is listed as Spatula clypeata (J);
Anas penelope (Eurasian Wigeon) is listed as Mareca penelope (J);
Anthus rubescens (American Pipit) is listed as Anthus spinoletta (J 
& R);
Branta bernicla (Brant) incorporates Branta nigricans (R);
Calidris alba (Sanderling) is listed as Crocethia alba (J);
Calidris subminuta (Long-toed Stint) is listed as part of Calidris 
minutilla (J);
Carduelis flammea (Common Redpoll) is listed as Acanthis flammea 
Carduelis hornemanni (Hoary Redpoll) is included as part of 
Carduelis flammea (J), and is listed as Acanthis hornemanni (R);
Charadrius morinellus (Eurasian Dotterel) is listed as Eudromias 
morinellus (J & R);
Chen canagica (Emperor Goose) is listed as Anser canagicus (J), and 
Philacte canagica (R);
Chen caerulescens (Snow Goose) is listed as Anser caerulescens (J);
Cygnus columbianus (Tundra Swan) incorporates Cygnus bewickii (R);
Egretta sacra (Pacific Reef-Egret) is listed as Demigretta sacra 
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin) is listed as Lunda cirrhata (J & 
Gallinago gallinago (Common Snipe) is listed as Capella gallinago 
Gallinago megala (Swinhoe's Snipe) is listed as Capella megala (R);
Gallinago stenura (Pin-tailed Snipe) is listed as Capella stenura 
Heterosceles brevipes (Gray-tailed Tattler) is included as part of 
Tringa incana (J);
Heterosceles incanus (Wandering Tattler) is listed as Tringa incana 
Luscinia calliope (Siberian Rubythroat) is listed as Erithacus 
calliope (J);
Melanitta fusca (White-winged Scoter) incorporates Melanitta 
deglandi (J);
Mergellus albellus (Smew) is listed as Mergus albellus (J & R);
Milvus migrans (Black Kite) is listed as Milvus korschun (R);
Motacilla lugens (Black-backed Wagtail) is included as part of 
Motacilla alba (J & R);
Numenius borealis (Eskimo Curlew) is included as part of Numenius 
minutus (J);
Phalaropus lobatus (Red-necked Phalarope) is listed as Lobipes 
lobatus (R);
Phoebastria albatrus (Short-tailed Albatross) is listed as Diomedea 
albatrus (J & R);
Phoebastria immutabilis (Laysan Albatross) is listed as Diomedea 
immutabilis (J & R);
Phoebastria nigripes (Black-footed Albatross) is listed as Diomedea 
nigripes (J & R);
Pterodroma hypoleuca (Bonin Petrel) is listed as Pterodroma 
leucoptera (R);
Tachycineta bicolor (Tree Swallow) is listed as Iridoprocne bicolor 
(R); and
Turdus obscurus (Eyebrowed Thrush) is listed as Turdus pallidus (R)

How Will the Changes Proposed Here Affect the List of Migratory 

    The proposed amendments address a grand total of 109 species and 
would result in a net addition of 30 species to the List of Migratory 
Birds, bringing the species total to 862. Only four species, though, 
are not already covered. Under these amendments, as proposed:
    (1) One species would be added because of recent evidence that it 
occurs regularly in the United States:

Tanager, Flame-colored, Piranga bidentata

    (2) Two species would be added because they are included in the 
Appendix of the Russian treaty and in the Annex to the Japanese treaty, 
respectively; the omission of these species in previous lists is 
considered an oversight:

Duck, Spot-billed, Anas poecilorhyncha; and
Gull, Black-tailed, Larus crassirostris

    (3) One species would be added because it occurs regularly in the 
United States, and recent taxonomic changes place it in a family 
(Sylviidae) covered by the Canadian and Mexican treaties:

Millerbird, Acrocephalus familiaris

    (4) Twenty-six species would be added because of recent taxonomic 
changes; what was once considered a single species is now recognized by 
authorities as two or more species. These additions will not change the 
protective status of these taxa, only the names by which they are 

Coot, Hawaiian, Fulica alai (formerly included in Fulica americana, 
American Coot);
Flicker, Gilded, Colaptes chrysoides (formerly included in Colaptes 
auratus, Northern Flicker);
Flycatcher, Cordilleran, Empidonax occidentalis (formerly included 
in Empidonax difficilis, Western Flycatcher);
Gnatcatcher, California, Polioptila californica (formerly included 
in Polioptila melanura, Black-tailed Gnatcatcher);
Golden-Plover, Pacific, Pluvialis fulva (formerly included in 
Pluvialis dominica, Lesser Golden-Plover);
Grebe, Clark's, Aechmophorus clarkii (formerly included in 
Aechmophorus occidentalis, Western Grebe);
Kamao, Myadestes myadestinus (formerly included in Phaeornis 
obscurus, Hawaiian Thrush);
Loon, Pacific, Gavia pacifica (formerly included in Gavia arctica, 
Arctic Loon);
Olomao, Myadestes lanaiensis (formerly included in Phaeornis 
obscurus, Hawaiian Thrush);
Oriole, Bullock's, Icterus bullockii (formerly included in Icterus 
galbula, Northern Oriole);
Petrel, White-necked, Pterodroma cervicalis (formerly included in 
Pterodroma externa, White-necked Petrel, currently known as Juan 
Fernandez Petrel);
Rosy-Finch, Black, Leucosticte atrata (formerly included in 
Leucosticte arctoa, Rosy Finch);
Rosy-Finch, Brown-capped, Leucosticte australis (formerly included 
in Leucosticte arctoa, Rosy Finch);
Rosy-Finch, Gray-crowned, Leucosticte tephrocotis (formerly included 
in Leucosticte arctoa, Rosy Finch);
Sapsucker, Red-naped, Sphyrapicus nuchalis (formerly included in 
Sphyrapicus varius, Yellow-bellied Sapsucker);
Scrub-Jay, Island, Aphelocoma insularis (formerly included in 
Aphelocoma coerulescens, Scrub Jay);
Scrub-Jay, Western, Aphelocoma californica (formerly included in 
Aphelocoma coerulescens, Scrub Jay);
Sparrow, Nelson's Sharp-tailed, Ammodramus nelsoni (formerly 
included in Ammodramus caudacutus, Sharp-tailed Sparrow);
Thrush, Bicknell's, Catharus bicknelli (formerly included in 
Catharus minimus, Gray-cheeked Thrush);

[[Page 52284]]

Titmouse, Juniper, Baeolophus ridgwayi (formerly included in Parus 
inornatus, Plain Titmouse);
Towhee, California, Pipilo crissalis (formerly included in Pipilo 
fuscus, Brown Towhee);
Towhee, Spotted, Pipilo maculatus (formerly included in Pipilo 
erythrophthalmus, Rufous-sided Towhee);
Vireo, Cassin's, Vireo cassinii (formerly included in Vireo 
solitarius, Solitary Vireo);
Vireo, Plumbeous, Vireo plumbeus (formerly included in Vireo 
solitarius, Solitary Vireo);
Vireo, Yellow-green, Vireo flavoviridis (formerly included in Vireo 
olivaceus, Red-eyed Vireo); and
Woodpecker, Arizona, Picoides arizonae (formerly included in 
Picoides stricklandi, Strickland's Woodpecker)

    (5) One species would be removed because of uncertainty about its 
biological authenticity (but remain protected as the Black Rosy-Finch, 
Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch, and Brown-capped Rosy-Finch; see above):

Finch, Rosy, Leucosticte arctoa

    (6) The common (English) or scientific (genus or species) names of 
78 species will be revised to conform with the most recent 
nomenclature. These revisions will not change the protective status of 
any of these taxa, only the names by which they are known:

Albatross, Black-footed, Diomedea nigripes, will be changed to 
Phoebastria nigripes;
Albatross, Laysan, Diomedea immutabilis, will be changed to 
Phoebastria immutabilis;
Albatross, Short-tailed, Diomedea albatrus, will be changed to 
Phoebastria albatrus;
Albatross, Yellow-nosed, Diomedea chlororhynchos, will be changed to 
Thalassarche chlororhynchos;
Auklet, Parakeet, Cyclorrhynchus psittacula, will be changed to 
Aethia psittacula;
Barn-Owl, Common, will be changed to Owl, Barn;
Bittern, Chinese, will be changed to Bittern, Yellow;
Caracara, Crested, Polyborus plancus, will be changed to Caracara 
cheriway (this supersedes the proposed change to Caracara plancus);
Chickadee, Black-capped, Parus atricapillus, will be changed to 
Poecile atricapilla;
Chickadee, Boreal, Parus hudsonicus, will be changed to Poecile 
Chickadee, Carolina, Parus carolinensis, will be changed to Poecile 
Chickadee, Chestnut-backed, Parus rufescens, will be changed to 
Poecile rufescens;
Chickadee, Mexican, Parus sclateri, will be changed to Poecile 
Chickadee, Mountain, Parus gambeli, will be changed to Poecile 
Cormorant, Olivaceous, Phalacrocorax olivaceus, will be changed to 
Cormorant, Neotropic, Phalacrocorax brasilianus;
Crow, Mexican, will be changed to Crow, Tamaulipas;
Curlew, Least, will be changed to Curlew, Little;
Duck, Masked, Oxyura dominica, will be changed to Nomonyx dominica;
Egret, Great, Casmerodius albus, will be changed to Ardea alba;
Egret, Plumed, Egretta intermedia, will be changed to Egret, 
Intermediate, Mesophoyx intermedia;
Flycatcher, Olive-sided, Contopus borealis, will be changed to 
Contopus cooperi;
Flycatcher, Western, will be changed to Flycatcher, Pacific-slope;
Gannet, Northern, Sula bassanus, will be changed to Morus bassanus;
Golden-Plover, Lesser, will be changed to Golden-Plover, American;
Goose, Hawaiian, Nesochen sandvicensis, will be changed to Branta 
Goose, Ross', will be changed to Goose, Ross's;
Gull, Common Black-headed, will be changed to Gull, Black-headed;
Gull, Ross', will be changed to Gull, Ross's;
Hawk, Asiatic Sparrow, will be changed to Sparrowhawk, Japanese;
Hawk, Gray, Buteo nitidus, will be changed to Asturina nitida;
Hawk, Harris', will be changed to Hawk, Harris's;
Hawk-Owl, Northern, will be changed to Owl, Northern Hawk;
Heron, Green-backed, Butorides striatus, will be changed to Heron, 
Green, Butorides virescens;
Heron, Pacific Reef, Egretta sacra, will be changed to Reef-Egret, 
Hoopoe will be changed to Hoopoe, Eurasian;
Jay, Gray-breasted, will be changed to Jay, Mexican;
Jay, Scrub, will be changed to Scrub-Jay, Florida;
Kite, American Swallow-tailed, will be changed to Kite, Swallow-
Kite, Black-shouldered, Elanus caeruleus, will be changed to Kite, 
White-tailed, Elanus leucurus;
Magpie, Black-billed, Pica pica, will be changed to Pica hudsonia;
Murrelet, Xantus', will be changed to Murrelet, Xantus's;
Night-Heron, Japanese, Nycticorax goisagi, will be changed to 
Gorsachius goisagi
Night-Heron, Malay, Nycticorax melanolophus, will be changed to 
Night-Heron, Malayan, Gorsachius melanolophus;
Night-Heron, Yellow-crowned, Nycticorax violaceus, will be changed 
to Nyctanassa violacea;
Oldsquaw will be changed to Duck, Long-tailed;
Oriole, Black-cowled, will be changed to Oriole, Greater Antillean;
Oriole, Northern, will be changed to Oriole, Baltimore;
Petrel, White-necked, Pterodroma externa, will be changed to Petrel, 
Juan Fernandez;
Pipit, Water, Anthus spinoletta, will be changed to Pipit, American, 
Anthus rubescens;
Reed-Bunting, Common, will be changed to Bunting, Reed;
Reed-Bunting, Pallas', will be changed to Bunting, Pallas's;
Skua, Great, Catharacta skua, will be changed to Stercorarius skua;
Skua, South Polar, Catharacta maccormicki, will be changed to 
Stercorarius maccormicki;
Skylark, Eurasian, will be changed to Lark, Sky;
Sparrow, Five-striped, Amphispiza quinquestriata, will be changed to 
Aimophila quinquestriata;
Sparrow, Harris', will be changed to Sparrow, Harris's;
Sparrow, Sharp-tailed, Ammodramus caudacutus, will be changed to 
Sparrow, Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed;
Starling, Ashy, will be changed to Starling, White-cheeked;
Starling, Violet-backed, will be changed to Starling, Chestnut-
Storm-Petrel, Sooty, will be changed to Storm-Petrel, Tristram's;
Swallow, Cave, Hirundo fulva, will be changed to Petrochelidon 
Swallow, Cliff, Hirundo pyrrhonota, will be changed to Petrochelidon 
Swift, Antillean Palm, will be changed to Palm-Swift, Antillean;
Tanager, Stripe-headed, Spindalis zena, will be changed to 
Spindalis, Puerto Rican, Spindalis portoricensis;
Teal, Falcated, will be changed to Duck, Falcated;
Thrush, Eye-browed, will be changed to Thrush, Eyebrowed;
Thrush, Hawaiian, Phaeornis obscurus, will be changed to Omao, 
Myadestes obscurus;
Thrush, Small Kauai, Phaeornis palmeri, will be changed to Puaiohi, 
Myadestes palmeri;
Tit, Siberian, Parus cinctus, will be changed to Chickadee, Gray-
headed, Poecile cincta;
Titmouse, Bridled, Parus wollweberi, will be changed to Baeolophus 
Titmouse, Plain, Parus inornatus, will be changed to Titmouse, Oak, 
Baeolophus inornatus;
Titmouse, Tufted, Parus bicolor, will be changed to Baeolophus 
Towhee, Brown, will be changed to Towhee, Canyon;
Towhee, Rufous-sided, will be changed to Towhee, Eastern;
Tree-Pipit, Olive, will be changed to Pipit, Olive-backed;
Vireo, Solitary, will be changed to Vireo, Blue-headed;
Warbler, Elfin Woods, will be changed to Warbler, Elfin-woods; and
Woodpecker, Lewis', will be changed to Woodpecker, Lewis's.

    (7) The common (English) name of one species will be revised to 
correct a misspelling:

Redstart, Slaty-throated, will be changed to Redstart, Slate-

    For ease of comparison, the proposed changes are summarized in the 
following table:

[[Page 52285]]

               Remove                        Add (alphabetically)
Albatross, Black-footed, Diomedea    Albatross, Black-footed,
 nigripes.                            Phoebastria nigripes.
Albatross, Laysan, Diomedea          Albatross, Laysan, Phoebastria
 immutabilis.                         immutabilis.
Albatross, Short-tailed, Diomedea    Albatross, Short-tailed,
 albatrus.                            Phoebastria albatrus.
Albatross, Yellow-nosed, Diomedea    Albatross, Yellow-nosed,
 chlororhynchos.                      Thalassarche chlororhynchos.
Auklet, Parakeet, Cyclorrhynchus     Auklet, Parakeet, Aethia
 psittacula.                          psittacula.
Barn-Owl, Common, Tyto alba........
Bittern, Chinese, Ixobrychus         Bittern, Yellow, Ixobrychus
 sinensis.                            sinensis.
                                     Bunting, Pallas's, Emberiza
                                     Bunting, Reed, Emberiza
Caracara, Crested, Polyborus         Caracara, Crested, Caracara
 plancus.                             cheriway.
Chickadee, Black-capped, Parus       Chickadee, Black-capped, Poecile
 atricapillus.                        atricapillus.
Chickadee, Boreal, Parus hudsonicus  Chickadee, Boreal, Poecile
Chickadee, Carolina, Parus           Chickadee, Carolina, Poecile
 carolinensis.                        carolinensis.
Chickadee, Chestnut-backed, Parus    Chickadee, Chestnut-backed, Poecile
 rufescens.                           rufescens.
                                     Chickadee, Gray-headed, Poecile
Chickadee, Mexican, Parus sclateri.  Chickadee, Mexican, Poecile
Chickadee, Mountain, Parus gambeli.  Chickadee, Mountain, Poecile
                                     Coot, Hawaiian, Fulica alai.
Cormorant, Olivaceous,               Cormorant, Neotropic, Phalacrocorax
 Phalacrocorax olivaceus.             brasilianus.
Crow, Mexican, Corvus imparatus....  Crow, Tamaulipas, Corvus imparatus.
Curlew, Least, Numenius minutus....  Curlew, Little, Numenius minutus.
                                     Duck, Falcated, Anas falcata.
                                     Duck, Long-tailed, Clangula
Duck, Masked, Oxyura dominica......  Duck, Masked, Nomonyx dominica.
                                     Duck, Spot-billed, Anas
Egret, Great, Casmerodius albus....  Egret, Great, Ardea alba.
Egret, Plumed, Egretta intermedia..  Egret, Intermediate, Mesophoyx
Finch, Rosy, Leucosticte arctoa....
                                     Flicker, Gilded, Colaptes
                                     Flycatcher, Cordilleran, Empidonax
Flycatcher, Olive-sided, Contopus    Flycatcher, Olive-sided, Contopus
 borealis.                            cooperi.
Flycatcher, Western, Empidonax       Flycatcher, Pacific-slope,
 difficilis.                          Empidonax difficilis.
Gannet, Northern, Sula bassanus....  Gannet, Northern, Morus bassanus.
                                     Gnatcatcher, California, Polioptila
Golden-Plover, Lesser, Pluvialis     Golden-Plover, American, Pluvialis
 dominica.                            dominica.
                                     Golden-Plover, Pacific, Pluvialis
Goose, Hawaiian, Nesochen            Goose, Hawaiian, Branta
 sandvicensis.                        sandvicensis.
Goose, Ross', Chen rossii..........  Goose, Ross's, Chen rossii.
                                     Grebe, Clark's, Aechmophorus
Gull, Common Black-headed, Larus     Gull, Black-headed, Larus
 ridibundus.                          ridibundus.
                                     Gull, Black-tailed, Larus
Gull, Ross', Rhodostethia rosea....  Gull, Ross's, Rhodostethia rosea.
Hawk, Asiatic Sparrow, Accipiter
Hawk, Gray, Buteo nitidus..........  Hawk, Gray, Asturina nitida.
Hawk, Harris', Parabuteo unicinctus  Hawk, Harris's, Parabuteo
Hawk-Owl, Northern, Surnia ulula...
Heron, Green-backed, Butorides       Heron, Green, Butorides virescens.
Heron, Pacific Reef, Egretta sacra.
Hoopoe, Upupa epops................  Hoopoe, Eurasian, Upupa epops.
Jay, Gray-breasted, Aphelocoma       Jay, Mexican, Aphelocoma
 ultramarina.                         ultramarina.
Jay, Scrub, Aphelocoma coerulescens
                                     Kamao, Myadestes myadestinus.
Kite, American Swallow-tailed,       Kite, Swallow-tailed, Elanoides
 Elanoides forficatus.                forficatus.
Kite, Black-shouldered, Elanus       Kite, White-tailed, Elanus
 caeruleus.                           leucurus.
                                     Lark, Sky, Alauda arvensis.
                                     Loon, Pacific, Gavia pacifica.
Magpie, Black-billed, Pica pica....  Magpie, Black-billed, Pica
                                     Millerbird, Acrocephalus
Murrelet, Xantus', Synthliboramphus  Murrelet, Xantus's,
 hypoleucus.                          Synthliboramphus hypoleucus.
Night-Heron, Japanese, Nycticorax    Night-Heron, Japanese, Gorsachius
 goisagi.                             goisagi.
Night-Heron, Malay, Nycticorax       Night-Heron, Malayan, Gorsachius
 melanolophus.                        melanolophus.
Night-Heron, Yellow-crowned,         Night-Heron, Yellow-crowned,
 Nycticorax-violaceus.                Nyctanassa violacea.
Oldsquaw, Clangula hyemalis........
                                     Olomao, Myadestes lanaiensis.
                                     Omao, Myadestes obscurus.
Oriole, Black-cowled, Icterus
Oriole, Northern, Icterus galbula..  Oriole, Baltimore, Icterus galbula.
                                     Oriole, Bullock's, Icterus
                                     Oriole, Greater Antillean, Icterus
                                     Owl, Barn, Tyto alba.
                                     Owl, Northern Hawk, Surnia ulula.
                                     Palm-Swift, Antillean, Tachornis
Petrel, White-necked, Pterodroma     Petrel, Juan Fernandez, Pterodroma
 externa.                             externa.
                                     Petrel, White-necked, Pterodroma

[[Page 52286]]

Pipit, Water, Anthus spinoletta....  Pipit, American, Anthus rubescens.
                                     Pipit, Olive-backed, Anthus
                                     Puaiohi, Myadestes palmeri.
Redstart, Slaty-throated, Myioborus  Redstart, Slate-throated, Myioborus
 miniatus.                            miniatus.
Reed-Bunting, Common, Emberiza
Reed-Bunting, Pallas', Emberiza
                                     Reef-Egret, Pacific, Egretta sacra.
                                     Rosy-Finch, Black, Leucosticte
                                     Rosy-Finch, Brown-capped,
                                      Leucosticte australis.
                                     Rosy-Finch, Gray-crowned,
                                      Leucosticte tephrocotis.
                                     Sapsucker, Red-naped, Sphyrapicus
                                     Scrub-Jay, Florida, Aphelocoma
                                     Scrub-Jay, Island, Aphelocoma
                                     Scrub-Jay, Western, Aphelocoma
Skua, Great, Catharacta skua.......  Skua, Great, Stercorarius skua.
Skua, South Polar, Catharacta        Skua, South Polar, Stercorarius
 maccormicki.                         maccormicki.
Skylark, Eurasian, Alauda arvensis.
Sparrow, Five-striped, Amphispiza    Sparrow, Five-striped, Aimophila
 quinquestriata.                      quinquestriata.
Sparrow, Harris', Zonotrichia        Sparrow, Harris's, Zonotrichia
 querula.                             querula.
                                     Sparrow, Nelson's Sharp-tailed,
                                      Ammodramus nelsoni.
Sparrow, Sharp-tailed, Ammodramus    Sparrow, Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed,
 caudacutus.                          Ammodramus caudacutus.
                                     Sparrowhawk, Japanese, Accipiter
                                     Spindalis, Puerto Rican, Spindalis
Starling, Ashy, Sturnus cineraceus.  Starling, White-cheeked, Sturnus
Starling, Violet-backed, Sturnus     Starling, Chestnut-cheeked, Sturnus
 philippensis.                        philippensis.
Storm-Petrel, Sooty, Oceanodroma     Storm-Petrel, Tristram's,
 tristrami.                           Oceanodroma tristrami.
Swallow, Cave, Hirundo fulva.......  Swallow, Cave, Petrochelidon fulva.
Swallow, Cliff, Hirundo pyrrhonota.  Swallow, Cliff, Petrochelidon
Swift, Antillean Palm, Tachornis
Tanager, Stripe-headed, Spindalis
                                     Tanager, Flame-colored, Piranga
Teal, Falcated, Anas falcata.......
                                     Thrush, Bicknell's, Catharus
Thrush, Eye-browed, Turdus obscurus  Thrush, Eyebrowed, Turdus obscurus.
Thrush, Hawaiian, Phaeornis
Thrush, Small Kauai, Phaeornis
Tit, Siberian, Parus cinctus.......
Titmouse, Bridled, Parus wollweberi  Titmouse, Bridled, Baeolophus
                                     Titmouse, Juniper, Baeolophus
Titmouse, Plain, Parus inornatus...  Titmouse, Oak, Baelophus inornatus.
Titmouse, Tufted, Parus bicolor....  Titmouse, Tufted, Baelophus
                                     Towhee, California, Pipilo
Towhee, Brown, Pipilo fuscus.......  Towhee, Canyon, Pipilo fuscus.
Towhee, Rufous-sided, Pipilo         Towhee, Eastern, Pipilo
 erythrophthalmus.                    erythrophthalmus.
                                     Towhee, Spotted, Pipilo maculatus.
Tree-Pipit, Olive, Anthus hodgsoni.
Vireo, Solitary, Vireo solitarius..  Vireo, Blue-headed, Vireo
                                     Vireo, Cassin's, Vireo cassinii.
                                     Vireo, Plumbeous, Vireo plumbeus.
                                     Vireo, Yellow-green, Vireo
Warbler, Elfin Woods, Dendroica      Warbler, Elfin-woods, Dendroica
 angelae.                             angelae.
                                     Woodpecker, Arizona, Picoides
Woodpecker, Lewis', Melanerpes       Woodpecker, Lewis's, Melanerpes
 lewis.                               lewis.

How Do the Changes Proposed Here Differ From Those Discussed in the 
1995 Proposed Rule?

    The proposal to add Green Sandpiper (Tringa ochropus) and Oriental 
Turtle-Dove (Streptopelia orientalis) on the basis of recent 
distributional records is withdrawn pending additional evidence that 
they occur regularly in the United States. We propose adding the Flame-
colored Tanager to the list on the basis of recent evidence that it 
occurs and breeds regularly in the United States, and because it 
belongs to a family (Thraupidae) covered by the Canadian and Mexican 
    As a result of taxonomic and nomenclatural changes incorporated 
into the 7th edition of the Check-list of North American birds, as 
amended (AOU 1998, 1999, and 2000), we propose adding 11 more newly 
recognized species (Arizona Woodpecker, Bicknell's Thrush, Bullock's 
Oriole, Cassin's Vireo, Gilded Flicker, Plumbeous Vireo, Island Scrub-
Jay, Juniper Titmouse, Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow, Spotted Towhee, 
and Western Scrub-Jay). These birds were formerly covered by the MBTA 
as subspecies of other species.
    We also propose to revise the common (English) or scientific names 
of an additional 57 species previously listed in 50 CFR 10.13. The 
proposal to shorten the English name of the Common Pauraque 
(Nyctidromus albicollis) to Pauraque is no longer necessary due to a 
name change adopted by the AOU (2000).

How Is the List of Migratory Birds Organized?

    The species are listed in two formats to suit the needs of 
different segments of the public: alphabetically in Section 10.13(c)(1) 
and taxonomically in Section

[[Page 52287]]

10.13(c)(2). In the alphabetical listing, species will be listed by 
common (English) name groups, with the scientific name of each species 
following the English name. This format, which is similar to that used 
in modern telephone directories, will be most useful to members of the 
lay public. In the taxonomic listing, species will be listed in 
phylogenetic sequence by scientific name, with the English name 
following the scientific name. To help clarify species relationships, 
we will also list the higher level taxonomic categories of Order, 
Family, and Subfamily. This format, which follows the sequence adopted 
by the AOU (1998), will be most useful to ornithologists and other 

What Species Are Not Protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act?

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and our predecessors have 
interpreted the MBTA and the underlying treaties as applying only to 
species of natural (but not accidental or casual) occurrence in North 
America or United States territory outside North America, and not to 
non-native species. One of the reasons for this is that the MBTA and 
the treaties are silent regarding the inclusion of non-native species 
and none of the four treaties expressly lists any non-native species. 
The treaties list only species, families, or groups of birds containing 
members native to the United States.
    An example is the fact that the treaty with Canada, in elaborating 
on a family that is large enough to include species not native to North 
America, references only those species or groups of species that are 
native to North America. Also, this treaty does not list any of the 
many groups of insectivorous birds that are native only to areas 
outside North America; rather, all of the groups of this type that are 
listed occur in North America. The later treaties also are consistent 
with this interpretation. The treaties with Japan and Russia actually 
list the species covered (as opposed to listing families or groups) and 
all of the species exist naturally in United States territory.
    This interpretation is also based on the overall purposes and goals 
of the treaties, which are to protect birds from extinction, protect 
their value as a food supply, and protect agricultural interests and 
forests from pests controlled by birds. If the MBTA were applied to 
protect introduced non-native birds it would likely not further any of 
these goals. Moreover, it would promote competition with native species 
for resources needed for survival.
    A species is not protected by the MBTA if it falls into one or more 
of the following categories:
    (1) Species intentionally or unintentionally introduced into the 
United States, even those that belong to a family or group covered by 
the Canadian or Mexican treaties. Examples include Mute Swan (Cygnus 
olor), a member of the family Anatidae, and Rock Dove (Columba livia), 
a member of the family Columbidae.
    (2) Species that may have been sighted but are of purely accidental 
occurrence in the United States, unless either the Japanese or Russian 
treaty (both of which list birds by individual species) specifically 
includes it. Examples include Green Sandpiper and Japanese Turtle-Dove.
    (3) Members of families or groups not specified by the Canadian or 
Mexican treaties. Examples include species in the families Phasianidae 
(grouse and turkeys), Odontophoridae (quail), Psittacidae (parrots), 
Todidae (todies), Meliphagidae (honeyeaters), Monarchidae (monarchs), 
Timaliidae (wrentits), and Coerebidae (bananaquits); and the subfamily 
Drepanidinae (Hawaiian honeycreepers).

Does the Proposed Rule Comply With NEPA?

    This regulation is categorically excluded from further National 
Environmental Policy Act requirements under Part 516 of the Department 
Manual, Chapter 2, Appendix 1.10.

Does the Proposed Rule Comply With the Endangered Species Act?

    Yes. A number of species appearing on the List of Migratory Birds 
are also designated as endangered or threatened under provisions of the 
Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531, et seq.; see 50 CFR 
17.11). No legal complications arise from the dual listing since the 
two lists are developed under separate authorities and for different 

What About Other Required Determinations?

    Because the proposed revision to the List of Migratory Birds will 
merely re-describe the birds already protected by Federal treaties with 
Canada, Japan, Mexico, and Russia, we determined that this document 
will not have a significant economic effect on a substantial number of 
small entities under the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et 
    This document has not been reviewed by the Office of Management and 
Budget under Executive Order 12866. In accordance with the criteria in 
Executive Order 12866, this proposed rule is not a significant 
regulatory action.
    This proposed rule is not a major rule under the terms of 5 U.S.C. 
804(2), the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act.
    The proposed rule does not contain information collection 
requirements that must be approved by the Office of Management and 
Budget under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et 
    We find and certify, in compliance with the requirements of the 
Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (2 U.S.C. 1502 et seq.), that the 
proposed rule is not a significant regulatory action and will not 
impose a cost of $100 million or more in any given year on local or 
State government or private entities.
    As noted above, the proposed rule will not have sufficient 
federalism implications to warrant the preparation of a Federalism 
Assessment under Executive Order 13132.
    We have determined that these regulations will meet the applicable 
standards provided in sections 3(a) and 3(b)(2) of Executive Order 
12988 for civil justice reform.
    This rule will not have significant takings implications for 
private property, as defined in Executive Order 12630. A takings 
implication assessment is not required because migratory birds are a 
Federally managed resource under laws implementing international 
treaties and are not personal property.
    Regarding Government-to-Government relationships with Tribes (59 FR 
22951) and Executive Order 13175, the proposed revisions to existing 
regulations are purely administrative in nature. They will have no 
effect on Federally recognized Tribes or Tribal trust resources.

Public Comments Invited

    We invite interested parties to submit written comments, 
suggestions, or objections regarding this proposal to one of the 
locations identified in the Addresses section above. Following review 
and consideration of the comments, we will issue a final rule on these 
proposed amendments to the List of Migratory Birds.


    John L. Trapp, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of 
Migratory Bird Management, 4401 North Fairfax Drive, Room 634, 
Arlington, VA 22203.

[[Page 52288]]

List of Subjects in 50 CFR Part 10

    Exports, Fish, Imports, Law enforcement, Plants, Transportation, 

Regulation Promulgation

    For the reasons discussed in the preamble, we propose to amend 
title 50, chapter I, subchapter B, part 10 of the Code of Federal 
Regulations, as follows:


    1. The authority citation for part 10 continues to read as follows:

    Authority: 18 U.S.C. 42; 16 U.S.C. 703-712; 16 U.S.C. 668a-d; 19 
U.S.C. 1202; 16 U.S.C. 1531-1543; 16 U.S.C. 1361-1384, 1401-1407; 16 
U.S.C. 742a-742j-l; 16 U.S.C. 3371-3378.

    2. Revise Section 10.13 to read as follows:

Sec. 10.13  List of Migratory Birds.

    (a) What is the legal authority for this list? The Migratory Bird 
Treaty Act (MBTA) in 16 U.S.C. 703-711, the Fish and Wildlife 
Improvement Act of 1978, 16 U.S.C. 712, and 16 U.S.C. 742a-j. The MBTA 
implements treaties between the United States and four neighboring 
countries for the protection of migratory birds, as follows:
    (1) Canada: Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds, 
August 16, 1916, United States-Great Britain (on behalf of Canada), 39 
Stat. 1702, T.S. No. 628;
    (2) Mexico: Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds and 
Game Mammals, February 7, 1936, United States-United Mexican States 
(=Mexico), 50 Stat. 1311, T.S. No. 912;
    (3) Japan: Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds and 
Birds in Danger of Extinction, and Their Environment, March 4, 1972, 
United States-Japan, 25 U.S.T., 3329 T.I.A.S. No. 7990; and
    (4) Russia: Convention for the Conservation of Migratory Birds and 
Their Environment, United States-Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 
(=Russia), November 26, 1976, 92 Stat. 3110, T.I.A.S. 9073, 16 U.S.C. 
703, 712.
    (b) What is the purpose of this list? The purpose is to inform the 
public of the species protected by regulations designed to enforce the 
terms of the MBTA. These regulations are found in Parts 10, 20, and 21 
of this Chapter. We regulate most aspects of the taking, possession, 
transportation, sale, purchase, barter, exportation, and importation of 
migratory birds.
    (c) What species are protected as migratory birds? The species are 
listed in two formats to suit the varying needs of the user: 
alphabetically in paragraph (c)(1) of this section and taxonomically in 
section (c)(2). Taxonomy and nomenclature follow the 7th (1998) edition 
of the American Ornithologists' Union's Check-list of North American 
birds, as amended. Species not listed here, and therefore not protected 
by the MBTA, include any species introduced in the United States or any 
of its territory by humans, regardless of whether the introduction was 
intentional or unintentional. Also generally not listed and thus not 
protected are species of purely accidental or casual occurrence in the 
United States or its territory unless it is a particular species 
specifically referenced in a treaty. A species of accidental or casual 
occurrence is one whose the normal range is far enough removed from the 
United States as to make regular occurrence unlikely or ``improbable'' 
(The A.O.U. Check-list of North American birds, 6th edition, 1983:xxv).
    (1) Alphabetical listing. Species are listed alphabetically by 
common (English) name groups, with the scientific name of each species 
following the common name.
ACCENTOR, Siberian, Prunella montanella
ALBATROSS, Black-footed, Phoebastria nigripes
    Laysan, Phoebastria immutabilis
    Short-tailed, Phoebastria albatrus
    Yellow-nosed, Thalassarche chlororhynchos
ANHINGA, Anhinga anhinga
ANI, Groove-billed, Crotophaga sulcirostris
    Smooth-billed, Crotophaga ani
AUKLET, Cassin's, Ptychoramphus aleuticus
    Crested, Aethia cristatella
    Least, Aethia pusilla
    Parakeet, Aethia psittacula
    Rhinoceros, Cerorhinca monocerata
    Whiskered, Aethia pygmaea
AVOCET, American, Recurvirostra americana
BEARDLESS-TYRANNULET, Northern, Camptostoma imberbe
BECARD, Rose-throated, Pachyramphus aglaiae
BITTERN, American, Botaurus lentiginosus
    Least, Ixobrychus exilis
    Schrenk's, Ixobrychus eurhythmus
    Yellow, Ixobrychus sinensis
BLACK-HAWK, Common, Buteogallus anthracinus
BLACKBIRD, Brewer's, Euphagus cyanocephalus
    Red-winged, Agelaius phoeniceus
    Rusty, Euphagus carolinus
    Tawny-shouldered, Agelaius humeralis
    Tricolored, Agelaius tricolor
    Yellow-headed, Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus
    Yellow-shouldered, Agelaius xanthomus
BLUEBIRD, Eastern, Sialia sialis
    Mountain, Sialia currucoides
    Western, Sialia mexicana
BLUETHROAT, Luscinia svecica
BOBOLINK, Dolichonyx oryzivorus
BOOBY, Blue-footed, Sula nebouxii
    Brown, Sula leucogaster
    Masked, Sula dactylatra
    Red-footed, Sula sula
BRAMBLING, Fringilla montifringilla
BRANT, Branta bernicla
BUFFLEHEAD, Bucephala albeola
BULLFINCH, Eurasian, Pyrrhula pyrrhula
    Puerto Rican, Loxigilla portoricensis
BUNTING, Indigo, Passerina cyanea
    Lark, Calamospiza melanocorys
    Lazuli, Passerina amoena
    McKay's, Plectrophenax hyperboreus
    Painted, Passerina ciris
    Pallas's, Emberiza pallasi
    Reed, Emberiza schoeniculus
    Rustic, Emberiza rustica
    Snow, Plectrophenax nivalis
    Varied, Passerina versicolor
BUSHTIT, Psaltriparus minimus
CANVASBACK, Aythya valisneria
CARACARA, Crested, Caracara cheriway
CARDINAL, Northern, Cardinalis cardinalis
CARIB, Green-throated, Eulampis holosericeus
CATBIRD, Gray, Dumetella carolinensis
CHAT, Yellow-breasted, Icteria virens
CHICKADEE, Black-capped, Poecile atricapilla
    Boreal, Poecile hudsonica
    Carolina, Poecile carolinensis
    Chestnut-backed, Poecile rufescens
    Gray-headed, Poecile cincta
    Mexican, Poecile sclateri
    Mountain, Poecile gambeli
CHUCK-WILL'S-WIDOW, Caprimulgus carolinensis
CONDOR, California, Gymnogyps californianus
COOT, American, Fulica americana
    Caribbean, Fulica caribaea
    Eurasian, Fulica atra
    Hawaiian, Fulica alai
CORMORANT, Brandt's, Phalacrocorax penicillatus
    Double-crested, Phalacrocorax auritus
    Great, Phalacrocorax carbo
    Neotropic, Phalacrocorax brasilianus
    Pelagic, Phalacrocorax pelagicus
    Red-faced, Phalacrocorax urile
COWBIRD, Bronzed, Molothrus aeneus
    Brown-headed, Molothrus ater
    Shiny, Molothrus bonariensis
CRAKE, Corn, Crex crex
    Yellow-breasted, Porzana flaviventer
CRANE, Common, Grus grus
    Sandhill, Grus canadensis

[[Page 52289]]

    Whooping, Grus americana
CREEPER, Brown, Certhia americana
CROSSBILL, Red, Loxia curvirostra
    White-winged, Loxia leucoptera
CROW, American, Corvus brachyrhynchos
    Fish, Corvus ossifragus
    Hawaiian, Corvus hawaiiensis
    Northwestern, Corvus caurinus
    Tamaulipas, Corvus imparatus
    White-necked, Corvus leucognaphalus
CUCKOO, Black-billed, Coccyzus erythropthalmus
    Common, Cuculus canorus
    Mangrove, Coccyzus minor
    Oriental, Cuculus saturatus
    Yellow-billed, Coccyzus americanus
CURLEW, Bristle-thighed, Numenius tahitiensis
    Eskimo, Numenius borealis
    Far Eastern, Numenius madagascariensis
    Little, Numenius minutus
    Long-billed, Numenius americanus
DICKCISSEL, Spiza americana
DIPPER, American, Cinclus mexicanus
DOTTEREL, Eurasian, Charadrius morinellus
DOVE, Inca, Columbina inca
    Mourning, Zenaida macroura
    White-tipped, Leptotila verreauxi
    White-winged, Zenaida asiatica
    Zenaida, Zenaida aurita
DOVEKIE, Alle alle
DOWITCHER, Long-billed, Limnodromus scolopaceus
    Short-billed, Limnodromus griseus
DUCK, American Black, Anas rubripes
    Falcated, Anas falcata
    Harlequin, Histrionicus histrionicus
    Hawaiian, Anas wyvilliana
    Laysan, Anas laysanensis
    Long-tailed, Clangula hyemalis
    Masked, Nomonyx dominica
    Mottled, Anas fulvigula
    Ring-necked, Aythya collaris
    Ruddy, Oxyura jamaicensis
    Spot-billed, Anas poecilorhyncha
    Tufted, Aythya fuligula
    Wood, Aix sponsa
DUNLIN, Calidris alpina
EAGLE, Bald, Haliaeetus leucocephalus
    Golden, Aquila chrysaetos
    White-tailed, Haliaeetus albicilla
EGRET, Cattle, Bubulcus ibis
    Chinese, Egretta eulophotes
    Great, Ardea alba
    Intermediate, Mesophoyx intermedia
    Reddish, Egretta rufescens
    Snowy, Egretta thula
EIDER, Common, Somateria mollissima
    King, Somateria spectabilis
    Spectacled, Somateria fischeri
    Steller's, Polysticta stelleri
ELAENIA, Caribbean, Elaenia martinica
EMERALD, Puerto Rican, Chlorostilbon maugaeus
EUPHONIA, Antillean, Euphonia musica
FALCON, Aplomado, Falco femoralis
    Peregrine, Falco peregrinus
    Prairie, Falco mexicanus
FIELDFARE, Turdus pilaris
FINCH, Cassin's, Carpodacus cassinii
    House, Carpodacus mexicanus
    Purple, Carpodacus purpureus
FLAMINGO, Greater, Phoenicopterus ruber
FLICKER, Gilded, Colaptes chrysoides
    Northern, Colaptes auratus
FLYCATCHER, Acadian, Empidonax virescens
    Alder, Empidonax alnorum
    Ash-throated, Myiarchus cinerascens
    Brown-crested, Myiarchus tyrannulus
    Buff-breasted, Empidonax fulvifrons
    Cordilleran, Empidonax occidentalis
    Dusky, Empidonax oberholseri
    Dusky-capped, Myiarchus tuberculifer
    Fork-tailed, Tyrannus savana
    Gray, Empidonax wrightii
    Gray-spotted, Muscicapa griseisticta
    Great Crested, Myiarchus crinitus
    Hammond's, Empidonax hammondii
    Least, Empidonax minimus
    Narcissus, Muscicapa narcissina
    Nutting's, Myiarchus nuttingi
    Olive-sided, Contopus cooperi
    Pacific-slope, Empidonax difficilis
    Puerto Rican, Myiarchus antillarum
    Scissor-tailed, Tyrannus forficatus
    Sulphur-bellied, Myiodynastes luteiventris
    Vermilion, Pyrocephalus rubinus
    Willow, Empidonax traillii
    Yellow-bellied, Empidonax flaviventris
FRIGATEBIRD, Great, Fregata minor
    Lesser, Fregata ariel
    Magnificent, Fregata magnificens
FULMAR, Northern, Fulmarus glacialis
GADWALL, Anas strepera
GALLINULE, Purple, Porphyrula martinica
GANNET, Northern, Morus bassanus
GARGANEY, Anas querquedula
GNATCATCHER, Black-capped, Polioptila nigriceps
    Black-tailed, Polioptila melanura
    Blue-gray, Polioptila caerulea
    California, Polioptila californica
GODWIT, Bar-tailed, Limosa lapponica
    Black-tailed, Limosa limosa
    Hudsonian, Limosa haemastica
    Marbled, Limosa fedoa
GOLDEN-PLOVER, American, Pluvialis dominica
    Pacific, Pluvialis fulva
GOLDENEYE, Barrow's, Bucephala islandica
    Common, Bucephala clangula
GOLDFINCH, American, Carduelis tristis
    Lawrence's, Carduelis lawrencei
    Lesser, Carduelis psaltria
GOOSE, Barnacle, Branta leucopsis
    Bean, Anser fabalis
    Canada, Branta canadensis
    Emperor, Chen canagica
    Greater White-fronted, Anser albifrons
    Hawaiian, Branta sandvicensis
    Ross's, Chen rossii
    Snow, Chen caerulescens
GOSHAWK, Northern, Accipiter gentilis
GRACKLE, Boat-tailed, Quiscalus major
    Common, Quiscalus quiscula
    Great-tailed, Quiscalus mexicanus
    Greater Antillean, Quiscalus niger
GRASSHOPPER-WARBLER, Middendorff's, Locustella ochotensis
GRASSQUIT, Black-faced, Tiaris bicolor
    Yellow-faced, Tiaris olivacea
GREBE, Clark's, Aechmophorus clarkii
    Eared, Podiceps nigricollis
    Horned, Podiceps auritus
    Least, Tachybaptus dominicus
    Pied-billed, Podilymbus podiceps
    Red-necked, Podiceps grisegena
    Western, Aechmophorus occidentallis
GREENFINCH, Oriental, Carduelis sinica
GREENSHANK, Common, Tringa nebularia
GROSBEAK, Black-headed, Pheucticus melanocephalus
    Blue, Guiraca caerulea
    Crimson-collared, Rhodothraupis celaeno
    Evening, Coccothraustes vespertinus
    Pine, Pinicola enucleator
    Rose-breasted, Pheucticus ludovicianus
    Yellow, Pheucticus chrysopeplus
GROUND-DOVE, Common, Columbina passerina
    Ruddy, Columbina talpacoti
GUILLEMOT, Black, Cepphus grylle
    Pigeon, Cepphus columba
GULL, Black-headed, Larus ridibundus
    Black-tailed, Larus crassirostris
    Bonaparte's, Larus philadelphia
    California, Larus californicus
    Franklin's, Larus pipixcan
    Glaucous, Larus hyperboreus
    Glaucous-winged, Larus glaucescens
    Great Black-backed, Larus marinus
    Heermann's, Larus heermanni
    Herring, Larus argentatus
    Iceland, Larus glaucoides
    Ivory, Pagophila eburnea
    Laughing, Larus atricilla
    Lesser Black-headed, Larus fuscus
    Little, Larus minutus
    Mew, Larus canus
    Ring-billed, Larus delawarensis
    Ross's, Rhodostethia rosea
    Sabine's, Xema sabini
    Slaty-backed, Larus schistisagus
    Thayer's, Larus thayeri
    Western, Larus occidentalis
    Yellow-footed, Larus livens
GYRFALCON, Falco rusticolus
HARRIER, Northern, Circus cyaneus
HAWFINCH, Coccothraustes coccothraustes
HAWK, Broad-winged, Buteo platypterus

[[Page 52290]]

    Cooper's, Accipiter cooperii
    Ferruginous, Buteo regalis
    Gray, Asturina nitidus
    Harris's, Parabuteo unicinctus
    Hawaiian, Buteo solitarius
    Red-shouldered, Buteo lineatus
    Red-tailed, Buteo jamaicensis
    Rough-legged, Buteo lagopus
    Sharp-shinned, Accipiter striatus
    Short-tailed, Buteo brachyurus
    Swainson's, Buteo swainsoni
    White-tailed, Buteo albicaudatus
    Zone-tailed, Buteo albonotatus
HAWK-CUCKOO, Hodgson's, Cuculus fugax
HERON, Great Blue, Ardea herodias
    Green, Butorides virescens
    Little Blue, Egretta caerulea
    Tricolored, Egretta tricolor
HOOPOE, Eurasian, Upupa epops
HOUSE-MARTIN, Common, Delichon urbica
HUMMINGBIRD, Allen's, Selasphorus sasin
    Anna's, Calypte anna
    Antillean Crested, Orthorhynchus cristatus
    Berylline, Amazilia beryllina
    Black-chinned, Archilochus alexandri
    Blue-throated, Lampornis clemenciae
    Broad-billed, Cynanthus latirostris
    Broad-tailed, Selasphorus platycercus
    Buff-bellied, Amazilia yucatanensis
    Calliope, Stellula calliope
    Costa's, Calypte costae
    Lucifer, Calothorax lucifer
    Magnificent, Eugenes fulgens
    Ruby-throated, Archilochus colubris
    Rufous, Selasphorus rufus
    Violet-crowned, Amazilia violiceps
    White-eared, Hylocharis leucotis
IBIS, Glossy, Plegadis falcinellus
    Scarlet, Eudocimus ruber
    White, Eudocimus albus
    White-faced, Plegadis chihi
JABIRU, Jabiru mycteria
JACANA, Northern, Jacana spinosa
JAEGER, Long-tailed, Stercorarius longicaudus
    Parasitic, Stercorarius parasiticus
    Pomarine, Stercorarius pomarinus
JAY, Blue, Cyanocitta cristata
    Brown, Cyanocorax morio
    Gray, Perisoreus canadensis
    Green, Cyanocorax yncas
    Mexican, Aphelocoma ultramarina
    Pinyon, Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus
    Steller's, Cyanocitta stelleri
JUNCO, Dark-eyed, Junco hyemalis
    Yellow-eyed, Junco phaeonotus
KAMAO, Myadestes myadestinus
KESTREL, American, Falco sparverius
    Eurasian, Falco tinnunculus
KILLDEER, Charadrius vociferus
KINGBIRD, Cassin's, Tyrannus vociferans
    Couch's, Tyrannus couchii
    Eastern, Tyrannus tyrannus
    Gray, Tyrannus dominicensis
    Loggerhead, Tyrannus caudifasciatus
    Thick-billed, Tyrannus crassirostris
    Tropical, Tyrannus melancholicus
    Western, Tyrannus verticalis
KINGFISHER, Belted, Ceryle alcyon
    Green, Chloroceryle americana
    Ringed, Ceryle torquata
KINGLET, Golden-crowned, Regulus satrapa
    Ruby-crowned, Regulus calendula
KISKADEE, Great, Pitangus sulphuratus
KITE, Black, Milvus migrans
    Hook-billed, Chondrohierax uncinatus
    Mississippi, Ictinia mississippiensis
    Snail, Rostrhamus sociabilis
    Swallow-tailed, Elanoides forficatus
    White-tailed, Elanus leucurus
KITTIWAKE, Black-legged, Rissa tridactyla
    Red-legged, Rissa brevirostris
KNOT, Great, Calidris tenuirostris
    Red, Calidris canutus
LAPWING, Northern, Vanellus vanellus
LARK, Horned, Eremophila alpestris
    Sky, Alauda arvensis
LIMPKIN, Aramus guarauna
LIZARD-CUCKOO, Puerto Rican, Saurothera vieilloti
LONGSPUR, Chestnut-collared, Calcarius ornatus
    Lapland, Calcarius lapponicus
    McCown's, Calcarius mccownii
    Smith's, Calcarius pictus
LOON, Arctic, Gavia arctica
    Common, Gavia immer
    Pacific, Gavia pacifica
    Red-throated, Gavia stellata
    Yellow-billed, Gavia adamsii
MAGPIE, Black-billed, Pica hudsonia
    Yellow-billed, Pica nuttalli
MALLARD, Anas platyrhynchos
MANGO, Antillean, Anthracothorax dominicus
    Green, Anthracothorax viridis
MARTIN, Caribbean, Progne dominicensis
    Cuban, Progne cryptoleuca
    Gray-breasted, Progne chalybea
    Purple, Progne subis
MEADOWLARK, Eastern, Sturnella magna
    Western, Sturnella neglecta
MERGANSER, Common, Mergus merganser
    Hooded, Lophodytes cucullatus
    Red-breasted, Mergus serrator
MERLIN, Falco columbarius
MILLERBIRD, Acrocephalus familiaris
MOCKINGBIRD, Northern, Mimus polyglottos
MOORHEN, Common, Gallinula chloropus
MURRE, Common, Uria aalge
    Thick-billed, Uria lomvia
MURRELET, Ancient, Synthliboramphus antiquus
    Craveri's, Synthliboramphus craveri
    Kittlitz's, Brachyramphus brevirostris
    Marbled, Brachyramphus marmoratus
    Xantus's, Synthliboramphus hypoleucus
NEEDLETAIL, White-throated, Hirundapus caudacutus
NIGHT-HERON, Black-crowned, Nycticorax nycticorax
    Japanese, Gorsachius goisagi
    Malayan, Gorsachius melanolophus
    Yellow-crowned, Nyctanassa violacea
NIGHTHAWK, Antillean, Chordeiles gundlachii
    Common, Chordeiles minor
    Lesser, Chordeiles acutipennis
NIGHTJAR, Buff-collared, Caprimulgus ridgwayi
    Puerto Rican, Caprimulgus noctitherus
    Jungle, Caprimulgus indicus
NODDY, Black, Anous minutus
    Blue-gray, Procelsterna cerulea
    Brown, Anous stolidus
    Lesser, Anous tenuirostris
NUTCRACKER, Clark's, Nucifraga columbiana
NUTHATCH, Brown-headed, Sitta pusilla
    Pygmy, Sitta pygmaea
    Red-breasted, Sitta canadensis
    White-breasted, Sitta carolinensis
OLOMAO, Myadestes lanaiensis
    OMAO, Myadestes obscurus
ORIOLE, Altamira, Icterus gularis
    Audubon's, Icterus graduacauda
    Baltimore, Icterus galbula
    Black-vented, Icterus wagleri
    Bullock's, Icterus bullockii
    Greater Antillean, Icterus dominicensis
    Hooded, Icterus cucullatus
    Orchard, Icterus spurius
    Scott's, Icterus parisorum
    Streak-backed, Icterus pustulatus
OSPREY, Pandion haliaetus
OVENBIRD, Seiurus aurocapillus
OWL, Barn, Tyto alba
    Barred, Strix varia
    Boreal, Aegolius funereus
    Burrowing, Athene cunicularia
    Elf, Micrathene whitneyi
    Flammulated, Otus flammeolus
    Great Gray, Strix nebulosa
    Great Horned, Bubo virginianus
    Long-eared, Asio otus
    Northern Hawk, Surnia ulula
    Northern Saw-whet, Aegolius acadicus
    Short-eared, Asio flammeus
    Snowy, Nyctea scandiaca
    Spotted, Strix occidentalis
OYSTERCATCHER, American, Haematopus palliatus
    Black, Haematopus bachmani
PALM-SWIFT, Antillean, Tachornis phoenicobia
PARULA, Northern, Parula americana
    Tropical, Parula pitiayumi
PAURAQUE, Common, Nyctidromus albicollis

[[Page 52291]]

PELICAN, American White, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos
    Brown, Pelecanus occidentalis
PETREL, Black-capped, Pterodroma hasitata
    Bonin, Pterodroma hypoleuca
    Bulwer's, Bulweria bulwerii
    Cook's, Pterodroma cookii
    Dark-rumped, Pterodroma phaeopygia
    Herald, Pterodroma arminjoniana
    Juan Fernandez, Pterodroma externa
    Kermadec, Pterodroma neglecta
    Mottled, Pterodroma inexpectata
    Murphy's, Pterodroma ultima
    White-necked, Pterodroma cervicalis
PEWEE, Greater, Contopus pertinax
    Lesser Antillean, Contopus latirostris
PHAINOPEPLA, Phainopepla nitens
PHALAROPE, Red, Phalaropus fulicaria
    Red-necked, Phalaropus lobatus
    Wilson's, Phalaropus tricolor
PHOEBE, Black, Sayornis nigricans
    Eastern, Sayornis phoebe
    Say's, Sayornis saya
PIGEON, Band-tailed, Columba fasciata
    Plain, Columba inornata
    Red-billed, Columba flavirostris
    Scaly-naped, Columba squamosa
    White-crowned, Columba leucocephala
PINTAIL, Northern, Anas acuta
    White-cheeked, Anas bahamensis
PIPIT, American, Anthus rubescens
    Olive-backed, Anthus hodgsoni
    Pechora, Anthus gustavi
    Red-throated, Anthus cervinus
    Sprague's, Anthus spragueii
PLOVER, Black-bellied, Pluvialis squatarola
    Common Ringed, Charadrius hiaticula
    Greater Sand, Charadrius leschenaultii
    Little Ringed, Charadrius dubius
    Mongolian, Charadrius mongolus
    Mountain, Charadrius montanus
    Piping, Charadrius melodus
    Semipalmated, Charadrius semipalmatus
    Snowy, Charadrius alexandrinus
    Wilson's, Charadrius wilsonia
POCHARD, Baer's, Aythya baeri
    Common, Aythya ferina
POORWILL, Common, Phalaenoptilus nuttallii
PUAIOHI, Myadestes palmeri
PUFFIN, Atlantic, Fratercula arctica
    Horned, Fratercula corniculata
    Tufted, Fratercula cirrhata
PYGMY-OWL, Ferruginous, Glaucidium brasilianum
    Northern, Glaucidium gnoma
PYRRHULOXIA, Cardinalis sinuatus
QUAIL-DOVE, Bridled, Geotrygon mystacea
    Key West, Geotrygon chrysia
    Ruddy, Geotrygon montana
RAIL, Black, Laterallus jamaicensis
    Clapper, Rallus longirostris
    King, Rallus elegans
    Virginia, Rallus limicola
    Yellow, Coturnicops noveboracensis
RAVEN, Chihuahuan, Corvus cryptoleucus
    Common, Corvus corax
RAZORBILL, Alca torda
REDHEAD, Aythya americana
REDPOLL, Common, Carduelis flammea
    Hoary, Carduelis hornemanni
REDSHANK, Spotted, Tringa erythropus
REDSTART, American, Setophaga ruticilla
    Painted, Myioborus pictus
    Slate-throated, Myioborus miniatus
REEF-EGRET, Pacific, Egretta sacra
ROADRUNNER, Greater, Geococcyx californianus
ROBIN, American, Turdus migratorius
    Clay-colored, Turdus grayi
    Rufous-backed, Turdus rufopalliatus
ROSEFINCH, Common, Carpodacus erythrinus
ROSY-FINCH, Black, Leucosticte atrata
    Brown-capped, Leucosticte australis
    Gray-crowned, Leucosticte tephrocotis
RUBYTHROAT, Siberian, Luscinia calliope
RUFF, Philomachus pugnax
SANDERLING, Calidris alba
SANDPIPER, Baird's, Calidris bairdii
    Broad-billed, Limicola falcinellus
    Buff-breasted, Tryngites subruficollis
    Common, Actitis hypoleucos
    Curlew, Calidris ferruginea
    Least, Calidris minutilla
    Marsh, Tringa stagnatilis
    Pectoral, Calidris melanotos
    Purple, Calidris maritima
    Rock, Calidris ptilocnemis
    Semipalmated, Calidris pusilla
    Sharp-tailed, Calidris acuminata
    Solitary, Tringa solitaria
    Spoonbill, Eurynorhynchus pygmeus
    Spotted, Actitis macularia
    Stilt, Calidris himantopus
    Terek, Xenus cinereus
    Upland, Bartramia longicauda
    Western, Calidris mauri
    White-rumped, Calidris fuscicollis
    Wood, Tringa glareola
SAPSUCKER, Red-breasted, Sphyrapicus ruber
    Red-naped, Sphyrapicus nuchalis
    Williamson's, Sphyrapicus thyroideus
    Yellow-bellied, Sphyrapicus varius
SCAUP, Greater, Aythya marila
    Lesser, Aythya affinis
SCOTER, Black, Melanitta nigra
    Surf, Melanitta perspicillata
    White-winged, Melanitta fusca
SCREECH-OWL, Eastern, Otus asio
    Puerto Rican, Otus nudipes
    Western, Otus kennicottii
    Whiskered, Otus trichopsis
SCRUB-JAY, Florida, Aphelocoma coerulescens
    Island, Aphelocoma insularis
    Western, Aphelocoma californica
SEA-EAGLE, Steller's, Haliaeetus pelagicus
SEEDEATER, White-collared, Sporophila torqueola
SHEARWATER, Audubon's, Puffinus lherminieri
    Black-vented, Puffinus opisthomelas
    Buller's, Puffinus bulleri
    Christmas, Puffinus nativitatis
    Cory's, Calonectris diomedea
    Flesh-footed, Puffinus carneipes
    Greater, Puffinus gravis
    Little, Puffinus assimilis
    Manx, Puffinus puffinus
    Pink-footed, Puffinus creatopus
    Short-tailed, Puffinus tenuirostris
    Sooty, Puffinus griseus
    Townsend's, Puffinus auricularis
    Wedge-tailed, Puffinus pacificus
SHOVELER, Northern, Anas clypeata
SHRIKE, Loggerhead, Lanius ludovicianus
    Northern, Lanius excubitor
SISKIN, Pine, Carduelis pinus
SKIMMER, Black, Rhynchops niger
SKUA, Great, Stercorarius skua
    South Polar, Stercorarius maccormicki
SMEW, Mergellus albellus
SNIPE, Common, Gallinago gallinago
    Jack, Lymnocryptes minimus
    Pin-tailed, Gallinago stenura
    Swinhoe's, Gallinago megala
SOLITAIRE, Townsend's, Myadestes townsendi
SORA, Porzana carolina
SPARROW, American Tree, Spizella arborea
    Bachman's, Aimophila aestivalis
    Baird's, Ammodramus bairdii
    Black-chinned, Spizella atrogularis
    Black-throated, Amphispiza bilineata
    Botteri's, Aimophila botterii
    Brewer's, Spizella breweri
    Cassin's, Aimophila cassinii
    Chipping, Spizella passerina
    Clay-colored, Spizella pallida
    Field, Spizella pusilla
    Five-striped, Aimophila quinquestriata
    Fox, Passerella iliaca
    Golden-crowned, Zonotrichia atricapilla
    Grasshopper, Ammodramus savannarum
    Harris's, Zonotrichia querula
    Henslow's, Ammodramus henslowii
    Lark, Chondestes grammacus
    Le Conte's, Ammodramus leconteii
    Lincoln's, Melospiza lincolnii
    Nelson's Sharp-tailed, Ammodramus nelsoni
    Olive, Arremonops rufivirgatus
    Rufous-crowned, Aimophila ruficeps
    Rufous-winged, Aimophila carpalis
    Sage, Amphispiza belli
    Savannah, Passerculus sandwichensis
    Seaside, Ammodramus maritimus
    Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed,

[[Page 52292]]

Ammodramus caudacutus
    Song, Melospiza melodia
    Swamp, Melospiza georgiana
    Vesper, Pooecetes gramineus
    White-crowned, Zonotrichia leucophrys
    White-throated, Zonotrichia albicollis
    Worthen's, Spizella wortheni
SPARROWHAWK, Japanese, Accipiter gularis
SPINDALIS, Puerto Rican, Spindalis portoricensis
SPOONBILL, Roseate, Ajaia ajaja
STARLING, Chestnut-cheeked, Sturnus philippensis
    White-cheeked, Sturnus cineraceus
STARTHROAT, Plain-capped, Heliomaster constantii
STILT, Black-necked, Himantopus mexicanus
STINT, Little, Calidris minuta
    Long-toed, Calidris subminuta
    Red-necked, Calidris ruficollis
    Temminck's, Calidris temminckii
STORK, Wood, Mycteria americana
STORM-PETREL, Ashy, Oceanodroma homochroa
    Band-rumped, Oceanodroma castro
    Black, Oceanodroma melania
    Fork-tailed, Oceanodroma furcata
    Leach's, Oceanodroma leucorhoa
    Least, Oceanodroma microsoma
    Tristram's, Oceanodroma tristrami
    Wedge-rumped, Oceanodroma tethys
    White-faced, Pelagodroma marina
    Wilson's, Oceanites oceanicus
SURFBIRD, Aphriza virgata
SWALLOW, Bahama, Tachycineta cyaneoviridis
    Bank, Riparia riparia
    Barn, Hirundo rustica
    Cave, Petrochelidon fulva
    Cliff, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota
    Northern Rough-winged, Stelgidopteryx serripennis
    Tree, Tachycineta bicolor
    Violet-green, Tachycineta thalassina
SWAN, Trumpeter, Cygnus buccinator
    Tundra, Cygnus columbianus
    Whooper, Cygnus cygnus
SWIFT, Black, Crypseloides niger
    Chimney, Chaetura pelagica
    Common, Apus apus
    Fork-tailed, Apus pacificus
    Vaux's, Chaetura vauxi
    White-collared, Streptoprocne zonaris
    White-throated, Aeronautes saxatalis
TANAGER, Flame-colored, Piranga bidentata
    Hepatic, Piranga flava
    Puerto Rican, Neospingus speculiferus
    Scarlet, Piranga olivacea
    Summer, Piranga rubra
    Western, Piranga ludoviciana
TATTLER, Gray-tailed, Heteroscelus brevipes
    Wandering, Heteroscelus incanus
TEAL, Baikal, Anas formosa
    Blue-winged, Anas discors
    Cinnamon, Anas cyanoptera
    Green-winged, Anas crecca
TERN, Aleutian, Sterna aleutica
    Arctic, Sterna paradisaea
    Black, Chlidonias niger
    Black-naped, Sterna sumatrana
    Bridled, Sterna anaethetus
    Caspian, Sterna caspia
    Common, Sterna hirundo
    Elegant, Sterna elegans
    Forster's, Sterna forsteri
    Gray-backed, Sterna lunata
    Gull-billed, Sterna nilotica
    Least, Sterna antillarum
    Little, Sterna albifrons
    Roseate, Sterna dougallii
    Royal, Sterna maxima
    Sandwich, Sterna sandvicensis
    Sooty, Sterna fuscata
    White, Gygis alba
    White-winged, Chlidonias leucopterus
THRASHER, Bendire's, Toxostoma bendirei
    Brown, Toxostoma rufum
    California, Toxostoma redivivum
    Crissal, Toxostoma crissale
    Curve-billed, Toxostoma curvirostre
    Le Conte's, Toxostoma lecontei
    Long-billed, Toxostoma longirostre
    Pearly-eyed, Margarops fuscatus
    Sage, Oreoscoptes montanus
THRUSH, Aztec, Ridgwayia pinicola
    Bicknell's, Catharus bicknelli
    Blue Rock, Monticola solitarius
    Dusky, Turdus naumanni
    Eyebrowed, Turdus obscurus
    Gray-cheeked, Catharus minimus
    Hermit, Catharus guttatus
    Red-legged, Turdus plumbeus
    Swainson's, Catharus ustulatus
    Varied, Ixoreus naevius
    Wood, Hylocichla mustelina
TITMOUSE, Bridled, Baeolophus wollweberi
    Juniper, Baeolophus ridgwayi
    Oak, Baeolophus inornatus
    Tufted, Baeolophus bicolor
TOWHEE, Abert's, Pipilo aberti
    California, Pipilo crissalis
    Canyon, Pipilo fuscus
    Eastern, Pipilo erythrophthalmus
    Green-tailed, Pipilo chlorurus
    Spotted, Pipilo maculatus
TROGON, Eared, Euptilotus neoxenus
    Elegant, Trogon elegans
TROPICBIRD, Red-billed, Phaethon aethereus
    Red-tailed, Phaethon rubricauda
    White-tailed, Phaethon lepturus
TURNSTONE, Black, Arenaria melanocephala
    Ruddy, Arenaria interpres
VEERY, Catharus fuscescens
VERDIN, Auriparus flaviceps
VIOLET-EAR, Green, Colibri thalassinus
VIREO, Bell's, Vireo bellii
    Black-capped, Vireo atricapillus
    Black-whiskered, Vireo altiloquus
    Blue-headed, Vireo solitarius
    Cassin's, Vireo cassinii
    Gray, Vireo vicinior
    Hutton's, Vireo huttoni
    Philadelphia, Vireo philadelphicus
    Plumbeous, Vireo plumbeus
    Puerto Rican, Vireo latimeri
    Red-eyed, Vireo olivaceus
    Warbling, Vireo gilvus
    White-eyed, Vireo griseus
    Yellow-green, Vireo flavoviridis
    Yellow-throated, Vireo flavifrons
VULTURE, Black, Coragyps atratus
    Turkey, Cathartes aura
WAGTAIL, Black-backed, Motacilla lugens
    Gray, Motacilla cinerea
    White, Motacilla alba
    Yellow, Motacilla flava
WARBLER, Adelaide's, Dendroica adelaidae
    Arctic, Phylloscopus borealis
    Bachman's, Vermivora bachmanii
    Bay-breasted, Dendroica castanea
    Black-and-white, Mniotilta varia
    Black-throated Blue, Dendroica caerulescens
    Black-throated Gray, Dendroica nigrescens
    Black-throated Green, Dendroica virens
    Blackburnian, Dendroica fusca
    Blackpoll, Dendroica striata
    Blue-winged, Vermivora pinus
    Canada, Wilsonia canadensis
    Cape May, Dendroica tigrina
    Cerulean, Dendroica cerulea
    Chestnut-sided, Dendroica pensylvanica
    Colima, Vermivora crissalis
    Connecticut, Oporornis agilis
    Elfin-woods, Dendroica angelae
    Golden-cheeked, Dendroica chrysoparia
    Golden-crowned, Basileuterus culicivorus
    Golden-winged, Vermivora chrysoptera
    Grace's, Dendroica graciae
    Hermit, Dendroica occidentalis
    Hooded, Wilsonia citrina
    Kentucky, Oporornis formosus
    Kirtland's, Dendroica kirtlandii
    Lucy's, Vermivora luciae
    MacGillivray's, Oporornis tolmiei
    Magnolia, Dendroica magnolia
    Mourning, Oporornis philadelphia
    Nashville, Vermivora ruficapilla
    Olive, Peucedramus taeniatus
    Orange-crowned, Vermivora celata
    Palm, Dendroica palmarum
    Pine, Dendroica pinus
    Prairie, Dendroica discolor
    Prothonotary, Protonotaria citrea
    Red-faced, Cardellina rubrifrons
    Rufous-capped, Basileuterus rufifrons
    Swainson's, Limnothlypis swainsonii
    Tennessee, Vermivora peregrina
    Townsend's, Dendroica townsendi

[[Page 52293]]

    Virginia's, Vermivora virginiae
    Willow, Phylloscopus trochilus
    Wilson's, Wilsonia pusilla
    Worm-eating, Helmitheros vermivorus
    Yellow, Dendroica petechia
    Yellow-rumped, Dendroica coronata
    Yellow-throated, Dendroica dominica
WATERTHRUSH, Louisiana, Seiurus motacilla
    Northern, Seiurus noveboracensis
WAXWING, Bohemian, Bombycilla garrulus
    Cedar, Bombycilla cedrorum
WHEATEAR, Northern, Oenanthe oenanthe
WHIMBREL, Numenius phaeopus
WHIP-POOR-WILL, Caprimulgus vociferus
WHISTLING-DUCK, Black-bellied, Dendrocygna autumnalis
    Fulvous, Dendrocygna bicolor
    West Indian, Dendrocygna arborea
WIGEON, American, Anas americana
    Eurasian, Anas penelope
WILLET, Catoptrophorus semipalmatus
WOOD-PEWEE, Eastern, Contopus virens
    Western, Contopus sordidulus
WOODCOCK, American, Scolopax minor
    Eurasian, Scolopax rusticola
WOODPECKER, Acorn, Melanerpes formicivorus
    Arizona, Picoides arizonae
    Black-backed, Picoides arcticus
    Downy, Picoides pubescens
    Gila, Melanerpes uropygialis
    Golden-fronted, Melanerpes aurifrons
    Hairy, Picoides villosus
    Ivory-billed, Campephilus principalis
    Ladder-backed, Picoides scalaris
    Lewis's, Melanerpes lewis
    Nuttall's, Picoides nuttallii
    Pileated, Dryocopus pileatus
    Puerto Rican, Melanerpes portoricensis
    Red-bellied, Melanerpes carolinus
    Red-cockaded, Picoides borealis
    Red-headed, Melanerpes erythrocephalus
    Strickland's, Picoides stricklandi
    Three-toed, Picoides tridactylus
    White-headed, Picoides albolarvatus
WOODSTAR, Bahama, Calliphlox evelynae
WREN, Bewick's Thryothorus bewickii
    Cactus, Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus
    Canyon, Catherpes mexicanus
    Carolina, Thryothorus ludovicianus
    House, Troglodytes aedon
    Marsh, Cistothorus palustris
    Rock, Salpinctes obsoletus
    Sedge, Cistothorus platensis
    Winter, Troglodytes troglodytes
WRYNECK, Eurasian, Jynx torquilla
YELLOWLEGS, Greater, Tringa melanoleuca
    Lesser, Tringa flavipes
YELLOWTHROAT, Common, Geothlypis trichas
    Gray-crowned, Geothlypis poliocephala

    (2) Taxonomic listing. Species are listed in phylogenetic sequence 
by scientific name, with the common (English) name following the 
scientific name. To help clarify species relationships, we also list 
the higher-level taxonomic categories of Order, Family, and Subfamily.

    Gavia stellata, Red-throated Loon
    Gavia arctica, Arctic Loon
    Gavia pacifica, Pacific Loon
    Gavia immer, Common Loon
    Gavia adamsii, Yellow-billed Loon
    Tachybaptus dominicus, Least Grebe
    Podilymbus podiceps, Pied-billed Grebe
    Podiceps auritus, Horned Grebe
    Podiceps grisegena, Red-necked Grebe
    Podiceps nigricollis, Eared Grebe
    Aechmophorus occidentallis, Western Grebe
    Aechmophorus clarkii, Clark's Grebe
    Thalassarche chlororhynchos, Yellow-nosed Albatross
    Phoebastria immutabilis, Laysan Albatross
    Phoebastria nigripes, Black-footed Albatros
    Phoebastria albatrus, Short-tailed Albatross
    Fulmarus glacialis, Northern Fulmar
    Pterodroma neglecta, Kermadec Petrel
    Pterodroma arminjoniana, Herald Petrel
    Pterodroma ultima, Murphy's Petrel
    Pterodroma inexpectata, Mottled Petrel
    Pterodroma hasitata, Black-capped Petrel
    Pterodroma externa, Juan Fernandez Petrel
    Pterodroma phaeopygia, Dark-rumped Petrel
    Pterodroma cervicalis, White-necked Petrel
    Pterodroma hypoleuca, Bonin Petrel
    Pterodroma cookii, Cook's Petrel
    Bulweria bulwerii, Bulwer's Petrel
    Calonectris diomedea, Cory's Shearwater
    Puffinus creatopus, Pink-footed Shearwater
    Puffinus carneipes, Flesh-footed Shearwater
    Puffinus gravis, Greater Shearwater
    Puffinus pacificus, Wedge-tailed Shearwater
    Puffinus bulleri, Buller's Shearwater
    Puffinus griseus, Sooty Shearwater
    Puffinus tenuirostris, Short-tailed Shearwater
    Puffinus nativitatis, Christmas Shearwater
    Puffinus puffinus, Manx Shearwater
    Puffinus auricularis, Townsend's Shearwater
    Puffinus opisthomelas, Black-vented Shearwater
    Puffinus lherminieri, Audubon's Shearwater
    Puffinus assimilis, Little Shearwater
    Oceanites oceanicus, Wilson's Storm-Petrel
    Pelagodroma marina, White-faced Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma furcata, Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma leucorhoa, Leach's Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma homochroa, Ashy Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma castro, Band-rumped Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma tethys, Wedge-rumped Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma melania, Black Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma tristrami, Tristram's Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma microsoma, Least Storm-Petrel
    Phaethon lepturus, White-tailed Tropicbird
    Phaethon aethereus, Red-billed Tropicbird
    Phaethon rubricauda, Red-tailed Tropicbird
    Sula dactylatra, Masked Booby
    Sula nebouxii, Blue-footed Booby
    Sula leucogaster, Brown Booby
    Sula sula, Red-footed Booby
    Morus bassanus, Northern Gannet
    Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, American White Pelican
    Pelecanus occidentalis, Brown Pelican
    Phalacrocorax penicillatus, Brandt's Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax brasilianus, Neotropic Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax auritus, Double-crested Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax carbo, Great Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax urile, Red-faced Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax pelagicus, Pelagic Cormorant
    Anhinga anhinga, Anhinga

[[Page 52294]]

    Fregata magnificens, Magnificent Frigatebird
    Fregata minor, Great Frigatebird
    Fregata ariel, Lesser Frigatebird
    Botaurus lentiginosus, American Bittern
    Ixobrychus sinensis, Yellow Bittern
    Ixobrychus exilis, Least Bittern
    Ixobrychus eurhythmus, Schrenk's Bittern
    Ardea herodias, Great Blue Heron
    Ardea alba, Great Egret
    Mesophoyx intermedia, Intermediate Egret
    Egretta eulophotes, Chinese Egret
    Egretta sacra, Pacific Reef-Egret
    Egretta thula, Snowy Egret
    Egretta caerulea, Little Blue Heron
    Egretta tricolor, Tricolored Heron
    Egretta rufescens, Reddish Egret
    Bubulcus ibis, Cattle Egret
    Butorides virescens, Green Heron
    Nycticorax nycticorax, Black-crowned Night-Heron
    Nyctanassa violacea, Yellow-crowned Night-Heron
    Gorsachius goisagi, Japanese Night-Heron
    Gorsachius melanolophus, Malayan Night-Heron
Subfamily Threskiornithinae
    Eudocimus albus, White Ibis
    Eudocimus ruber, Scarlet Ibis
    Plegadis falcinellus, Glossy Ibis
    Plegadis chihi, White-faced Ibis
Subfamily Plataleinae
    Ajaia ajaja, Roseate Spoonbill
    Jabiru mycteria, Jabiru
    Mycteria americana, Wood Stork
    Coragyps atratus, Black Vulture
    Cathartes aura, Turkey Vulture
    Gymnogyps californianus, California Condor
    Phoenicopterus ruber, Greater Flamingo
Subfamily Dendrocygninae
    Dendrocygna autumnalis, Black-bellied Whistling-Duck
    Dendrocygna arborea, West Indian Whistling-Duck
    Dendrocygna bicolor, Fulvous Whistling-Duck
Subfamily Anserinae
    Anser fabalis, Bean Goose
    Anser albifrons, Greater White-fronted Goose
    Chen canagica, Emperor Goose
    Chen caerulescens, Snow Goose
    Chen rossii, Ross's Goose
    Branta canadensis, Canada Goose
    Branta sandvicensis, Hawaiian Goose
    Branta bernicla, Brant
    Branta leucopsis, Barnacle Goose
    Cygnus buccinator, Trumpeter Swan
    Cygnus columbianus, Tundra Swan
    Cygnus cygnus, Whooper Swan
Subfamily Anatinae
    Aix sponsa, Wood Duck
    Anas strepera, Gadwall
    Anas falcata, Falcated Duck
    Anas penelope, Eurasian Wigeon
    Anas americana, American Wigeon
    Anas rubripes, American Black Duck
    Anas platyrhynchos, Mallard
    Anas fulvigula, Mottled Duck
    Anas wyvilliana, Hawaiian Duck
    Anas laysanensis, Laysan Duck
    Anas poecilorhyncha, Spot-billed Duck
    Anas discors, Blue-winged Teal
    Anas cyanoptera, Cinnamon Teal
    Anas clypeata, Northern Shoveler
    Anas bahamensis, White-cheeked Pintail
    Anas acuta, Northern Pintail
    Anas querquedula, Garganey
    Anas formosa, Baikal Teal
    Anas crecca, Green-winged Teal
    Aythya valisneria, Canvasback
    Aythya americana, Redhead
    Aythya ferina, Common Pochard
    Aythya baeri, Baer's Pochard
    Aythya collaris, Ring-necked Duck
    Aythya fuligula, Tufted Duck
    Aythya marila, Greater Scaup
    Aythya affinis, Lesser Scaup
    Polysticta stelleri, Steller's Eider
    Somateria fischeri, Spectacled Eider
    Somateria spectabilis, King Eider
    Somateria mollissima, Common Eider
    Histrionicus histrionicus, Harlequin Duck
    Melanitta perspicillata, Surf Scoter
    Melanitta fusca, White-winged Scoter
    Melanitta nigra, Black Scoter
    Clangula hyemalis, Long-tailed Duck
    Bucephala albeola, Bufflehead
    Bucephala clangula, Common Goldeneye
    Bucephala islandica, Barrow's Goldeneye
    Mergellus albellus, Smew
    Lophodytes cucullatus, Hooded Merganser
    Mergus merganser, Common Merganser
    Mergus serrator, Red-breasted Merganser
    Nomonyx dominica, Masked Duck
    Oxyura jamaicensis, Ruddy Duck
Subfamily Pandioninae
    Pandion haliaetus, Osprey
Subfamily Accipitrinae
    Chondrohierax uncinatus, Hook-billed Kite
    Elanoides forficatus, Swallow-tailed Kite
    Elanus leucurus, White-tailed Kite
    Rostrhamus sociabilis, Snail Kite
    Ictinia mississippiensis, Mississippi Kite
    Milvus migrans, Black Kite
    Haliaeetus leucocephalus, Bald Eagle
    Haliaeetus albicilla, White-tailed Eagle
    Haliaeetus pelagicus, Steller's Sea-Eagle
    Circus cyaneus, Northern Harrier
    Accipiter gularis, Japanese Sparrowhawk
    Accipiter striatus, Sharp-shinned Hawk
    Accipiter cooperii, Cooper's Hawk
    Accipiter gentilis, Northern Goshawk
    Asturina nitida, Gray Hawk
    Buteogallus anthracinus, Common Black-Hawk
    Parabuteo unicinctus, Harris's Hawk
    Buteo lineatus, Red-shouldered Hawk
    Buteo platypterus, Broad-winged Hawk
    Buteo brachyurus, Short-tailed Hawk
    Buteo swainsoni, Swainson's Hawk
    Buteo albicaudatus, White-tailed Hawk
    Buteo albonotatus, Zone-tailed Hawk
    Buteo solitarius, Hawaiian Hawk
    Buteo jamaicensis, Red-tailed Hawk
    Buteo regalis, Ferruginous Hawk
    Buteo lagopus, Rough-legged Hawk
    Aquila chrysaetos, Golden Eagle
Subfamily Caracarinae
    Caracara cheriway, Crested Caracara
Subfamily Falconinae
    Falco tinnunculus, Eurasian Kestrel
    Falco sparverius, American Kestrel
    Falco columbarius, Merlin
    Falco femoralis, Aplomado Falcon
    Falco rusticolus, Gyrfalcon
    Falco peregrinus, Peregrine Falcon
    Falco mexicanus, Prairie Falcon
    Coturnicops noveboracensis, Yellow Rail
    Laterallus jamaicensis, Black Rail
    Crex crex, Corn Crake
    Rallus longirostris, Clapper Rail
    Rallus elegans, King Rail
    Rallus limicola, Virginia Rail
    Porzana carolina, Sora
    Porzana flaviventer, Yellow-breasted Crake
    Porphyrula martinica, Purple Gallinule
    Gallinula chloropus, Common Moorhen
    Fulica atra, Eurasian Coot
    Fulica alai, Hawaiian Coot
    Fulica americana, American Coot
    Fulica caribaea, Caribbean Coot
    Aramus guarauna, Limpkin
    Grus canadensis, Sandhill Crane

[[Page 52295]]

    Grus grus, Common Crane
    Grus americana, Whooping Crane
Subfamily Vanellinae
    Vanellus vanellus, Northern Lapwing
Subfamily Charadriinae
    Pluvialis squatarola, Black-bellied Plover
    Pluvialis dominica, American Golden-Plover
    Pluvialis fulva, Pacific Golden-Plover
    Charadrius mongolus, Mongolian Plover
    Charadrius leschenaultii, Greater Sand Plover
    Charadrius alexandrinus, Snowy Plover
    Charadrius wilsonia, Wilson's Plover
    Charadrius hiaticula, Common Ringed Plover
    Charadrius semipalmatus, Semipalmated Plover
    Charadrius melodus, Piping Plover
    Charadrius dubius, Little Ringed Plover
    Charadrius vociferus, Killdeer
    Charadrius montanus, Mountain Plover
    Charadrius morinellus, Eurasian Dotterel
    Haematopus palliatus, American Oystercatcher
    Haematopus bachmani, Black Oystercatcher
    Himantopus mexicanus, Black-necked Stilt
    Recurvirostra americana, American Avocet
    Jacana spinosa, Northern Jacana
Subfamily Scolopacinae
    Tringa nebularia, Common Greenshank
    Tringa melanoleuca, Greater Yellowlegs
    Tringa flavipes, Lesser Yellowlegs
    Tringa stagnatilis, Marsh Sandpiper
    Tringa erythropus, Spotted Redshank
    Tringa glareola, Wood Sandpiper
    Tringa solitaria, Solitary Sandpiper
    Catoptrophorus semipalmatus, Willet
    Heteroscelus incanus, Wandering Tattler
    Heteroscelus brevipes, Gray-tailed Tattler
    Actitis hypoleucos, Common Sandpiper
    Actitis macularia, Spotted Sandpiper
    Xenus cinereus, Terek Sandpiper
    Bartramia longicauda, Upland Sandpiper
    Numenius minutus, Little Curlew
    Numenius borealis, Eskimo Curlew
    Numenius phaeopus, Whimbrel
    Numenius tahitiensis, Bristle-thighed Curlew
    Numenius madagascariensis, Far Eastern Curlew
    Numenius americanus, Long-billed Curlew
    Limosa limosa, Black-tailed Godwit
    Limosa haemastica, Hudsonian Godwit
    Limosa lapponica, Bar-tailed Godwit
    Limosa fedoa, Marbled Godwit
    Arenaria interpres, Ruddy Turnstone
    Arenaria melanocephala, Black Turnstone
    Aphriza virgata, Surfbird
    Calidris tenuirostris, Great Knot
    Calidris canutus, Red Knot
    Calidris alba, Sanderling
    Calidris pusilla, Semipalmated Sandpiper
    Calidris mauri, Western Sandpiper
    Calidris ruficollis, Red-necked Stint
    Calidris minuta, Little Stint
    Calidris temminckii, Temminck's Stint
    Calidris subminuta, Long-toed Stint
    Calidris minutilla, Least Sandpiper
    Calidris fuscicollis, White-rumped Sandpiper
    Calidris bairdii, Baird's Sandpiper
    Calidris melanotos, Pectoral Sandpiper
    Calidris acuminata, Sharp-tailed Sandpiper
    Calidris maritima, Purple Sandpiper
    Calidris ptilocnemis, Rock Sandpiper
    Calidris alpina, Dunlin
    Calidris ferruginea, Curlew Sandpiper
    Calidris himantopus, Stilt Sandpiper
    Eurynorhynchus pygmeus, Spoonbill Sandpiper
    Limicola falcinellus, Broad-billed Sandpiper
    Tryngites subruficollis, Buff-breasted Sandpiper
    Philomachus pugnax, Ruff
    Limnodromus griseus, Short-billed Dowitcher
    Limnodromus scolopaceus, Long-billed Dowitcher
    Lymnocryptes minimus, Jack Snipe
    Gallinago gallinago, Common Snipe
    Gallinago stenura, Pin-tailed Snipe
    Gallinago megala, Swinhoe's Snipe
    Scolopax rusticola, Eurasian Woodcock
    Scolopax minor, American Woodcock
    Phalaropus tricolor, Wilson's Phalarope
    Phalaropus lobatus, Red-necked Phalarope
    Phalaropus fulicaria, Red Phalarope
Subfamily Stercorariinae
    Stercorarius skua, Great Skua
    Stercorarius maccormicki, South Polar Skua
    Stercorarius pomarinus, Pomarine Jaeger
    Stercorarius parasiticus, Parasitic Jaeger
    Stercorarius longicaudus, Long-tailed Jaeger
Subfamily Larinae
    Larus atricilla, Laughing Gull
    Larus pipixcan, Franklin's Gull
    Larus minutus, Little Gull
    Larus ridibundus, Black-headed Gull
    Larus philadelphia, Bonaparte's Gull
    Larus heermanni, Heermann's Gull
    Larus crassirostris, Black-tailed Gull
    Larus canus, Mew Gull
    Larus delawarensis, Ring-billed Gull
    Larus californicus, California Gull
    Larus argentatus, Herring Gull
    Larus thayeri, Thayer's Gull
    Larus glaucoides, Iceland Gull
    Larus fuscus, Lesser Black-backed Gull
    Larus schistisagus, Slaty-backed Gull
    Larus livens, Yellow-footed Gull
    Larus occidentalis, Western Gull
    Larus glaucescens, Glaucous-winged Gull
    Larus hyperboreus, Glaucous Gull
    Larus marinus, Great Black-backed Gull
    Xema sabini, Sabine's Gull
    Rissa tridactyla, Black-legged Kittiwake
    Rissa brevirostris, Red-legged Kittiwake
    Rhodostethia rosea, Ross's Gull
    Pagophila eburnea, Ivory Gull
Subfamily Sterninae
    Sterna nilotica, Gull-billed Tern
    Sterna caspia, Caspian Tern
    Sterna maxima, Royal Tern
    Sterna elegans, Elegant Tern
    Sterna sandvicensis, Sandwich Tern
    Sterna dougallii, Roseate Tern
    Sterna hirundo, Common Tern
    Sterna paradisaea, Arctic Tern
    Sterna forsteri, Forster's Tern
    Sterna albifrons, Little Tern
    Sterna antillarum, Least Tern
    Sterna sumatrana, Black-naped Tern
    Sterna aleutica, Aleutian Tern
    Sterna lunata, Gray-backed Tern
    Sterna anaethetus, Bridled Tern
    Sterna fuscata, Sooty Tern
    Chlidonias leucopterus, White-winged Tern
    Chlidonias niger, Black Tern
    Anous stolidus, Brown Noddy
    Anous minutus, Black Noddy
    Anous tenuirostris, Lesser Noddy
    Procelsterna cerulea, Blue-gray Noddy
    Gygis alba, White Tern
Subfamily Rynchopinae
    Rynchops niger, Black Skimmer
    Alle alle, Dovekie
    Uria aalge, Common Murre
    Uria lomvia, Thick-billed Murre
    Alca torda, Razorbill
    Cepphus grylle, Black Guillemot

[[Page 52296]]

    Cepphus columba, Pigeon Guillemot
    Brachyramphus marmoratus, Marbled Murrelet
    Brachyramphus brevirostris, Kittlitz's Murrelet
    Synthliboramphus hypoleucus, Xantus's Murrelet
    Synthliboramphus craveri, Craveri's Murrelet
    Synthliboramphus antiquus, Ancient Murrelet
    Ptychoramphus aleuticus, Cassin's Auklet
    Aethia psittacula, Parakeet Auklet
    Aethia pusilla, Least Auklet
    Aethia pygmaea, Whiskered Auklet
    Aethia cristatella, Crested Auklet
    Cerorhinca monocerata, Rhinoceros Auklet
    Fratercula arctica, Atlantic Puffin
    Fratercula corniculata, Horned Puffin
    Fratercula cirrhata, Tufted Puffin
    Columba squamosa, Scaly-naped Pigeon
    Columba leucocephala, White-crowned Pigeon
    Columba flavirostris, Red-billed Pigeon
    Columba inornata, Plain Pigeon
    Columba fasciata, Band-tailed Pigeon
    Zenaida asiatica, White-winged Dove
    Zenaida aurita, Zenaida Dove
    Zenaida macroura, Mourning Dove
    Columbina inca, Inca Dove
    Columbina passerina, Common Ground-Dove
    Columbina talpacoti, Ruddy Ground-Dove
    Leptotila verreauxi, White-tipped Dove
    Geotrygon chrysia, Key West Quail-Dove
    Geotrygon mystacea, Bridled Quail-Dove
    Geotrygon montana, Ruddy Quail-Dove
Subfamily Cuculinae
    Cuculus canorus, Common Cuckoo
    Cuculus saturatus, Oriental Cuckoo
    Cuculus fugax, Hodgson's Hawk-Cuckoo
Subfamily Coccyzinae
    Coccyzus erythropthalmus, Black-billed Cuckoo
    Coccyzus americanus, Yellow-billed Cuckoo
    Coccyzus minor, Mangrove Cuckoo
    Saurothera vieilloti, Puerto Rican Lizard-Cuckoo
Subfamily Neomorphinae
    Geococcyx californianus, Greater Roadrunner
Subfamily Crotophaginae
    Crotophaga ani, Smooth-billed Ani
    Crotophaga sulcirostris, Groove-billed Ani
    Tyto alba, Barn Owl
    Otus flammeolus, Flammulated Owl
    Otus kennicottii, Western Screech-Owl
    Otus asio, Eastern Screech-Owl
    Otus trichopsis, Whiskered Screech-Owl
    Otus nudipes, Puerto Rican Screech-Owl
    Bubo virginianus, Great Horned Owl
    Nyctea scandiaca, Snowy Owl
    Surnia ulula, Northern Hawk Owl
    Glaucidium gnoma, Northern Pygmy-Owl
    Glaucidium brasilianum, Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl
    Micrathene whitneyi, Elf Owl
    Athene cunicularia, Burrowing Owl
    Strix occidentalis, Spotted Owl
    Strix varia, Barred Owl
    Strix nebulosa, Great Gray Owl
    Asio otus, Long-eared Owl
    Asio flammeus, Short-eared Owl
    Aegolius funereus, Boreal Owl
    Aegolius acadicus, Northern Saw-whet Owl
Subfamily Chordeilinae
    Chordeiles acutipennis, Lesser Nighthawk
    Chordeiles minor, Common Nighthawk
    Chordeiles gundlachii, Antillean Nighthawk
Subfamily Capimulginae
    Nyctidromus albicollis, Common Pauraque
    Phalaenoptilus nuttallii, Common Poorwill
    Caprimulgus carolinensis, Chuck-will's-widow
    Caprimulgus ridgwayi, Buff-collared Nightjar
    Caprimulgus vociferus, Whip-poor-will
    Caprimulgus noctitherus, Puerto Rican Nightjar
    Caprimulgus indicus, Jungle Nightjar
Subfamily Cypseloidinae
    Crypseloides niger, Black Swift
    Streptoprocne zonaris, White-collared Swift
Subfamily Chaeturinae
    Chaetura pelagica, Chimney Swift
    Chaetura vauxi, Vaux's Swift
    Hirundapus caudacutus, White-throated Needletail
Subfamily Apodinae
    Apus apus, Common Swift
    Apus pacificus, Fork-tailed Swift
    Aeronautes saxatalis, White-throated Swift
    Tachornis phoenicobia, Antillean Palm-Swift
Subfamily Trochilinae
    Colibri thalassinus, Green Violet-ear
    Anthracothorax dominicus, Antillean Mango
    Anthracothorax viridis, Green Mango
    Eulampis holosericeus, Green-throated Carib
    Orthorhynchus cristatus, Antillean Crested Hummingbird
    Chlorostilbon maugaeus, Puerto Rican Emerald
    Cynanthus latirostris, Broad-billed Hummingbird
    Hylocharis leucotis, White-eared Hummingbird
    Amazilia beryllina, Berylline Hummingbird
    Amazilia yucatanensis, Buff-bellied Hummingbird
    Amazilia violiceps, Violet-crowned Hummingbird
    Lampornis clemenciae, Blue-throated Hummingbird
    Eugenes fulgens, Magnificent Hummingbird
    Heliomaster constantii, Plain-capped Starthroat
    Calliphlox evelynae, Bahama Woodstar
    Calothorax lucifer, Lucifer Hummingbird
    Archilochus colubris, Ruby-throated Hummingbird
    Archilochus alexandri, Black-chinned Hummingbird
    Calypte anna, Anna's Hummingbird
    Calypte costae, Costa's Hummingbird
    Stellula calliope, Calliope Hummingbird
    Selasphorus platycercus, Broad-tailed Hummingbird
    Selasphorus rufus, Rufous Hummingbird
    Selasphorus sasin, Allen's Hummingbird
Subfamily Trogoninae
    Trogon elegans, Elegant Trogon
    Euptilotus neoxenus, Eared Trogon
    Upupa epops, Eurasian Hoopoe
Subfamily Cerylinae
    Ceryle torquata, Ringed Kingfisher
    Ceryle alcyon, Belted Kingfisher
    Chloroceryle americana, Green Kingfisher
Subfamily Jynginae
    Jynx torquilla, Eurasian Wryneck
Subfamily Picinae
    Melanerpes lewis, Lewis's

[[Page 52297]]

    Melanerpes portoricensis, Puerto Rican Woodpecker
    Melanerpes erythrocephalus, Red-headed Woodpecker
    Melanerpes formicivorus, Acorn Woodpecker
    Melanerpes uropygialis, Gila Woodpecker
    Melanerpes aurifrons, Golden-fronted Woodpecker
    Melanerpes carolinus, Red-bellied Woodpecker
    Sphyrapicus thyroideus, Williamson's Sapsucker
    Sphyrapicus varius, Yellow-bellied Sapsucker
    Sphyrapicus nuchalis, Red-naped Sapsucker
    Sphyrapicus ruber, Red-breasted Sapsucker
    Picoides scalaris, Ladder-backed Woodpecker
    Picoides nuttallii, Nuttall's Woodpecker
    Picoides pubescens, Downy Woodpecker
    Picoides villosus, Hairy Woodpecker
    Picoides arizonae, Arizona Woodpecker
    Picoides stricklandi, Strickland's Woodpecker
    Picoides borealis, Red-cockaded Woodpecker
    Picoides albolarvatus, White-headed Woodpecker
    Picoides tridactylus, Three-toed Woodpecker
    Picoides arcticus, Black-backed Woodpecker
    Colaptes auratus, Northern Flicker
    Colaptes chrysoides, Gilded Flicker
    Dryocopus pileatus, Pileated Woodpecker
    Campephilus principalis, Ivory-billed Woodpecker
Subfamily Elaeniinae
    Camptostoma imberbe, Northern Beardless-Tyrannulet
    Elaenia martinica, Caribbean Elaenia
Subfamily Fluvicolinae
    Contopus cooperi, Olive-sided Flycatcher
    Contopus pertinax, Greater Pewee
    Contopus sordidulus, Western Wood-Pewee
    Contopus virens, Eastern Wood-Pewee
    Contopus latirostris, Lesser Antillean Pewee
    Empidonax flaviventris, Yellow-bellied Flycatcher
    Empidonax virescens, Acadian Flycatcher
    Empidonax alnorum, Alder Flycatcher
    Empidonax traillii, Willow Flycatcher
    Empidonax minimus, Least Flycatcher
    Empidonax hammondii, Hammond's Flycatcher
    Empidonax wrightii, Gray Flycatcher
    Empidonax oberholseri, Dusky Flycatcher
    Empidonax difficilis, Pacific-slope Flycatcher
    Empidonax occidentalis, Cordilleran Flycatcher
    Empidonax fulvifrons, Buff-breasted Flycatcher
    Sayornis nigricans, Black Phoebe
    Sayornis phoebe, Eastern Phoebe
    Sayornis saya, Say's Phoebe
    Pyrocephalus rubinus, Vermilion Flycatcher
Subfamily Tyranninae
    Myiarchus tuberculifer, Dusky-capped Flycatcher
    Myiarchus cinerascens, Ash-throated Flycatcher
    Myiarchus nuttingi, Nutting's Flycatcher
    Myiarchus crinitus, Great Crested Flycatcher
    Myiarchus tyrannulus, Brown-crested Flycatcher
    Myiarchus antillarum, Puerto Rican Flycatcher
    Pitangus sulphuratus, Great Kiskadee
    Myiodynastes luteiventris, Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher
    Tyrannus melancholicus, Tropical Kingbird
    Tyrannus couchii, Couch's Kingbird
    Tyrannus vociferans, Cassin's Kingbird
    Tyrannus crassirostris, Thick-billed Kingbird
    Tyrannus verticalis, Western Kingbird
    Tyrannus tyrannus, Eastern Kingbird
    Tyrannus dominicensis, Gray Kingbird
    Tyrannus caudifasciatus, Loggerhead Kingbird
    Tyrannus forficatus, Scissor-tailed Flycatcher
    Tyrannus savana, Fork-tailed Flycatcher
    Pachyramphus aglaiae, Rose-throated Becard
    Lanius ludovicianus, Loggerhead Shrike
    Lanius excubitor, Northern Shrike
    Vireo griseus, White-eyed Vireo
    Vireo latimeri, Puerto Rican Vireo
    Vireo bellii, Bell's Vireo
    Vireo atricapillus, Black-capped Vireo
    Vireo vicinior, Gray Vireo
    Vireo flavifrons, Yellow-throated Vireo
    Vireo plumbeus, Plumbeous Vireo
    Vireo cassinii, Cassin's Vireo
    Vireo solitarius, Blue-headed Vireo
    Vireo huttoni, Hutton's Vireo
    Vireo gilvus, Warbling Vireo
    Vireo philadelphicus, Philadelphia Vireo
    Vireo olivaceus, Red-eyed Vireo
    Vireo flavoviridis, Yellow-green Vireo
    Vireo altiloquus, Black-whiskered Vireo
    Perisoreus canadensis, Gray Jay
    Cyanocitta stelleri, Steller's Jay
    Cyanocitta cristata, Blue Jay
    Cyanocorax yncas, Green Jay
    Cyanocorax morio, Brown Jay
    Aphelocoma coerulescens, Florida Scrub-Jay
    Aphelocoma insularis, Island Scrub-Jay
    Aphelocoma californica, Western Scrub-Jay
    Aphelocoma ultramarina, Mexican Jay
    Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus, Pinyon Jay
    Nucifraga columbiana, Clark's Nutcracker
    Pica hudsonia, Black-billed Magpie
    Pica nuttalli, Yellow-billed Magpie
    Corvus brachyrhynchos, American Crow
    Corvus caurinus, Northwestern Crow
    Corvus leucognaphalus, White-necked Crow
    Corvus imparatus, Tamaulipas Crow
    Corvus ossifragus, Fish Crow
    Corvus hawaiiensis, Hawaiian Crow
    Corvus cryptoleucus, Chihuahuan Raven
    Corvus corax, Common Raven
    Alauda arvensis, Sky Lark
    Eremophila alpestris, Horned Lark
Subfamily Hirundininae
    Progne subis, Purple Martin
    Progne cryptoleuca, Cuban Martin
    Progne dominicensis, Caribbean Martin
    Progne chalybea, Gray-breasted Martin
    Tachycineta bicolor, Tree Swallow
    Tachycineta thalassina, Violet-green Swallow
    Tachycineta cyaneoviridis, Bahama Swallow
    Stelgidopteryx serripennis, Northern Rough-winged Swallow
    Riparia riparia, Bank Swallow
    Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, Cliff Swallow
    Petrochelidon fulva, Cave Swallow
    Hirundo rustica, Barn Swallow
    Delichon urbica, Common House-Martin
    Poecile carolinensis, Carolina Chickadee
    Poecile atricapilla, Black-capped Chickadee
    Poecile gambeli, Mountain Chickadee
    Poecile sclateri, Mexican Chickadee

[[Page 52298]]

    Poecile rufescens, Chestnut-backed Chickadee
    Poecile hudsonica, Boreal Chickadee
    Poecile cincta, Gray-headed Chickadee
    Baeolophus wollweberi, Bridled Titmouse
    Baeolophus inornatus, Oak Titmouse
    Baeolophus ridgwayi, Juniper Titmouse
    Baeolophus bicolor, Tufted Titmouse
    Auriparus flaviceps, Verdin
    Psaltriparus minimus, Bushtit
Subfamily Sittinae
    Sitta canadensis, Red-breasted Nuthatch
    Sitta carolinensis, White-breasted Nuthatch
    Sitta pygmaea, Pygmy Nuthatch
    Sitta pusilla, Brown-headed Nuthatch
Subfamily Certhiinae
    Certhia americana, Brown Creeper
    Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus, Cactus Wren
    Salpinctes obsoletus, Rock Wren
    Catherpes mexicanus, Canyon Wren
    Thryothorus ludovicianus, Carolina Wren
    Thryothorus bewickii, Bewick's Wren
    Troglodytes aedon, House Wren
    Troglodytes troglodytes, Winter Wren
    Cistothorus platensis, Sedge Wren
    Cistothorus palustris, Marsh Wren
    Cinclus mexicanus, American Dipper
    Regulus satrapa, Golden-crowned Kinglet
    Regulus calendula, Ruby-crowned Kinglet
Subfamily Sylviinae
    Locustella ochotensis, Middendorff's Grasshopper-Warbler
    Acrocephalus familiaris, Millerbird
    Phylloscopus borealis, Arctic Warbler
    Phylloscopus trochilus, Willow Warbler
Subfamily Polioptilinae
    Polioptila caerulea, Blue-gray Gnatcatcher
    Polioptila californica, California Gnatcatcher
    Polioptila melanura, Black-tailed Gnatcatcher
    Polioptila nigriceps, Black-capped Gnatcatcher
    Muscicapa narcissina, Narcissus Flycatcher
    Muscicapa griseisticta, Gray-spotted Flycatcher
    Luscinia calliope, Siberian Rubythroat
    Luscinia svecica, Bluethroat
    Monticola solitarius, Blue Rock Thrush
    Oenanthe oenanthe, Northern Wheatear
    Sialia sialis, Eastern Bluebird
    Sialia mexicana, Western Bluebird
    Sialia currucoides, Mountain Bluebird
    Myadestes townsendi, Townsend's Solitaire
    Myadestes myadestinus, Kamao
    Myadestes lanaiensis, Olomao
    Myadestes obscurus, Omao
    Myadestes palmeri, Puaiohi
    Catharus fuscescens, Veery
    Catharus minimus, Gray-cheeked Thrush
    Catharus bicknelli, Bicknell's Thrush
    Catharus ustulatus, Swainson's Thrush
    Catharus guttatus, Hermit Thrush
    Hylocichla mustelina, Wood Thrush
    Turdus obscurus, Eyebrowed Thrush
    Turdus naumanni, Dusky Thrush
    Turdus pilaris, Fieldfare
    Turdus grayi, Clay-colored Robin
    Turdus rufopalliatus, Rufous-backed Robin
    Turdus migratorius, American Robin
    Turdus plumbeus, Red-legged Thrush
    Ixoreus naevius, Varied Thrush
    Ridgwayia pinicola, Aztec Thrush
    Dumetella carolinensis, Gray Catbird
    Mimus polyglottos, Northern Mockingbird
    Oreoscoptes montanus, Sage Thrasher
    Toxostoma rufum, Brown Thrasher
    Toxostoma longirostre, Long-billed Thrasher
    Toxostoma bendirei, Bendire's Thrasher
    Toxostoma curvirostre, Curve-billed Thrasher
    Toxostoma redivivum, California Thrasher
    Toxostoma crissale, Crissal Thrasher
    Toxostoma lecontei, Le Conte's Thrasher
    Margarops fuscatus, Pearly-eyed Thrasher
    Sturnus philippensis, Chestnut-cheeked Starling
    Sturnus cineraceus, White-cheeked Starling
    Prunella montanella, Siberian Accentor
    Motacilla flava, Yellow Wagtail
    Motacilla cinerea, Gray Wagtail
    Motacilla alba, White Wagtail
    Motacilla lugens, Black-backed Wagtail
    Anthus hodgsoni, Olive-backed Pipit
    Anthus gustavi, Pechora Pipit
    Anthus cervinus, Red-throated Pipit
    Anthus rubescens, American Pipit
    Anthus spragueii, Sprague's Pipit
    Bombycilla garrulus, Bohemian Waxwing
    Bombycilla cedrorum, Cedar Waxwing
    Phainopepla nitens, Phainopepla
    Peucedramus taeniatus, Olive Warbler
    Vermivora bachmanii, Bachman's Warbler
    Vermivora pinus, Blue-winged Warbler
    Vermivora chrysoptera, Golden-winged Warbler
    Vermivora peregrina, Tennessee Warbler
    Vermivora celata, Orange-crowned Warbler
    Vermivora ruficapilla, Nashville Warbler
    Vermivora virginiae, Virginia's Warbler
    Vermivora crissalis, Colima Warbler
    Vermivora luciae, Lucy's Warbler
    Parula americana, Northern Parula
    Parula pitiayumi, Tropical Parula
    Dendroica petechia, Yellow Warbler
    Dendroica pensylvanica, Chestnut-sided Warbler
    Dendroica magnolia, Magnolia Warbler
    Dendroica tigrina, Cape May Warbler
    Dendroica caerulescens, Black-throated Blue Warbler
    Dendroica coronata, Yellow-rumped Warbler
    Dendroica nigrescens, Black-throated Gray Warbler
    Dendroica chrysoparia, Golden-cheeked Warbler
    Dendroica virens, Black-throated Green Warbler
    Dendroica townsendi, Townsend's Warbler
    Dendroica occidentalis, Hermit Warbler
    Dendroica fusca, Blackburnian Warbler
    Dendroica dominica, Yellow-throated Warbler
    Dendroica graciae, Grace's Warbler
    Dendroica adelaidae, Adelaide's Warbler
    Dendroica pinus, Pine Warbler
    Dendroica kirtlandii, Kirtland's Warbler
    Dendroica discolor, Prairie Warbler
    Dendroica palmarum, Palm Warbler
    Dendroica castanea, Bay-breasted Warbler
    Dendroica striata, Blackpoll Warbler
    Dendroica cerulea, Cerulean Warbler
    Dendroica angelae, Elfin-woods Warbler

[[Page 52299]]

    Mniotilta varia, Black-and-white Warbler
    Setophaga ruticilla, American Redstart
    Protonotaria citrea, Prothonotary Warbler
    Helmitheros vermivorus, Worm-eating Warbler
    Limnothlypis swainsonii, Swainson's Warbler
    Seiurus aurocapillus, Ovenbird
    Seiurus noveboracensis, Northern Waterthrush
    Seiurus motacilla, Louisiana Waterthrush
    Oporornis formosus, Kentucky Warbler
    Oporornis agilis, Connecticut Warbler
    Oporornis philadelphia, Mourning Warbler
    Oporornis tolmiei, MacGillivray's Warbler
    Geothlypis trichas, Common Yellowthroat
    Geothlypis poliocephala, Gray-crowned Yellowthroat
    Wilsonia citrina, Hooded Warbler
    Wilsonia pusilla, Wilson's Warbler
    Wilsonia canadensis, Canada Warbler
    Cardellina rubrifrons, Red-faced Warbler
    Myioborus pictus, Painted Redstart
    Myioborus miniatus, Slate-throated Redstart
    Basileuterus culicivorus, Golden-crowned Warbler
    Basileuterus rufifrons, Rufous-capped Warbler
    Icteria virens, Yellow-breasted Chat
    Neospingus speculiferus, Puerto Rican Tanager
    Piranga flava, Hepatic Tanager
    Piranga rubra, Summer Tanager
    Piranga olivacea, Scarlet Tanager
    Piranga ludoviciana, Western Tanager
    Piranga bidentata, Flame-colored Tanager
    Spindalis portoricensis, Puerto Rican Spindalis
    Euphonia musica, Antillean Euphonia
    Sporophila torqueola, White-collared Seedeater
    Tiaris olivacea, Yellow-faced Grassquit
    Tiaris bicolor, Black-faced Grassquit
    Loxigilla portoricensis, Puerto Rican Bullfinch
    Arremonops rufivirgatus, Olive Sparrow
    Pipilo chlorurus, Green-tailed Towhee
    Pipilo maculatus, Spotted Towhee
    Pipilo erythrophthalmus, Eastern Towhee
    Pipilo fuscus, Canyon Towhee
    Pipilo crissalis, California Towhee
    Pipilo aberti, Abert's Towhee
    Aimophila carpalis, Rufous-winged Sparrow
    Aimophila cassinii, Cassin's Sparrow
    Aimophila aestivalis, Bachman's Sparrow
    Aimophila botterii, Botteri's Sparrow
    Aimophila ruficeps, Rufous-crowned Sparrow
    Aimophila quinquestriata, Five-striped Sparrow
    Spizella arborea, American Tree Sparrow
    Spizella passerina, Chipping Sparrow
    Spizella pallida, Clay-colored Sparrow
    Spizella breweri, Brewer's Sparrow
    Spizella pusilla, Field Sparrow
    Spizella wortheni, Worthen's Sparrow
    Spizella atrogularis, Black-chinned Sparrow
    Pooecetes gramineus, Vesper Sparrow
    Chondestes grammacus, Lark Sparrow
    Amphispiza bilineata, Black-throated Sparrow
    Amphispiza belli, Sage Sparrow
    Calamospiza melanocorys, Lark Bunting
    Passerculus sandwichensis, Savannah Sparrow
    Ammodramus savannarum, Grasshopper Sparrow
    Ammodramus bairdii, Baird's Sparrow
    Ammodramus henslowii, Henslow's Sparrow
    Ammodramus leconteii, Le Conte's Sparrow
    Ammodramus nelsoni, Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow
    Ammodramus caudacutus, Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrow
    Ammodramus maritimus, Seaside Sparrow
    Passerella iliaca, Fox Sparrow
    Melospiza melodia, Song Sparrow
    Melospiza lincolnii, Lincoln's Sparrow
    Melospiza georgiana, Swamp Sparrow
    Zonotrichia albicollis, White-throated Sparrow
    Zonotrichia querula, Harris's Sparrow
    Zonotrichia leucophrys, White-crowned Sparrow
    Zonotrichia atricapilla, Golden-crowned Sparrow
    Junco hyemalis, Dark-eyed Junco
    Junco phaeonotus, Yellow-eyed Junco
    Calcarius mccownii, McCown's Longspur
    Calcarius lapponicus, Lapland Longspur
    Calcarius pictus, Smith's Longspur
    Calcarius ornatus, Chestnut-collared Longspur
    Emberiza rustica, Rustic Bunting
    Emberiza pallasi, Pallas's Bunting
    Emberiza schoeniculus, Reed Bunting
    Plectrophenax nivalis, Snow Bunting
    Plectrophenax hyperboreus, McKay's Bunting
    Rhodothraupis celaeno, Crimson-collared Grosbeak
    Cardinalis cardinalis, Northern Cardinal
    Cardinalis sinuatus, Pyrrhuloxia
    Pheucticus chrysopeplus, Yellow Grosbeak
    Pheucticus ludovicianus, Rose-breasted Grosbeak
    Pheucticus malanocephalus, Black-headed Grosbeak
    Guiraca caerulea, Blue Grosbeak
    Passerina amoena, Lazuli Bunting
    Passerina cyanea, Indigo Bunting
    Passerina versicolor, Varied Bunting
    Passerina ciris, Painted Bunting
    Spiza americana, Dickcissel
    Dolichonyx oryzivorus, Bobolink
    Agelaius phoeniceus, Red-winged Blackbird
    Agelaius tricolor, Tricolored Blackbird
    Agelaius humeralis, Tawny-shouldered Blackbird
    Agelaius xanthomus, Yellow-shouldered Blackbird
    Sturnella magna, Eastern Meadowlark
    Sturnella neglecta, Western Meadowlark
    Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus, Yellow-headed Blackbird
    Euphagus carolinus, Rusty Blackbird
    Euphagus cyanocephalus, Brewer's Blackbird
    Quiscalus quiscula, Common Grackle
    Quiscalus major, Boat-tailed Grackle
    Quiscalus mexicanus, Great-tailed Grackle
    Quiscalus niger, Greater Antillean Grackle
    Molothrus bonariensis, Shiny Cowbird
    Molothrus aeneus, Bronzed Cowbird
    Molothrus ater, Brown-headed Cowbird
    Icterus wagleri, Black-vented Oriole
    Icterus dominicensis, Greater Antillean Oriole
    Icterus spurius, Orchard Oriole
    Icterus cucullatus, Hooded Oriole
    Icterus pustulatus, Streak-backed Oriole
    Icterus bullockii, Bullock's Oriole
    Icterus gularis, Altamira Oriole
    Icterus graduacauda, Audubon's Oriole
    Icterus galbula, Baltimore Oriole
    Icterus parisorum, Scott's Oriole
Subfamily Fringillinae
    Fringilla montifringilla, Brambling
SubFamily Carduelinae
    Leucosticte tephrocotis, Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch
    Leucosticte atrata, Black Rosy-Finch
    Leucosticte australis, Brown-capped Rosy-Finch

[[Page 52300]]

    Pinicola enucleator, Pine Grosbeak
    Carpodacus erythrinus, Common Rosefinch
    Carpodacus purpureus, Purple Finch
    Carpodacus cassinii, Cassin's Finch
    Carpodacus mexicanus, House Finch
    Loxia curvirostra, Red Crossbill
    Loxia leucoptera, White-winged Crossbill
    Carduelis flammea, Common Redpoll
    Carduelis hornemanni, Hoary Redpoll
    Carduelis pinus, Pine Siskin
    Carduelis psaltria, Lesser Goldfinch
    Carduelis lawrencei, Lawrence's Goldfinch
    Carduelis tristis, American Goldfinch
    Carduelis sinica, Oriental Greenfinch
    Pyrrhula pyrrhula, Eurasian Bullfinch
    Coccothraustes vespertinus, Evening Grosbeak
    Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Hawfinch

    Dated: September 19, 2001.
Joseph E. Doddridge,
Assistant Secretary for Fish and Wildlife and Parks.
[FR Doc. 01-25525 Filed 10-11-01; 8:45 am]