372 FW 1
Objectives, Responsibilities, and Definitions for Managing Constructed Real Property

Supersedes 372 FW 1,

FWM 398, 05/20/2002

Date: April 13, 2016

Series: Facility Management

Part 372: Management of Constructed Real Property

Originating Office: NWRS Division of Information and Technology Management



PDF Version



1.1 What is the purpose of this chapter? This chapter broadly describes the objectives and responsibilities for managing the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s (Service) constructed real property assets (assets) and defines terms we commonly use in that effort (i.e., terms we use in all the chapters in Part 372).


1.2 What is the objective of this chapter? Our objective is to provide an integrated, sustainable, and cost-effective framework for maximizing our assets’ contribution to accomplishing the Service’s mission. This framework will help us to systematically:


A. Use strategic, portfolio-based priorities; life-cycle investment strategies; and best management practices so that our assets help us to accomplish our mission in the most cost-effective way;


B. Maintain a complete and accurate inventory of the Service’s constructed real property assets so that we know each asset’s size, nature, location, and relative contribution to our mission;


C. Monitor and document the condition of our assets to understand the nature, urgency, and cost of correcting deficiencies;


D. Prioritize, plan, and execute Deferred Maintenance (DM), transportation, and annual maintenance projects to protect our mission-critical assets and provide safe and secure conditions for our employees, cooperators, and visitors (360 FW 1, Engineering and Construction Management – Objectives and Responsibilities, describes this process for projects funded from the Construction appropriation); and


E. Dispose of assets that:


(1) Have been replaced;


(2) Present wildlife, environmental, or human health hazards;


(3) Are not essential to accomplishing our mission; or


(4) Have an unsustainable cost-to-benefit ratio.


1.3 What is the scope of Part 372? The chapters in Part 372 focus on strategic planning, decisionmaking, and budgeting to manage constructed real property assets that we own, lease, or manage. Table 1-1 describes all the chapters in Part 372.


 Table 1-1: Organization of Part 372, Management of Constructed Real Property Assets



372 FW 1, Objectives, Responsibilities, and Definitions for Managing Constructed Real Property

Provides overall background, objectives, and definitions for the Part and describes the Service’s asset management responsibilities.

372 FW 2, Mission-Centric Life-Cycle Management

Describes principles for assessing each asset’s contribution to the mission, asset life-cycle costs, and return-on-investment when setting priorities to repair existing or construct new assets.

372 FW 3, Maintaining a Complete and Accurate Inventory

Explains how we inventory assets to meet mandatory reporting requirements and manage them strategically.

372 FW 4, Assessing Condition and Documenting Cost to Correct Deficiencies

Describes how we assess asset condition and determine the cost to correct deficiencies found in the assessments. Also covers specialized inspections.

372 FW 5, Planning and Executing Projects within Deferred Maintenance Budgets

Describes how we develop and execute 5-year DM and fire facility plans.

372 FW 6, Planning and Executing Projects within Transportation Budgets

Describes how we develop and execute our 5-year transportation plan.

372 FW 7, Disposing of Constructed Real Property Assets

Describes how we dispose of assets and document disposals.


1.4  What other Parts in the Service Manual are related to constructed real property assets?

See Table 1-2.


Table 1-2: Other Parts in the Service Manual Related to Constructed Real Property





Part 260

Financial Management

Part 370

Space Management

Part 340 to 342

Acquisition and Ownership of Lands

Part 371

Quarters Management

Part 360

Engineering and Construction Management

Part 373

Energy Management and Water Conservation

Part 361

Dam Safety

Parts 560 to 563

Pollution Control and Environmental Compliance

Part 362

Bridge Safety

Part 565


Part 363

Seismic Safety


1.5 What are the authorities for this chapter?


A. Architectural Barriers Act of 1968 (42 U.S.C. 4151).


B. Archeological and Historic Preservation Act (16 U.S.C. 469-469c).


C. Executive Order 13327, Federal Real Property Asset Management.


D. Executive Order 13693, Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade.


E. Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 (40 U.S.C. 101 et seq.).


F. Federal Management Regulations, Real Property (41 CFR 101-102).


G. Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956 (16 U.S.C. 742a-754d, not including 742d-1).


H. Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act (16 U.S.C. 2901-2911).


I. McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act of 1987, as amended (42 U.S.C. 11411).


J. Migratory Bird Conservation Act (16 U.S.C. 715k).


K. National Environmental Policy Act (42 U.S.C. 4321-4370).


L. National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (16 U.S.C. 470 et seq.).


M. National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997 (P.L. 105-57).


N. Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 651-678).


O. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-45, Rental and Construction of Government Quarters.


P. Refuge Recreation Act, as amended (16 U.S.C. 460k-460-k-4).


Q. Surplus Property for Public Airports, as amended (49 U.S.C. 47151-47153).


R. Transfer of Certain Real Property for Wildlife Conservation Purposes Act (16 U.S.C. 667b-667d).


1.6 Who is responsible for management of constructed real property assets? We describe asset management responsibilities for planning, decisionmaking, and budgeting in Table 1-3. Other chapters in Part 372 address responsibilities for more specific aspects of asset management.


Table 1-3: Responsibilities for Management of Constructed Real Property Assets

These employees…

Are responsible for…

A. The Director

Approving all Servicewide asset management policy and budget matters.

B. The Deputy Director

Overseeing the overall real property asset management program as Senior Real Property Officer, with roles prescribed in Executive Order 13327.

C. The Chief – National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS)

(1) Leading the Service’s national level asset management program, which includes:

(a) Implementing Executive Order 13327,

(b) Representing the Service on the Department’s Asset Management Team, and

(c) Implementing the policy in this Part and integrating it with other activities related to managing constructed real property;


(2) Coordinating with other Directorate members in Headquarters who manage assets, especially the Assistant Director – Fish and Aquatic Conservation and the Assistant Director – Business Management and Operations, to:


(a) Develop and implement an effective overall approach to asset management and budgeting, and

(b) Update the Constructed Real Property Management Handbook;


(3) Coordinating with members of the Construction Investment Review Board (IRB) as needed;


(4) Managing the Service Asset and Maintenance Management System (SAMMS), which we use in combination with the Financial and Business Management System (FBMS) to form the official database of record for the Service’s constructed real property assets;


(5) Leading the Service’s transportation program, including coordination with the U.S. Department of Transportation;


(6) Ensuring that our asset management activities protect cultural resources, preserve water rights, promote sustainability, and comply with all legal mandates; and


(7) Managing the Service’s Realty program and taking into consideration the need to coordinate management of constructed real property assets as part of planning for land acquisition, transfer, or disposal whenever they impact management of constructed real property.


D. Assistant Director – Fish and Aquatic Conservation

(1) Coordinating with the Chief of NWRS on the Service’s national level asset management program for Fish and Aquatic Conservation (FAC), which includes:


(a) Implementing Executive Order 13327,

(b) Representing the Service on the Department’s Asset Management and Working Group Teams, and

(c) Implementing the policy in this Part and integrating it with other activities related to managing constructed real property;


(2) Coordinating with members of the Construction IRB as needed;


(3) Ensuring that our asset management activities protect cultural resources, preserve water rights, promote sustainability, and comply with all legal mandates; and


(4) Planning FAC land acquisitions, using agreements and divestitures, and taking into consideration the need to coordinate management of constructed real property assets as part of planning for land acquisition, transfer, or disposal whenever they impact management of constructed real property.


E. Assistant Director – Business Management and Operations

(1) Overseeing the construction budget;


(2) Coordinating with the Directorate members in Headquarters who manage assets to implement an effective overall approach to planning and executing construction, DM, and transportation budgets;


(3) Leading the Service’s:


(a) Engineering activities, including specialized inspections, construction planning, energy management, and management of significant and high hazard dam construction projects;

(b) Contracting and leasing activities, including contracting and acquisition related to constructed real property and leasing for quarters, office space, and other purposes; and

(c) Real property financial management program activities.


F. Other Directorate members at Headquarters

Coordinating with the Chief – NWRS and the Assistant Director – Business Management and Operations to develop and implement asset management policies and procedures under this Part.


G. Regional Directors and Assistant Regional Directors

(1) Working with the Chief – NWRS, the Assistant Director – Fish and Aquatic Conservation, and the Assistant Director – Business Management and Operations, and other members of the Construction IRB to develop, adapt, and implement strategic asset management policies and procedures;


(2) Approving Regional priorities for 5-year DM and transportation plans we send to the Department and OMB, consistent with guidance from the Department;


(3) Providing overall accountability for completing funded DM and transportation projects consistent with guidance from the Director and that we lay out in the 5-year plan projects we send to the Department and OMB;


(4) Ensuring that asset management activities, including annual maintenance, DM, construction, life-cycle investments, etc., focus on mission delivery; are integrated with overall program responsibilities; and optimize life-cycle return on investment; and


(5) Overseeing Regional Engineering program activities, including inspections of and mitigation projects for bridges, seismic safety, and non-program dams.

H. Regional Facilities Program Supervisors

(1) Completing comprehensive condition assessments and arranging for specialized inspections when needed;


(2) Incorporating all relevant asset data into SAMMS and the FBMS Real Property Inventory database; and


(3) Supporting Assistant Regional Directors in developing 5-year DM and transportation plans, consistent with guidance from the Department.

I. Field Station Managers


(1) Ensuring that FBMS and SAMMS asset inventories are updated annually in an accurate, timely, and thorough manner using national level guidance;


(2) Identifying asset maintenance needs and priorities;


(3) Prioritizing, scheduling, and completing annual asset maintenance, component renewal, disposal, and construction work paid for with funds the station manages;


(4) Providing accurate accounting in FBMS of the cost of annual constructed real property operation and maintenance (including all types of maintenance, wages, utilities, energy costs, etc.), component renewal, DM, and capital improvement;


(5) Completing DM and transportation projects, consistent with available funding and Regional guidance; and


(6) Reporting project accomplishments annually.


1.7 What is the official database of record for management of constructed real property information? We use SAMMS in conjunction with FBMS as the official database of record for constructed real property.  


A. SAMMS provides a systematic approach to collecting, verifying, managing, and applying data. Reliable and current data supports local, Regional, and national decisionmaking and is essential for developing and justifying funding needs for the national budget process.


B. FBMS is the Service’s financial database of record and has specific requirements related to inventory and Federal real property reporting for constructed real property assets.


C. Data elements in the SAMMS and FBMS software applications are interfaced so that we can efficiently manage data between the two systems.


1.8 What terms do you need to know to understand the chapters in Part 372? See Table 1-4.


Table 1-4: Definitions of Terms Used in Part 372

Click on a letter below to find a term.


A       B       C       D       E      F       G       H     I       J       K       L       M       N       O       P      Q       R      S      T       U      V       W      X       Y       Z


Asset is a constructed real property item with a replacement value of at least $5,000 that we track and manage as a distinct, identifiable entity. SAMMS stores asset records in the “Locations” table. The corresponding FBMS records are the “Building” record for real property reporting data and the “Asset Master Record” for financial data. An asset may be a single physical structure, a structure with integrated functional components, or a grouping of related structures managed as a single entity (e.g., a house, carport, fence, and septic tank might be treated as a single asset). There is a Departmental coding system that classifies each type of asset to help us manage and analyze data consistently.


Asset Priority Index (API) is the measure of the importance of a constructed asset to the mission of the installation where it is located. The numeric range is from 1 (little or no importance) to 100 (mission critical with no substitutes).





Capital Improvement (CI) means the construction, installation, or assembly of a new asset, or the alteration, expansion, or extension of an existing asset to accommodate a change of function, to fulfill programmatic needs, or to incorporate new technology. This may also include major renovation of an existing asset to restore or extend its life without a change of function. It may also include engineering or contracted Architectural and Engineering (A&E) services that support planning, design, and execution.


(1) Construction is the erection, installation, or assembly of a new asset.


(2) Alterations are changes to the interior floor plan, electrical, mechanical or structural components, or other physical characteristics of an existing facility or installed component so that we can use it more effectively for its currently designated purpose or adapt it to a new use or occupancy. Alterations may include work we also call improvement, conversion, remodeling, retrofitting, or modernization. These modifications are beyond what we call routine maintenance.


(3) Expansion is when we increase the capacity or size of a facility to serve needs different from, or greater than, those originally intended. Expansion is a capital improvement because the action expands or modifies (e.g., expanded use, change in occupancy code applicability, etc.) the asset, increasing the capacity beyond its existing functionality. DM needs on the original asset may be reduced or eliminated in conjunction with an expansion.


Component means a non-severable subsystem or portion of an asset or major item of installed equipment.


Condition assessment is when qualified personnel periodically inspect assets to confirm they exist. They also document their physical state, identify and validate maintenance needs, determine the costs for correcting maintenance deficiencies, and update estimates for current replacement values. See 372 FW 4 for additional information and definitions of the three types of condition assessments—annual, comprehensive, and specialized.


Current Replacement Value (CRV) for non-heritage assets means the current cost to replace an asset at its existing size, occupancy, and functional capability. It includes current costs for overhead, planning and design, construction, construction management, and code compliance. We base CRV estimates for heritage assets on best estimates to reflect the cost of maintaining the asset using historically accurate materials and construction techniques. Because costs for heritage assets are rarely found in industry standards, we usually determine the value on a case-by-case basis using the expertise of cultural resource professionals familiar with the heritage asset we’re evaluating.



Deficiency is an observed defect that occurs as a result of normal deterioration, when maintenance and repairs are not performed on time, as a result of the impact of nature/external forces, or when constructed assets fail to perform to standards. Deficiencies lead to deterioration of performance, diminished capacity, loss of asset value, or a combination the three. An accumulation of uncorrected deficiencies is a backlog that represents a physical and financial liability for an asset.


Deficiency cost estimate is the estimated cost to restore an asset so that it will function as originally intended or as required for the current use without expansion of the asset. Deficiency costs include DM, corrective and required maintenance, and repair costs that have not been delayed for more than 1 year.


Disposal is the process of selling, retiring, demolishing, or otherwise removing assets. It includes the associated administrative process of documenting the physical disposal and adjusting all associated property and maintenance records.





Estimated remaining life means an estimate of the number of years until we’ll need to replace the asset. We base the estimate on published data and specific information on the asset’s condition, environment, and intended use. Unlike the “expected useful life” that we use to calculate financial depreciation, estimated remaining life is not a fixed number of years from the construction date. We can extend it through diligent maintenance activities, component renewals, and life-cycle investments.



Facility Condition Index (FCI) is the ratio of an asset’s total DM cost to its CRV: FCI = DM/CRV. The FCI measures the asset’s current condition relative to the condition of an identical newly constructed asset. The range is from 0 for assets that have no deficiencies, to 1 for assets where the deficiency cost equals the CRV. Acceptable ranges vary by asset type, but as a general guideline, an FCI <0.15 indicates acceptable condition, and an FCI > 0.15 indicates unacceptable condition.


Five-year DM and transportation plans are lists establishing the highest priority items that we will fund from our DM and transportation budgets during the budget request year and the following 4 fiscal years. After the Department approves our priority project lists, they send them to OMB for review. They ultimately are considered part of our budget justification to Congress. We revise the plans annually as we develop new budget requests, but we manage the plans so that our priorities remain consistent through time. 





Heritage assets are those assets that are unique because of their historical significance, cultural, educational, or artistic importance, or for significant architectural characteristics. Heritage assets have different maintenance and preservation requirements than general real property assets. For reporting purposes, heritage assets for constructed real property are assets that are listed, or have been found eligible for listing, on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). Although National Historic Landmarks are a separate designation, when they’re designated they are also listed in the NRHP.



Installation is an operational unit comprised of one or more constructed assets and the associated land. Examples of typical Service installations include refuges, fish hatcheries, fisheries resource centers, research centers, office locations, and the National Conservation Training Center.


Inventory means a detailed, itemized record of constructed real property assets (by location) that the Service owns or manages. We include a variety of attributes in real property inventories to characterize the main type, use, legal interest, size, relative priority, historical status, current replacement value, location, and all other data elements required for the Federal Real Property Profile and asset management. The Service maintains complete, accurate, and current inventory records to support portfolio-based, life-cycle management decisionmaking and mandatory reporting requirements.





Life-cycle management (also known as life-cycle costing) is the systematic process of strategic and cost-effective planning, constructing, operating, maintaining, renewing, upgrading, and replacing or disposing of real property assets. Life-cycle asset management combines an understanding of the full range of costs and return on investment throughout the expected life of an asset. When combined with an understanding of an asset’s relative importance to our mission, life-cycle costing helps us to ensure an organized, defensible, and logical approach to prioritizing and funding asset management activities.



Maintenance includes all activities required to preserve real property assets so that they may be used for their designated purpose over their required service life. Facility maintenance includes all facility management activities not included in facility operations and capital improvements. We refer to the following different types and stages of maintenance throughout the chapters in Part 372:


(1) Preventive maintenance includes routine maintenance, servicing, inspections, adjustments, and repair or replacement of parts that result in fewer breakdowns, failures, and premature replacement. Preventive maintenance extends the expected life of constructed assets and components. We perform preventive maintenance at least once a year or as recommended by the equipment manufacturer. Delaying preventive maintenance may lead to deficiencies, but failure to complete preventive maintenance work does not automatically become DM. Preventive maintenance typically includes grading roads and levees, replacing electrical and mechanical components, lubing and greasing equipment, etc.


(2) Recurring maintenance includes activities that we perform on a periodic and scheduled cycle, typically more often than every 10 years, but not as often as once a year. Delaying recurring maintenance may lead to deficiencies, but failure to complete recurring maintenance work does not automatically become DM. Typical recurring maintenance includes painting, caulking, sealing, replacing carpets, repairing erosion on roads and levees, etc.


(3) Component renewal means maintenance activities that recur on a periodic and scheduled cycle, typically greater than 10 years, for large components of an asset. Typical component renewal work includes resurfacing pavement, replacing culverts, and replacing water control structures, HVAC equipment, roofs, doors, and windows.


(4) Corrective maintenance means unscheduled maintenance or repairs to correct deficiencies during the year in which they occur. Typical corrective maintenance includes repairing potholes; replacing damaged or worn signs; and replacing HVAC, electrical, or mechanical components.


(5) Emergency maintenance means unforeseen repair activities to correct an immediate, unpredicted need to prevent injury, loss of property, contamination releases, or to return an asset to service. We begin these repairs soon after we identify the need, usually within hours.


(6) Deferred Maintenance (DM) means corrective maintenance that was not performed when it should have been or was scheduled, and has been delayed for at least 12 months.


(a) Scheduled repairs continue to be “routine corrective maintenance or repair” for 1 year. If they haven’t been repaired after a year, they’re “DM.”

(b) This 1-year delay includes deficiencies that are non-compliant to codes (e.g., life safety, Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), Occupational Safety and Health (OSHA), environmental codes, etc.) and other regulatory or Executive Order requirements.

(c) DM costs include engineering and contracted services to plan, design, and execute DM work.


(7) Replacement means removing an existing asset and acquiring a substitute to serve the same function as the original asset without expansion or alteration.


(8) Demolition means dismantling and removing an asset. Demolition costs include the necessary remediation and cleanup work required to remove the asset safely, but the costs don’t include site remediation not directly resulting from the removal of an asset.


Maintenance Action Team (MAT) projects are formally planned, coordinated, and executed restoration, rehabilitation, construction, or demolition projects predominantly completed using in-house staff and equipment. Coordinated by the Regional offices, these projects give our maintenance staff training and networking opportunities. MAT projects are often moderately complex in nature and include such activities as levee replacements, road or parking lot improvements, and improvements to buildings. Staff from multiple field stations work to accomplish these projects with the assistance of personnel from the Regional office.





Operations are the activities we perform on a recurring basis throughout the year to meet routine, daily, or ongoing mission needs. Following are additional terms we use to describe operations:


(1) Operational maintenance includes activities related to the normal functions for which an asset or item of equipment is intended. Examples include utilities (i.e., water, sewer, gas, electricity), monitoring of water or sewage treatment systems, and ongoing routine management of environmental compliance or energy use.


(2) Custodial maintenance includes activities associated with general day-to-day care and cleaning operations necessary to operate an asset, installation, or program. It includes housekeeping duties, such as cleaning restrooms, waxing floors, vacuuming, and cleaning windows; controlling rodents and pests; mowing lawns; cleaning hatchery raceways; removing beaver dams from water control structures; grading roads and levees; mowing roadsides and levees; managing alarms and security systems; and maintaining fire protection or other safety systems for buildings.


(3) Trash removal includes activities associated with recycling and disposing of hazardous and non-hazardous waste.


(4) Snow and ice removal involves treating for and removing snow, ice, and freezing rain on sidewalks, walkways, driveways, parking lots, and roadways. It often involves using special mechanized equipment or trucks, chemicals, and sand.


(5) Inspections and assessments include annual and comprehensive condition assessments, safety inspections, environmental compliance inspections, energy and water evaluations, etc.



Portfolio-based management means using long-range planning and a disciplined budget process to manage our overall asset investments to accomplish our mission with minimal risks, lowest life-cycle costs, and greatest benefits. It helps us to focus on performing the most important work at the most important time and place. Portfolio-based management can be a Servicewide or programwide approach to strategically analyzing and collectively managing the entire suite of assets or proposed projects. Our goal is to make decisions based on the optimal mix and sequencing of proposed projects instead of focusing on isolated individual properties or projects. Portfolio-based management enables us to:


(1) Evaluate each asset based on how well it supports our mission;


(2) Direct resources to assets where they are needed most, not just to assets in poor condition;


(3) Effectively manage the life-cycle of each asset by systematically considering realistic short-term and long-term cost estimates when making decisions to construct, repair, or replace assets;


(4) Focus planning on the long-term overall condition of our asset portfolio; and


(5) Identify opportunities to dispose of assets that no longer support our mission.





Real property unique identification number is a number FBMS assigns to each constructed real property asset when we establish a record for it in the system. Along with the real property unique ID, we also collect information about the attributes of the asset that include such items as descriptions, measurements, geospatial location, congressional district, extent of use, etc.





Usable Square Feet (USF) is the not-to-exceed 180 square foot per person office space allowance per Department standard. USF includes not only individually assigned office areas, but also shared functional space, such as hallways, conference rooms, supply storage areas, kitchens, and break areas. The USF requirements were established as policy in a Departmental memorandum “Space Management Utilization Guidance,” dated 5/12/11) and 425 DM, Space Management).


Useful life is the number of years an asset or equipment is expected to remain viable if we perform scheduled preventive maintenance and repairs to the manufacturer’s recommendations and industry standards. We can extend the useful life of an asset or associated equipment components through diligent maintenance activities, component renewals, and life-cycle investments.





Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is a unique string of characters that identifies a specific project in FBMS; essentially it’s a fund label. The Division of Financial Management assigns a WBS upon request from the Regional budget offices of Headquarters office. All projects, regardless of Service fund source, require a WBS before construction or repairs begin. A WBS must be assigned before a work order can be created.


Work order is a written request we use to plan and track asset maintenance tasks and costs. We create work orders in SAMMS and track them in FBMS as payments are made.





1.9 What other guidance is available on the detailed procedures of managing real property assets?


A. This is a complex program with many recordkeeping, reporting, and budgeting components. We provide detailed guidance in the Constructed Real Property Management Handbook.


B. There are technical bulletins and user guides that describe administrative procedures for managing real property data and work orders in FBMS and SAMMS.


C. The Real Property Financial Management Handbook discusses all financial processes for asset management. Click here for the handbook.


For more information about this policy, contact the Division of Information and Technology Management in NWRS. For more information about this Web site, contact Krista Bibb in the Division of Policy, Performance, and Management Programs.



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