What is the purpose of this chapter? This chapter outlines the
requirements and responsibilities for controlling the unintentional release
of hazardous energy that could cause injury or damage, while machines and
equipment are being maintained and/or serviced.
8.2 To whom does the Lockout/Tagout Program apply? It applies to all
Service employees, volunteers, Youth Conservation Corps members, seasonal
workers, and students who service and/or maintain machines and equipment; and to all
people who may come in contact with the machines and equipment while they are
being serviced and/or maintained.
8.3 What are the authorities for this chapter?
Law 91-596, Sec 19, Federal Agency Safety Programs and Responsibilities.
Order 12196, Occupational Safety and Health Programs for Federal Employees.
CFR 1910.147, The Control of Hazardous Energy Sources, Lockout/Tagout.
CFR 1960, Basic Program Elements for Federal Employee Occupational Safety and
Health Programs and Related Matters.
8.4 Who is
responsible for the Lockout/Tagout (LOTO) Program?
The Chief, Division of Safety and Health must:
(1) Revise and update
this chapter, as necessary.
interpretation of LOTO Program requirements and serve as a consultant to
resolve Servicewide questions or issues.
Regional Directors must provide sufficient support and resources to
effectively implement the LOTO Program in their areas of responsibility.
Regional Safety Managers must:
(1) As requested,
provide interpretation of LOTO Program requirements and serve as an advisor
to resolve Regionwide questions and issues.
the implementation of LOTO Program requirements during Regional field station
safety program evaluations.
Project Leaders and Supervisors, where LOTO Programs are required, must:
that written LOTO procedures are in place at their facility.
sure that all of their employees complete the required LOTO Program training.
written records of all employee training.
(4) Make sure that all
aspects of the LOTO Program are implemented in their facilities and work
all LOTO Program training.
(2) Comply with all
LOTO Program requirements.
What is the Service policy regarding the control of hazardous energy? You will not be
exposed to potentially hazardous energy sources from machines or equipment
that are being serviced and/or maintained at your facility. Hazardous energy
sources include any potentially harmful source of electrical, mechanical,
hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical, or thermal energy. Energy
isolating devices will be used whenever possible. In the rare cases when a
lockout device cannot be used, authorized employees will use tagout
procedures. If tagout procedures are used, it must be demonstrated that a
level of safety equivalent to the lockout procedures is obtained. At a
minimum, supervisors and employees will comply with the applicable Occupational
and Safety Health Administration (OSHA) regulations.
definitions are useful in understanding the requirements of this chapter?
employee. You are an affected employee if you either:
Operate or use machines or equipment while they are being maintained and/or
(2) Work in an area
where machines or equipment are being maintained and/or serviced under
Authorized employee. You are an authorized employee if you
lockout or tagout a machine or equipment before maintaining and/or servicing it.
C. Capable of
being locked out. A machine or equipment is capable of being
locked out if either:
energy isolating device has a hasp or other means of attaching a key or
combination lock to it.
A locking mechanism is built into it.
(3) You can lockout
the energy source without the need to dismantle, rebuild, or replace the
energy isolating device, or permanently change its ability to control energy.
The machine or equipment is connected to an energy source or contains
residual or stored energy.
Energy isolating device. A mechanical device that physically
prevents the transmission or release of energy.
examples of energy isolating devices are:
manually operated electrical circuit breaker.
(b) A disconnect
(c) A manually
operated switch, if
the conductors of a circuit can be disconnected from all ungrounded supply
no pole can be operated independently.
(e) A block.
(f) Any similar device
used to block or isolate energy.
(2) Devices that are not energy
isolating include: push buttons, selector switches and other control circuit
Energy source. Any source of electrical, mechanical, hydraulic,
pneumatic, chemical, thermal, or other energy.
lockout device that has the capability to accept multiple locks for group
H. Lockout. Putting
a lockout device on an energy isolating device. You have achieved lockout
when the energy isolating device and the equipment being controlled cannot be
operated until the lockout device is removed.
Lockout device. A device that prevents energizing of a machine or
equipment. It uses a positive means to hold an energy isolating device in the
safe position. Examples of lockout devices include:
lock, either key or combination type.
(3) Bolted slip
clamps, tongs, or lockout scissors.
and/or maintaining. Workplace activities such as
constructing, installing, setting up, adjusting, inspecting, or modifying
machines or equipment. Note:
You are considered to be servicing and/or maintaining the
machines or equipment if you might be exposed to the unexpected
energizing or startup of the equipment or release of hazardous energy while
you lubricate, clean or un-jam machines or equipment, or make adjustments or
K. Tagout. Placing
a warning on an energy isolating device to tell people not to operate that
machine or equipment.
A nonreusable, nonreleasable warning device, such as a tag, which can be
securely fastened to an energy isolating device by hand. The purpose of a
tagout device is to warn people that they must not operate either the energy
isolating device or the equipment that is tagged.
8.7 What is a LOTO
procedure? A procedure that clearly and specifically outlines
the scope, purpose, authorization, rules, and techniques to be used for the
control of hazardous energy. FWS
Form 3-2280 (Hazardous Energy Control Procedures Energy Source
Evaluation) is an evaluation form for determining energy control procedures. FWS Form 3-2281 is used to
document the procedures. The procedures should include:
statement of the intended use of the procedure.
Specific steps for shutting down, isolating, blocking and securing machines
or equipment to control the hazardous energy.
steps for the placement, removal and transfer of lockout devices or tagout
Requirements for testing a machine or equipment to determine and verify the
effectiveness of the devices and other energy control.
What are typical machine or equipment servicing and/or maintenance activities
requiring lockout/tagout? Typical activities requiring lockout/tagout
electrical circuits or equipment.
Clearing blocked or jammed mechanisms.
on lines carrying hazardous materials, materials under pressure, or materials
at dangerous temperatures (cold or hot).
Working under heavy equipment or machinery with all or part of it raised
and/or capable of falling.
What machine or equipment servicing and/or maintenance activities are not
covered by this chapter?
A. LOTO does not
apply to minor tool changes, adjustments, and other minor service activities
that take place during normal operations. The changes have to be routine,
repetitive, and integral to the use of the equipment.
B. LOTO procedures do
not apply to cord and plug-connected electrical equipment if exposure to
unexpected start-up is controlled by unplugging it from its energy source.
The plug must also be under the exclusive control of the employee performing
the servicing or maintenance.
C. LOTO does not
apply to "hot-tap" operations, such as transmission and
distribution systems for utilities or water distribution systems in Service
applications, if the employee can demonstrate that:
of services is essential, and
of the system is impractical, and
procedures are followed, and
equipment is used that will provide proven effective protection for
What are the requirements for selecting lockout devices?
A. Lockout devices
must be keyed individually with no more than two keys for each lock. For
group lockout, if more than one employee or contractor are working together,
the device must be capable of accepting more than one lock.
devices must be durable and applicable for the environment in which they are
used. They may be locks, chains, tongs, lockout scissors, or other approved
devices capable of accepting a lock.
When should I use a lockout device? Lockout devices must be used on
disconnects, panels, and other controllers to hold a switch arm or valve in
the off position.
What are the requirements for using lockout devices?
devices must be used to keep energy isolating devices in the safe or off
type locks are recommended.
leaders should issue locks to each authorized employee who might service
and/or maintain machines or equipment.
The locking device must not have more than two keys and both of them must be
under exclusive control of the individual who owns the lock.
E. No key should fit
more than one lock.
8.13 What are the requirements for
purchasing/constructing and using lockout and tagout devices?
Lockout/tagout devices must:
easily recognized by everyone.
standardized. Each facility must make sure that their lockout and tagout
devices are all the same color, shape or size.
strong. Make tagout devices and their attachments strong enough to prevent
inadvertent or accidental removal.
specifically for lockout use.
for lockout only.
(3) Designed so that
removal by other than normal means would require excessive force or unusual
the authorized employee's name who attached them.
(2) Warn people about
the danger if a machine or equipment is energized.
(3) Have the same size
print and format.
warnings such as: DO NOT START, DO NOT OPEN, DO NOT CLOSE, DO NOT ENERGIZE,
DO NOT OPERATE.
What steps should I take before servicing and/or maintaining machines or
equipment under lockout/tagout? If you are an authorized employee, you
Prepare for lockout/tagout:
the type and amount of energy the machine or equipment uses.
all affected employees that you will be using lockout/tagout procedures on
the machine or equipment.
Shutdown the machine/equipment:
off or shut down the machine or equipment using the proper procedures.
or restrain any stored energy in the machine or equipment (i.e., air, gas,
steam, or water pressure,
springs, elevated parts of the machine, rotating flywheels, hydraulic
Put lockout/tagout devices on the machine or equipment. When you use
locks, you must also use a tag that identifies you as the authorized employee
who applied the lockout device.
(1) Locate all energy
isolating devices and place them in the safe position, to make sure that the
machine or equipment is isolated from all energy sources.
a lockout and/or tagout device to each energy isolating device. If there is
more than one energy source, or that source is not readily identifiable,
written LOTO procedures must be available that identify the energy sources
and control methods.
must test to ensure that the energy has been isolated before work is to
servicing or maintenance of equipment is being performed by more than one Service
employee, or a Service employee with a contractor, each and everyone working
on the equipment must lock it out using appropriate locks and devices.
What should I do to release a machine or equipment from lockout or tagout?
you are the authorized employee who attached the lockout or tagout devices,
before you remove the devices and reenergize the machine or equipment you
the work area to make sure it is clear of debris and tools that could create
a hazard when you reenergize the machine or equipment.
the machine/equipment to make sure you have completely reassembled it and
that all the safety guards are in place.
sure that everyone in the work area is a safe distance away from the
machine/equipment when you reenergized it.
each lockout or tagout device from each energy isolating device.
the affected employees that you have removed the lockout or tagout devices.
the authorized employee who attached the lockout or tagout devices is not
available to remove them, the supervisor may direct that another authorized
employee remove them.
(1) The project leader
must verify that the authorized employee who applied the device is not at the
(2) The project leader
should try to contact the employee who attached the devices to tell him/her
the devices are being removed.
the authorized employee who attached the lockout or tagout devices is allowed
to resume work at the facility, the project leader must tell him/her that the
lockout or tagout device was removed.
What are the training requirements for the LOTO Program? A safety talk
on general LOTO control procedures and devices will be given for all new
affected employees, and at least annually for all other employees.
Training for authorized employees will include:
(1) The purpose and
requirements of the LOTO Program.
of hazardous energy sources.
and magnitude of the energy in the machines/equipment at their workplace.
(4) Methods of energy
isolation and control.
(5) The dangers of
ignoring or removing a lockout/tagout device from a machine, circuit, or
Training for affected employees will include:
(1) The contents of
(2) Rules against
removing energy control devices from locked out or tagged out machines or
(3) Rules against
attempting to restart or reenergize machines or equipment that are locked out
or tagged out.
(4) Statement that
project leaders will notify them before energy control devices are installed
and after energy control devices are removed.
Retraining is required for all authorized and affected employees whenever:
(1) Their job
(2) There is a change
in machines or equipment at their work sites.
Project leaders will keep a written record of LOTO training.
record will include employees' names, date of training, description of
training, and signature of the person giving the training.
record will include annual inspections of the energy control procedures and
certifications for every employee who is authorized to use LOTO procedures.
It will identify the machine or equipment on which the procedure was
reviewed, the date of the inspection, the individual performing the
inspection, and the names of those who participated.
8.17 What are the
requirements for periodic inspections?
Annually, an authorized employee will perform an inspection of the energy
control procedure to ensure the procedure is being followed and to correct
any problems identified.
lockout is used, it will include a review between the inspector and each
authorized employee of the employee's responsibilities under the procedure
tagout is used, it will include a review between the inspector and each
authorized and affected employee of the employee's responsibilities under the
procedure being inspected. It will also include a review of the employee's
training on the limitations of the tags.
This inspection must be certified as having been performed and will identify
the equipment/machine, the date of the inspection, the names of employees
included in the inspection, and the person who performed that inspection.