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Animal Avoidance and Minimization Measures

The following measures are recommended to avoid or minimize project impacts to threatened and endangered animals - including bats, birds, turtles, and invertebrates - in Hawai'i and the Pacific Islands.

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    Scroll down or click for avoidance and minimization measures when encountering: 

    Endangered Hawaiian hoary bat
    Hawaiian Seabirds
    Wedge-tailed shearwater - ‘ua‘u kani (Ardenna pacificus)
    White terns or Manu O Kū (Gygis alba)
    Hawaiian goose or Nēnē (Branta sandvicensis)
    Hawaiian waterbirds
    Hawaiian forest birds
    Hawaiian hawk (Buteo solitarius)
    Blackburn’s sphinx moth (Manduca blackburni)
    Endangered and Threatened Sea Turtles
    Kaua‘i cave wolf spider (Adelocosa anops) and Kaua‘i cave amphipod (Spelaeorchestia koloana)
    Picture-wing flies
    Endangered land snails
    Endangered Aquatic invertebrates
    Hawaiian Damselflies
    Anchialine pool shrimp


     

    Endangered Hawaiian hoary bat - ‘Ōpe‘ape‘a (Lasiurus cinereus semotus)

    Habitat:

    The ‘ōpe‘ape‘a roosts in both exotic and native woody vegetation across all islands and will leave young unattended in trees and shrubs when they forage. If trees or shrubs 15 feet or taller are cleared during the pupping season, there is a risk that young bats could inadvertently be harmed or killed since they are too young to fly or may not move away. Additionally, Hawaiian hoary bats forage for insects from as low as 3 feet to higher than 500 feet above the ground and can become entangled in barbed wire used for fencing.

    Avoidance and Minimization: 

    To avoid and minimize impacts to the endangered ‘ōpe‘ape‘a we recommend you incorporate the following applicable measures into your project plan:

    -Do not disturb, remove, or trim woody plants greater than 15 feet tall during the bat birthing and pup rearing season (June 1 through September 15).

    -Do not use barbed wire for fencing.

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    Hawaiian Seabirds

    Endangered Hawaiian petrel - ‘Ua‘u (Pterodroma sandwichensis)
    Threatened Newell’s shearwater - A‘o (Puffinus auricularis newelli)
    Endangered Band-rumped storm-petrel - Akē‘akē (Oceanodroma castro)
    Migratory White terns or Manu O Kū (Gygis alba)
    Migratory Wedge-tailed shearwater - ‘Ua‘u kani (Ardenna pacificus)

    Habitat: 

    Newell’s shearwaters are found in the highest densities on Kaua‘i with lower densities on all of the other islands, except Lāna‘i. Hawaiian Petrel populations are greatest on Maui, Lāna‘i, and Kaua‘i with lower densities on Hawai‘i and Molokai. Band-rumped storm-petrels are found in low densities throughout the islands. All islands may experience overflight at night.

    For all projects, Hawaiian seabirds may traverse the project area at night during the breeding, nesting and fledging seasons (March 1 to December 15). Outdoor lighting could result in seabird disorientation, fallout, and injury or mortality. Seabirds are attracted to lights and after circling the lights they may become exhausted and collide with nearby wires, buildings, or other structures or they may land on the ground. Downed seabirds are subject to increased mortality due to collision with automobiles, starvation, and predation by dogs, cats, and other predators. Young birds (fledglings) traversing the project area between September 15 and December 15, in their first flights from their mountain nests to the sea, are particularly vulnerable.

    Avoidance and Minimization: 

    To avoid and minimize potential project impacts to seabirds we recommend you incorporate the following applicable measures into your project plan:

    -Fully shield all outdoor lights so the bulb can only be seen from below bulb height and only use when necessary.

    -Install automatic motion sensor switches and timer controls on all outdoor lights or turn off lights when human activity is not occurring in the lighted area.

    -Avoid nighttime construction during the seabird fledging period, September 15 through December 15.

    If your project includes a tower or antennae, then the following recommendations should be included in the plan.

    Listed seabirds have been documented colliding with communication towers, particularly in areas of high seabird passage rate. In general, self-supporting monopoles are the least likely to result in collisions, whereas lattice towers, particularly those that rely on guy-wires, have a much higher collision risk.

    To avoid and minimize the likelihood that tower collisions will result in take of listed seabirds we recommend you incorporate the following applicable measures into your project plan:

    -The profile of the tower should be as small as possible, minimizing the extent of the tower that protrudes above the surrounding vegetation layer, and avoid the use of guywires.

    -If the top of the tower must be lit to comply with Federal Aviation Administration regulations, use a flashing red light versus a steady-beam red or white light. 

    -If possible, co-locate with existing towers or facilities.

    If your project occurs near a known seabird colony, please include the following measures:

    Seabirds have been known to collide with fences, powerlines and other structures near colonies.To avoid and minimize the likelihood of collision we recommend you incorporate the following applicable measures into your project plan:

    -Where fences extend above vegetation, integrate three strands of polytape into the fence to increase visibility.

    -For powerlines, guywires and other cables, minimize exposure above vegetation height and vertical profile.

    If your project occurs in an area of high-passage rate of seabirds, we recommend further coordination with our office to address specific project details and potential seabird interactions.

    Wedge-tailed shearwater -‘Ua‘u kani (Ardenna pacificus)

    Habitat:

    Unlike other Hawaiian seabird species, wedge-tailed shearwaters nest in littoral vegetation along coastlines. Nesting adults, eggs, and chicks are particularly susceptible to impacts from human disturbance and predators.

    Avoidance and Minimization: 

    To avoid and minimize potential project impacts to wedge-tailed shearwaters we recommend you incorporate the following applicable measures into your project plan:

    - Conduct surveys throughout the project area during the species’ breeding season (March through November) to determine the presence and location of nesting areas.

    - If wedge-tailed shearwaters nest within a proposed project area and construction would cause ground disturbance, time project construction to occur outside of the breeding season (March through November).

    - If outdoor lighting is used, use light shields that are completely opaque, appropriately sized, and positioned so that the bulb is only visible from below and the light from the shielded source cannot be seen from the beach.

    - Install automatic motion sensor switches and timer controls on all outdoor lights or turn off lights when human activity is not occurring in the lighted area.

    White terns or Manu O Kū (Gygis alba)

    Habitat:

    White terns often nest in urban parks and residential areas from Hawai‘i Kai to Hickam Air Force Base on the island of O‘ahu. This species is listed by the State of Hawai‘i as endangered on O‘ahu. White terns breed during all months of the year, but the core breeding season is January through June, with a major peak in March. White terns do not build nests, instead they lay a single egg directly on a ledge, tree branch, or other suitable location. The egg will hatch after approximately 35 days, after which it takes 45 days for the chick to be mature enough to leave the tree on its own. Signs that white terns are present include accumulation of white feathers or white droppings underneath the tree.

    Avoidance and Minimization: 

    To avoid and minimize potential project impacts to white terns we recommend you incorporate the following applicable measures into your project plan:

    - If tree trimming is part of your project, please examine all trees slated to be cut to determine if there are white terns nesting in them, especially during the white tern breeding season (January thru June).

    - Do not trim branches or remove trees with nesting white terns.

    -Do not disturb a nesting tree or branch for at least 80 days from when the egg is laid.

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    Hawaiian goose, Nēnē (Branta sandvicensis)

    Habitiat:

    Nēnē are predominately found on the islands of Hawai‘i , Maui, Molokai, and Kaua‘i, with a small population on O‘ahu. They may be observed in a variety of habitats, but prefer open areas, such as pastures, golf courses, wetlands, natural grasslands and shrublands, and lava flows. Threats to the species include introduced mammalian and avian predators, wind facilities, and vehicle strikes.

    Avoidance and Minimization: 

    To avoid and minimize potential project impacts to nēnē we recommend you incorporate the following applicable measures into your project plan:

    - Do not approach, feed, or disturb nēnē.

    - If nēnē are observed loafing or foraging within the project area during the breeding season (September through April), halt work and have a biologist familiar with the nesting behavior of nēnē survey for nests in and around the project area prior to the resumption of any work. Repeat surveys after any subsequent delay of work of 3 or more days (during which the birds may attempt to nest).

    - Cease all work immediately and contact the Service for further guidance if a nest is discovered within a radius of 150 feet of proposed work, or a previously undiscovered nest is found within said radius after work begins.

    - In areas where nēnē are known to be present, post and implement reduced speed limits, and inform project personnel and contractors about the presence of endangered species on-site.

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    Hawaiian waterbirds

    Hawaiian stilt, Ae‘o (Himantopus mexicanus knudseni)
    Hawaiian coot, ‘Alea kea (Fulica alai)
    Hawaiian common gallinule, ‘Alea ‘ula (Gallinula galeata sandvicensis)
    Hawaiian duck, Koloa (Anas wyvilliana)

    Habitat: 

    Listed Hawaiian waterbirds are found in fresh and brackish-water marshes and natural or man-made ponds. Hawaiian stilts may also be found wherever ephemeral or persistent standing water may occur. Threats to these species include non-native predators, habitat loss, and habitat degradation. Hawaiian ducks are also subject to threats from hybridization with introduced mallards. While the Hawaiian stilt, Hawaiian coot, and Hawaiian duck may be found on all islands, the Hawaiian common gallinule is restricted to Kaua‘i and O‘ahu.

    If your project will create, either purposefully or inadvertently, any kind of temporary or permanent standing water, including excavation or grading for construction or roadwork, then it may attract Hawaiian waterbirds to the site. In particular, the Hawaiian stilt is known to nest in sub-optimal locations (e.g. any ponding water), if water is present. Hawaiian waterbirds attracted to sub-optimal habitat may suffer adverse impacts, such as predation and reduced reproductive success, and thus the project may create an attractive nuisance.

    Avoidance and Minimization: 

    To avoid and minimize potential project impacts to Hawaiian waterbirds we recommend you incorporate the following applicable measures into your project plan:

    - In areas where waterbirds are known to be present, post and implement reduced speed limits, and inform project personnel and contractors about the presence of endangered species on-site or nearby.

    - If water resources are located within or adjacent to the project site, incorporate the applicable best management practices (BMPs) regarding work in aquatic environments into the project design.

    - Have a biological monitor that is familiar with the species’ biology conduct Hawaiian waterbird nest surveys where appropriate habitat occurs within the vicinity of the proposed project site prior to project initiation. Repeat surveys again within 3 days of project initiation and after any subsequent delay of work of 3 or more days (during which the birds may attempt to nest).

     If a nest or active brood is found:

    - Contact the Service within 24 hours for further guidance.

    - Establish and maintain a 100-foot buffer around all active nests and/or broods until the chicks/ducklings have fledged. Do not conduct potentially disruptive activities or habitat alteration within this buffer.

    - Have a biological monitor that is familiar with the species’ biology present on the project site during all construction or earth moving activities until the chicks/ducklings fledge to ensure that Hawaiian waterbirds and nests are not adversely impacted.

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    Endangered Hawaiian forest birds

    OAHU: O‘ahu elepaio, Chasiempis ibidis; ‘I‘iwi, Drepanis coccinea;
    KAUAI: Puaiohi, Myadestes palmeri; ‘Akikiki, Oreomystis bairdi; ‘Akeke‘e, Loxops caeruleirostris; ‘I‘iwi, Drepanis coccinea
    Hawai‘i : ‘Akiapōlā‘au, Hemignathus wilsonsi; Hawai‘i creeper, Loxops mana; Hawai‘i ‘akepa, Loxops coccineus; Palila, Loxioides bailleui; ‘I‘iwi, Drepanis coccinea
    MAUI: Maui parrotbill, Pseudonestor xanthophrys; ‘Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei; ‘I‘iwi, Drepanis coccinea
    MOLOKAI: ‘I‘iwi, Drepanis coccinea

    Habitiat:

    Hawaiian forest birds’ current ranges are predominately restricted to montane forests (above 3,500 feet in elevation) due to habitat loss and threats at lower elevations. Hawaiian forest bird habitat has been lost due to development, agriculture, grazing, wildfire, and spread of invasive habitat-altering species. Forest birds are also affected by mosquito-borne diseases. Mosquitoes are not native to Hawai‘i . Their chance of occurrence increases in areas where ungulate presence results in small pools of standing water. Actions such as road construction and development increase human access and result in increased wildfire and invasive species threats. Grazing results in reductions in woody vegetation and increased grass cover, which reduces forest habitat quality and results in increased wildfire risk on the landscape.

    Avoidance and Minimization: 

    Avoid conducting activities within forest bird habitat that:

    - Promote the spread or survival of invasive species.

    - Increase mosquito populations or stagnant water habitat.

    - Increase wildfire threat to montane forest habitats.

    - Remove tree cover during the peak breeding season between January 1 and June 30.

    Avoid using playback calls or recordings during bird surveys.

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    Hawaiian hawk - ‘Io (Buteo solitarius)

    Habitiat: 

    The ‘io is known to occur across a broad range of forest habitats throughout the Island of Hawai‘i . Loud, irregular and unpredictable activities, such as using heavy equipment or building a structure, near an endangered ‘io nest may cause nest abandonment and failure. Harassment of ‘io nesting sites can alter feeding and breeding patterns or result in nest or chick abandonment. Nest disturbance can also increase exposure of chicks and juveniles to inclement weather or predators.

    Avoidance and Minimization: 

    To avoid and minimize impacts to ‘io we recommend you incorporate the following applicable measures into your project plan:

    - If work must be conducted during the March 1 through September 30 ‘io breeding season, have a biologist familiar with the species conduct a nest search of the project footprint and surrounding areas immediately prior to the start of construction activities.

    - Pre-disturbance surveys for ‘io are only valid for 14 days. If disturbance for the specific location does not occur within 14 days of the survey, conduct another survey.

    - No clearing of vegetation or construction activities should occur within 1,600 feet of any active ‘io nest during the breeding season until the young have fledged.

    - Regardless of the time of year, no trimming or cutting trees containing a ‘io nest is allowed, as nests may be re-used during consecutive breeding seasons.       

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    Blackburn’s sphinx moth (Manduca blackburni)

    Habitiat: 

    The Blackburn’s sphinx moth is known from the islands of Hawai‘i , Maui, Lāna‘i, and Kahoolawe, and may be in the vicinity of any proposed project on these islands if host plants are present. Adult moths feed on nectar from native plants, including beach morning glory (Ipomoea pes-caprae), ‘ilie‘e (Plumbago zeylanica), and maiapilo (Capparis sandwichiana); while larvae feed upon non-native tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca) and native aiea (Nothocestrum sp.). Moth eggs and larvae are most commonly found feeding on the leaves of native aiea and non-native tree tobacco.  To pupate, the larvae burrow into the soil and can remain in a state of torpor for a year or more before emerging from the soil. Soil disturbance can result in death of the pupae.

    Avoidance and Minimization: 

    We offer the following survey recommendations to assess whether the Blackburn’s sphinx moth is within the project area:

    - A biologist familiar with the species should survey areas of proposed activities for Blackburn’s sphinx moth and its larval host plants prior to work initiation.

    - Surveys should be conducted during the wettest portion of the year (usually November-April or several weeks after a significant rain) and within 4-6 weeks prior to construction.

    - Surveys should include searches for eggs, larvae, and signs of larval feeding (chewed stems, frass, or leaf damage).

    - If moths or the native aiea or tree tobacco over 3 feet tall are found during the survey, please contact the Service for additional guidance to avoid take.

    If no Blackburn’s sphinx moth, aiea, or tree tobacco are found during pre-construction surveys, it is imperative that measures be taken to avoid attraction of Blackburn’s sphinx moth to the project location and prohibit tree tobacco from entering the site. Tree tobacco can grow greater than 3 feet tall in approximately 6 weeks. If it grows over 3 feet, the plants may become a host plant for Blackburn’s sphinx moth.

    We therefore recommend that you:

    - Remove any tree tobacco less than 3 feet tall.

    - Monitor the site every 4-6 weeks for new tree tobacco growth before, during and after the proposed ground-disturbing activity.

    - Monitoring for tree tobacco can be completed by any staff, such as groundskeeper or regular maintenance crew, provided with picture placards of tree tobacco at different life stages. 

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    Sea Turtles

    Endangered Hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata)
    Green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas): threatened in Hawaii and Johnston Atoll, endangered in Mariana Archipelago, American Samoa, and Palmyra, Kingman, Howland, Baker, Wake and Jarvis National Wildlife Refuges

    Habitat: 

    The Service consults on sea turtles and their use of terrestrial habitats (beaches where nesting and/or basking is known to occur), whereas the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) consults on sea turtles and their use of off-shore and open ocean habitats. We recommend that you consult with NMFS regarding the potential impacts from the proposed project to sea turtles in off-shore and open ocean habitats.

    Green sea turtles may nest on any sandy beach area in the Pacific Islands. Hawksbill sea turtles exhibit a wide tolerance for nesting substrate (ranging from sandy beach to crushed coral) with nests typically placed under vegetation. Both species exhibit strong nesting site fidelity. Nesting for the Central North Pacific DPS occurs on beaches from May through September, peaking in June and July, with hatchlings emerging through November and December. In the Marianas, nesting may occur anytime throughout the year, with a peak between April and September. In American Samoa, the nesting and hatching season runs from October to March.

    Construction on, or in the vicinity of, beaches can result in sand and sediment compaction, sea turtle nest destruction, beach erosion, contaminant and nutrient runoff, and an increase in direct and ambient light pollution which may disorient hatchlings or deter nesting females. Off-road vehicle traffic may result in direct impacts to sea turtles and nests, and also contributes to habitat degradation through erosion and compaction.

    Projects that alter the natural beach profile, such as nourishment and hardening, including the placement of seawalls, jetties, sandbags, and other structures, are known to reduce the suitability of on-shore habitat for sea turtles. These types of projects often result in sand compaction, erosion, and additional sedimentation in nearshore habitats, resulting in adverse effects to the ecological community and future sea turtle nests. The hardening of a shoreline increases the potential for erosion in adjacent areas, resulting in subsequent requests to install stabilization structures or conduct beach nourishment in adjacent areas. Given projected sea level rise estimates, the likelihood of increase in storm surge intensity, and other factors associated with climate change, we anticipate that beach erosion will continue and likely increase.

    Where possible, projects should consider alternatives that avoid the modification or hardening of coastlines. Beach nourishment or beach hardening projects should evaluate the long-term effect to sea turtle nesting habitat and consider the cumulative effects.

    Avoidance and Minimization: 

    To avoid and minimize project impacts to sea turtles and their nests we recommend you incorporate the following applicable measures into your project plan:

    - No vehicle use on or modification of the beach/dune environment during the sea turtle nesting or hatching season (May to December for Hawai‘i ; throughout the year in the Marianas; October to March for American Samoa).

    - Do not remove native dune vegetation.

    - Incorporate applicable BMPs regarding Work in Aquatic Environments (see separate document) into the project design.

    - Have a biologist familiar with sea turtles conduct a visual survey of the project site to ensure no basking sea turtles are present.

    If a basking sea turtle is found within the project area, cease all mechanical or construction activities within 100 feet until the animal voluntarily leaves the area.

    - Cease all activities between the basking turtle and the ocean.

    - Remove any project-related debris, trash, or equipment from the beach or dune if not actively being used.

    - Do not stockpile project-related materials in the intertidal zone, reef flats, or stream channels.

    Optimal sea turtle nesting habitat is a dark beach, free of barriers that restrict sea turtle movement. Nesting turtles may be deterred from approaching or laying successful nests on lighted or disturbed beaches. They may become disoriented by artificial lighting, leading to exhaustion and placement of a nest in an inappropriate location (such as at or below the high tide line). Hatchlings that emerge from nests may also be disoriented by artificial lighting. Inland areas visible from the beach should be sufficiently dark to allow for successful navigation to the ocean.

    To avoid and minimize project impacts to sea turtles from lighting we recommend incorporating the following applicable measures into your project plan:

    - Avoid nighttime work during the nesting and hatching season (May to December for Hawai‘i ; throughout the year in the Marianas; October to March for American Samoa).

    - Minimize the use of lighting and shield all project-related lights so the light is not visible from any beach.

    - If lights can’t be fully shielded or if headlights must be used, fully enclose the light source with light filtering tape or filters.

    - Incorporate design measures into the construction or operation of buildings adjacent to the beach to reduce ambient outdoor lighting such as tinting or using automatic window shades for exterior windows that face the beach; reducing the height of exterior lighting to below 3 feet and pointed downward or away from the beach; and minimize light intensity to the lowest level feasible and, when possible, include timers and motion sensors.

     

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    Kaua‘i cave wolf spider (Adelocosa anops) and Kaua‘i cave amphipod (Spelaeorchestia koloana)

    Habitat: 

    These species are restricted to subterranean mesocavern (cracks, voids, spaces, caves) bearing rock with above ground soil deposits of less than 12 inches within the Kōloa District of the island of Kaua‘i. Mesocaverns that provide appropriate food sources (woody debris, plant roots penetrating the mesocavern) and conditions approaching 100 percent relative humidity levels are likely to contain these unique animals. All known areas likely to contain these animals have been designated critical habitat for these species.

    One of the primary threats to these two species is their mesocavern (underground spaces, caves, cracks, crevices) habitat being exposed to drying conditions, most typically from increased airflow created by breaking through the mesocaverns.

    Avoidance and Minimization: 

    If your project occurs in the vicinity of the habitat for these species, we recommendations including the following measures in your project plan:  

    Survey Recommendations:

    - Survey project area for depth of soil deposits and the presence of caves. Any areas with soil deposits greater than 12 inches are not likely to provide appropriate habitat or have the species present.

    - Contact the Service and do not disturb the vegetation or soil in areas with soil deposits less than 12 inches or if a cave is found.

    Enhance cave invertebrate habitat if possible:

    - Outplant native plants like maiapilo (Capparis sandwichiana) so roots eventually provide a food source and irrigate the surface.

    - Control established ecosystem-altering non-native invasive plant species around all caves.

    - Enhance habitat by sealing currently non-occupied caves with temporary air blocks – to increase relative humidity by restricting air flow through cave entrances.

    - Design permanent air blocks (e.g., walls) and develop plans to replace temporary air blocks.

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    Picture-wing flies

    Habitat:

    Picture-wing flies live in montane forest habitat and are restricted to single islands. See the table below for locations of protected picture-wing flies. Larvae of each species are dependent on a single or a few related plant species. Picture-wing flies are threatened by destruction of habitat from non-native ungulates and invasive weeds, and also directly threatened by a variety of introduced invertebrates, including yellow jackets and several ant species.

    Avoidance and Minimization: 

    To avoid and minimize project impacts to picture-wing flies we recommend incorporating the following applicable measures into your project plan:

    - Avoid clearing forest vegetation within 200 feet of a site potentially occupied by endangered Drosophila.

    - Restrict construction equipment to existing roads and trails.

    - If the site is potentially occupied by endangered Drosophila based on location and presence of host plants, consult the Service since permits are required to conduct surveys.

    - Pesticide use may require a larger buffer distance and the Service should be consulted.

    General Drosophila species Information (check critical habitat layers for specific locations):

     

    Species

    Island

    Habitat

    Host plant(s)

    D. aglaia:

    O‘ahu

    Mesic forest

    Urera glabra

    D. differens

    Molokai

    Wet forest

    Clermontia spp.

    D. digressa

    Hawai‘i

    Mesic to wet forest

    Charpentiera spp., Pisonia spp.

    D. hemipeza

    O‘ahu

    Mesic forest

    Cyanea spp., Lobelia spp., and Urera kaalae

    D. heteroneura

    Hawai‘i

    Mesic to wet forest

    Cheirodendron spp., Clermontia spp., Delissea spp.

    D. montgomeryi

    O‘ahu

    Mesic forest

    Urera kaalae

    D. mulli

    Hawai‘i

    Wet forest

    Pritchardia beccariana

    D. musaphilia

    Kaua‘i

    Mesic forest

    Acacia koa

    D. neoclavisetae

    Maui

    Wet forest

    Cyanea spp.

    D. obatai

    O‘ahu

    Dry to mesic forest

    Chrysodracon spp.

    D. ochrobasis

    Hawai‘i

    Mesic to wet forest

    Clermontia spp., Marattia spp., Myrsine spp.

    D. sharpi

    Kaua‘i

    Wet forest

    Cheirodendron spp, Polyscias spp.

    D. substenoptera

    O‘ahu

    Wet forest

    Cheirodendron spp, Polyscias spp.

    D. tarphytrichia

    O‘ahu

    Mesic forest

    Charpentiera spp.

     

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    Hawaiian yellow-faced bees

    Habitat: 

    Yellow-faced bees are found from the coast to montane ecosystems in Hawai‘i . Coastal populations of yellow-faced bees occur in habitat along rocky shorelines with Scaevola taccada (naupaka) and Heliotropium foertherianum (tree heliotrope) with either landscaped vegetation, alien kiawe (Prosopis pallida), or bare rock inland. Bees are restricted to an extremely narrow corridor, typically 10–20 meters wide, and do not occur on sandy beaches or inland, or on landscaped native plants on hotel grounds. Documented nectar plants include naupaka, Sida fallax (ilima), Chamaesyce spp. (akoko), Argemone glauca (pua kala), Myoporum sandwicense (naio), and tree heliotrope.

    H. kuakea has only been found at two sites in lowland mesic forest of the Wai‘anae Mountains. Little is known about its habitat needs and distribution within its range.

    H. mana is restricted to a few populations in a narrow band of native mesic koa forest around 1,400 feet in elevation in the Ko‘olau Mountains. Limited information suggests that it has a possible close association with Santalum freycinetianum.

    Threats to yellow-faced bees include habitat destruction and modification from land use change, nonnative plants, ungulates, and fire, along with predation by nonnative ants and wasps.

    Surveys for yellow-faced bees require a permit as identification of yellow-faced bees includes trapping, capturing, and holding. If the project has the potential for yellow-faced bee occurrence, consult with the Service.

    Avoidance and Minimization: 

    To avoid and minimize project impacts to yellow-faced bees and their nests, we recommend you incorporate the following applicable measures into your project plan:

    If an action will occur in or adjacent to known occupied habitat, a buffer area around the habitat may be required and can be worked out on a site-specific basis through consultation with the Service.

    For coastal species, protect all coastal strand habitat from human disturbance, including:

    - No fires or wood collecting

    - Leave woody debris in place

    - Restrict vehicles to existing roads and trails

    - Post educational signs to inform people of the presence of sensitive species.

    General species information (bold islands are known populations):

     

    Species

    Island(s)

    Habitat

    H. anthracinus

    Hawai‘i , Maui, ‘Kaho‘olawe, Lāna‘i, Molokai, O‘ahu

    Coastal and lowland dry forests

    H. assimulans

    Maui, Kahoolawe, Lāna‘i, O‘ahu

    Coastal and lowland dry forests

    H. facilis

    Maui, Lāna‘i, Molokai, O‘ahu

    Coastal and dry and mesic shrublands and forests

    H. hilaris

    Maui, Lāna‘i, Molokai

    Coastal to dry forest; obligate parasite on H. anthracinus, H. longiceps, and H. assimulans.

    H. kuakea

    O‘ahu

    Lowland mesic

    H. longiceps

    Maui, Lāna‘i, Molokai, O‘ahu

    Coastal and dry shrubland

    H. mana

    O‘ahu

    Lowland mesic; possible close association with Santalum freycinetianum

     

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    Endangered land snails

    OAHU: Achatinella spp.
    LANAI: Partulina semicarinata and Partulina variabilis
    WEST MAUI: Newcomb’s tree snail (Newcombia cumingi)
    AMERICAN SAMOA: Tutuila tree snail (Eua zebrina) and the American Samoa land snail, Sisi or akaleha’ (Ostodes strigatus)

    Habitat: 

    Surveys to determine if listed tree snails occur in a project area may require a permit from the Service. Check with the Service about what is required if surveys are needed. If permits are not needed, we offer the following recommendations.

    If listed tree snails may occur in the vicinity of the proposed project area, we offer the following recommendations to avoid potential adverse effects to listed tree snails:

    -Where work must be conducted in forested areas, survey proposed project sites for the presence of tree snails following the approved Service survey protocol (see separate document).

    -If any tree snails are found, determine the extent of the colony by surveying outwards in all directions from the original sighting until individuals are no longer detected.

    -Avoid cutting or removing vegetation within 200 feet of the known occurrence to minimize impacts to the tree snails and their habitat.

    -Mark the trees and shrubs occupied by tree snails with brightly colored flagging tape and keep foot traffic to a minimum of 33 feet from marked vegetation to avoid inadvertently dislodging and trampling individuals.

    -Avoid clearing understory and overstory forest vegetation outside existing developed areas. Intact vegetation is important for maintaining microclimates and air movement conditions that allow snails to survive in a given area.

    -Confine movement of heavy equipment to existing roadways.

    -If helicopters are used to reach the project site, avoid affecting the occupied site with helicopter rotor wash that could dislodge snails by selecting alternate landing areas.

    -Train personnel who work in tree snail habitat to identify the listed species and their habitat.

    Hawai‘i : Hawaiian tree snails are found in montane wet forests, usually dominated by ‘ōhi‘a (Metrosideros polymorpha). Snails feed on fungi and algae that grow on the leaves of trees. N. cumingi is found nearly exclusively on ‘ōhi‘a, while other species can occur on a variety of predominately native, but also some non-native tree species. Common native species include Broussaisia arguta, Psychotria spp., Melicope spp., Coprosma spp., Kadua spp., Antidesma spp. and Perrottetia sandwicensis. Threats to tree snails include habitat destruction and fragmentation resulting from the impacts of nonnative ungulates such as pigs, goats, and deer, habitat modification due to invasive plants, and predation by nonnative mammals, reptiles, flatworms and snails. Wildfire is also a threat to the tree snails.

    American Samoa: Eua zebrina is a tree snail found on the islands of Tutuila and Ofu, where they are found primarily on leaves of understory trees. Native forest canopy and understory is a critical need for this species, as all live snails have been found on understory plants beneath native canopy. Ostodes strigatus is a ground-dwelling snail found in rocky areas under relatively closed canopy with sparse understory. It is endemic to Tutuila. Closed canopies and areas with heavy tree cover appear to be an important habitat factor for this species. Threats include habitat destruction through agriculture, urban development and introduced ungulates, fire, predation by introduced rats and invertebrates, typhoons, public collection, and low numbers of individuals.

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    Endangered Aquatic invertebrates

    KAUAI: Newcomb’s snail (Erinna newcombi),
    OAHU: crimson damselfly (Megalagrion leptodemas), blackline damselfly (M.nigrohamatum nigrolineatum), oceanic damselfly (M. oceanicum), and orange-black damselfly (M. xanthomelas)
    MOLOKAI: Pacific damselfly (M. pacificum) and orange-black damselfly (M. xanthomelas)
    LANAI: orange-black damselfly (M. xanthomelas)
    MAUI: flying earwig damselfly (M. nesiotes), Pacific damselfly (M. pacificum) and orange-black damselfly (M. xanthomelas); anchialine pool shrimp (Procaris hawaiana)
    HAWAII: Pacific damselfly (M. pacificum) and orange-black damselfly (M. xanthomelas); anchialine pool shrimp (Procaris hawaiana) and (Vetericaris chaceorum)

    Snails -

    Newcomb’s snail is restricted to fast-flowing freshwater streams on Kaua‘i, where it feeds on vegetation growing on submerged rocks. Threats to the species include reduced stream flow from drought, water diversion projects, or other natural and human causes; predation by introduced snails, flies, and aquatic species; and small population dynamics.

    We can also offer the following recommendations:

    - The Service recommended Best Management Practice for Work in Aquatic Environments should be incorporated into the project plan to minimize the degradation of water quality and impacts to fish and wildlife resources.

    - Permits are required for accurate surveys of this species, so consult with the Service if work will be done in proximity to stream areas or within water bodies or near critical habitat.

    Damselflies –

    Hawaiian damselflies are found in aquatic habitats across the islands, with high species endemism within islands. Breeding habitat includes anchialine pools, perennial streams, marshes, ponds, and even artificial pools and seeps. Major threats include introduced fish, amphibians, and invertebrates in streams, reduced stream flow from drought and water diversion, small isolated populations, reduced habitat quality from ungulates and nonnative plants, and possibly overcollection.

    All of the species are site specific, so check for detailed locations if stream work is occurring.

    M. leptodemas breeds in slow reaches of streams and seep-fed pools.

    M. nesiotes is found along one stream on Maui (formerly on Hawaii as well). Naiads may be terrestrial or semi-terrestrial and the species appears to be closely associated with uluhe.

    M. nigrohamatum nigrolineatum occurs in slow sections or pools along mid-reach and headwater sections of upland streams and seep-fed pools.

    M. oceanicum is found in swiftly flowing sections of streams, usually amid rocks and gravel in stream riffles. Naiads can forage out of the stream on wet moss on rocks.

    M. pacificum is found in seepage-fed pools cut off from the main stream channel, usually in areas with thick vegetation. Formerly found on all islands, now known from Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii Islands at low elevations. 

    M. xanthomelas is known from Hawaii, Maui, Lāna‘i, Molokai, O‘ahu, and formerly Kaua‘i. It breeds in a widespread number of sites, including anchialine pools, coastal wetlands, small streams, and artificial ponds at low elevations.

    We can also offer the following recommendations:

    - The Service recommended BMPs for Work in Aquatic Environments should be incorporated into the project plan to minimize the degradation of water quality and impacts to fish and wildlife resources.

    - You cannot survey for damselflies without a permit, as accurate identification requires trapping, capturing, and holding. If work is occurring within a stream or within the riparian zone, consult with the Service.

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    Anchialine pool shrimp

    Habitat: 

    P. hawaiana is restricted to a small number of anchialine pools on Hawaii and Maui, while V. chaceorum is found in only two anchialine pool areas of Hawaii. Threats to these species include habitat loss due to in-filling and bulldozing of anchialine pools, waste disposal including used oil and grease into pools, nonnative fish, human use of pools for bathing, water extraction, in-flow of fertilizer and pesticides, and collection for the aquarium trade.

    If work is occurring within an anchialine pool, ground disturbance occurs near the pools that increases run-off, erosion, or sedimentation, or toxic organic or inorganic substances, or increases the opportunity for the introduction of non-native fish, if work is occurring around anchialine pools the following recommendations are provided:

    The Service recommended BMPs for Work in Aquatic Environments should be incorporated into the project plan to minimize the degradation of water quality and impacts to fish and wildlife resources.

    Surveying for these species requires a permit as identification of these species includes trapping, capturing, and holding.

    Avoidance and Minimization:

    Protect anchialine pools (both in and around) from the following human disturbance:

    - Restrict vehicles to existing roads and trails

    - Prevent trash, and other waste from entering into anchialine pools

    - Avoid or limit to the maximum extent practicable entrance into the anchialine pools

    - Install educational signs near anchialine pools to inform people of the presence of sensitive species and habitats.

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