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Genter's fritillary

Photo of Gentner's Fritillary

Scientific name: Fritillaria gentneri

Status: Endangered

Critical Habitat: None

Listing: Gentner's fritillary was federally listed as threatened without critical habitat in 1999. A recovery plan was published in August 2003.

Potential Range Map

  • Description and Life History

    This perennial plant in the lily family (Liliaceae) has straight, smooth lily-type leaves that are sometimes mottled with purple. The robust stem can reach 45 centimeters (1.5 feet) high. Gentner's fritillary produces reddish- purple flowers with pale yellow streaks that measure 2.5 to 5 centimeters (1 to 2 inches) long. Flowering typically occurs from April to June. This species is know to reproduce asexually by bulblets; the bulbets break off and form new plants. Sexual reproduction has not been well documented.


    Gentner's fritillary typically grows in or on the edge of open woodlands at elevations from 306 to 1,544 meters (1,004 to 5,064 feet) with Oregon white oak (Quercus garryana) and Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii) as the most common overstory plants. Western yellow pine (Pinus ponderosa) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) are also frequently present. Associated understory species include white-leaved manzanita (Arctostaphylos viscida), poison oak (Rhus diversiloba), ashy rock cress (Arabis subpinnatifida), Rogue River milkvetch (Astragalus accidens var. hendersoni), fringed brome (Bromus ciliatus), Henderson's shootingstar (Dodecatheon hendersoni), California fescue (Festuca californica), mission bells (Fritillaria affinis), scarlet fritillary (Fritillaria recurva), fineleaf biscuit-root (Lomatium utriculatum), Sandberg's bluegrass (Poa sandbergii), and American vetch (Vicia americana).

    Gentner's fritillary can also grow in open chaparral/grassland habitat, which is often found within or adjacent to the mixed hardwood forest type, but always where some wind or sun protection is provided by other shrubs. It does not grow on very dry sites.

    Reasons for Decline

    Residential development, agricultural activities, logging, fire suppression, road and trail maintenance, off-road-vehicle use, and collecting for gardens all contribute to the rarity of this species.


    Gentner's fritillary is known only from scattered localities in southwest Oregon, along the Rogue and Illinois River drainages in Josephine and Jackson counties. It is highly localized in a 48 kilometers (30 miles) radius around Jacksonville, Oregon, on land managed by the Bureau of Land Management, USDA Forest Service, Department of Transportation, Southern Oregon University, City of Jacksonville, and private landowners.

    References and Links

    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1999. Final Endangered Status for the Plant Fritillaria gentneri (Gentner's fritillary). FR 64:69195-69203.

    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2003. Recovery Plan for Fritillaria gentneri (Gentner's fritillary).

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