Invasive Species

Invasive/Noxious weed management techniques include chemical application, mowing, and biological controls such as flea beetles on leafy spurge.

Leafy spurge, once one of the worst invasive species problems on the refuge is largely reduced and held in check by a successful biological control program.  Flea beetles of the genus Apthona spp. have reduced leafy spurge by feeding on the plant, both in summer as adults and in winter as larvae feeding on the extensive root systems. 

Flea Beetles on spurge Jewett 150X118

Biological control is also being used to combat Canada thistle and Yellow Toadflax with leaf mining weevils.