Conserving the Nature of America
Press Release
Poaching Crisis Prompts Immediate Protection of Southern White Rhino under ESA

September 10, 2013


Division of Public Affairs
External Affairs
Telephone: 703-358-2220

In response to an ongoing poaching crisis that is decimating wild rhinoceros populations worldwide, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service will take immediate action to protect the southern white rhinoceros under the Endangered Species Act. By extending ESA protection to the white rhino—the last remaining unprotected species of rhinoceros—the Service closes a loophole that has been exploited by unscrupulous poachers and traffickers seeking to cash in on global demand for rhino horn.
The action, which was announced yesterday by Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell at the White House Forum to Combat Wildlife Trafficking, will protect the southern white rhinoceros as a threatened species under the ESA’s “similarity of appearance” provisions and will aid international law enforcement efforts to fight poaching and crack down on trafficking in rhino horn. The Service will accept public comment for 30 days on this interim final rule, although ESA protections will begin immediately.
“As both a transit point and consumer destination for illegal rhino horn products, the United States plays a vital role in curbing poaching and wildlife trafficking. Along with extending protection to the southern white rhino, we’re evaluating additional regulatory and policy options in an effort to strengthen our ability to investigate and prosecute poachers and traffickers,” said Service Director Dan Ashe. “We have a long history in working to curb the illegal wildlife trade, and are committed to working with international law enforcement agencies to address current and emerging challenges.”
Rhino poaching has reached unprecedented levels, with South Africa alone recording 668 rhinos poached in 2012 and 446 rhinos killed in the first six months of 2013. This unprecedented killing spree is fueled by an increasing demand for rhino horn, which is ground up and consumed in folk remedies in the unfounded belief that it can cure disease. In fact, the primary component of rhino horn is keratin—the same substance found in fingernails—and scientific testing has repeatedly demonstrated that it has no medicinal value. Rhino horn is also used to produce ceremonial libation cups and other carvings.
Four of the five rhino species surviving in the wild today—the black, Sumatran, Indian, and Javan rhinoceros—are fully protected as endangered under the ESA. The white rhino is the fifth, encompassing two subspecies, southern and northern white rhinos.  By 1970, the southern whites survived only in South Africa and have since been reintroduced into the historic range states of Botswana, Namibia, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe. The northern white rhino, last seen in the wild in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, is also protected as endangered and may now be extinct in the wild. Its far more numerous cousin, the southern white rhino, has not required protection until now.
Without destructive genetic testing, differentiating between horns and horn products made from the southern white rhino and the endangered Javan, Sumatran, Indian, black, and northern white rhino is difficult, if not impossible. This difficulty has allowed traffickers to mislabel the horns of other protected rhino species as white rhino horn in an effort to evade restrictions on sale and transport.
While the southern white rhino has been subject to import and export restrictions under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), this new action prohibits the sale or offer for sale in interstate commerce of this species and its parts and products, consistent with all other rhinos. The threatened designation will not change current permitting requirements for sport-hunted trophies of southern white rhinos.
There is a 30-day public comment period on the interim final rule. Written comments and information concerning the interim final rule can be submitted by one of the following methods:
  • Federal eRulemaking Portal: Follow instruction for submitting comments to Docket No. FWS–HQ–ES–2013–0055.
  • U.S. mail or hand-delivery: Public Comments Processing, Attn: [FWS–HQ–ES–2013–0055]; Division of Policy and Directives Management; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; 4401 N. Fairfax Drive, MS 2042-PDM; Arlington, VA 22203.
Comments must be received within 30 days, on or before October 11, 2013. The Service may make modifications to the final rule based on comments and information received during this period. The agency will post all comments on, which generally means the agency will post any personal information provided through the process. The Service is not able to accept email or faxes.
Read what others are saying about this listing at:
For more information on this interim final rule and the Service’s efforts to conserve rhinos, visit:
The ESA provides a critical safety net for fish, wildlife and plants and has prevented the extinction of hundreds of imperiled species, as well as promoting the recovery of many others.
The Service is actively engaged with a variety of partners and the public in the search for improved and innovative ways to conserve and recover imperiled species.
To learn more about the Endangered Species program’s Branch of Foreign Species, visit:

Information contained in older news items may be outdated. These materials are made available as historical archival information only. Individual contacts have been replaced with general External Affairs office information. No other updates have been made to the information and we do not guarantee current accuracy or completeness.

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