The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has a long tradition of scientific excellence and always uses the best-available science to inform its work to conserve fish, wildlife, plants, and their habitat for the benefit of the American public.
Created in 1903 by President Theodore Roosevelt, today's National Wildlife Refuge System protects habitats and wildlife across the country, from the Alaskan tundra to subtropical wetlands. Managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Refuge System's 560-plus refuges cover more than 150 million acres and protect nearly 1,400 species of birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and fish.
While national wildlife refuges were created to protect wildlife, they are for people too. Refuges are ideal places for people of all ages to explore and connect with the natural world. We invite you to learn more about and visit the national wildlife refuges and wetland management districts in Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming.
The Mountain-Prairie Region's Office of Ecological Services (ES) works to restore and protect healthy populations of fish, wildlife, and plants and the environments upon which they depend. Using the best available science, ES personnel work with Federal, State, Tribal, local, and non-profit stakeholders, as well as private land owners, to avoid, minimize, and mitigate threats to our Nation's natural resources.
Providing leadership in the conservation of migratory bird habitat through partnerships, grants, and outreach for present and future generations. The Migratory Bird Program is responsible for maintaining healthy migratory bird populations for the benefit of the American people.
The U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Fish and Aquatic Conservation Program in the Mountain-Prairie Region helps conserve, protect, and enhance aquatic resources and provides economically valuable recreational fishing to anglers across the country. The program comprises 12 National Fish Hatcheries.
Law enforcement is essential to virtually every aspect of wildlife conservation. The Office of Law Enforcement contributes to Service efforts to manage ecosystems, save endangered species, conserve migratory birds, preserve wildlife habitat, restore fisheries, combat invasive species, and promote international wildlife conservation.
External Affairs staff in the Mountain-Prairie Region of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service provides support to the regional office and field stations to communicate and facilitate information about the Service's programs to the public, media, Congress, Tribes, partners, and other stakeholders in the 8-state region.
The western glacier stonefly (Zapada glacier) is a species of insect in the taxonomic order Plecoptera, also known as the stonefly order. Immature western glacier stoneflies (nymphs) are aquatic and emerge from streams at specific times to complete their development into adults. Western glacier stonefly adults are generally brown in color, possess two sets of translucent wings and are very small; ranging from 0.26 to 0.39 inches in body length.
Western glacier stoneflies are known to occur in 16 streams; 6 in Glacier National Park, Montana, 4 in Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming and 6 in the Absaroka/Beartooth Wilderness, Montana. All occupied streams are high-elevation, alpine streams originating from cold water sources, including glaciers and small icefields, permanent and seasonal snowpack, alpine springs, and glacial lake outlets. Recent collections of the western glacier stonefly were in habitats with daily maximum water temperatures less than 6.3°C (43°F).
Western glacier stoneflies occupy the most upstream reaches of alpine streams, typically occurring within the first one half mile of stream, starting at the meltwater source. Therefore, they are sensitive to temperature changes and are considered to be a barometer for the effects of climate change in the alpine environment.
November 21, 2019: The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service will protect the meltwater lednian stonefly and western glacier stonefly as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in a final listing decision announced today.
October 31, 2017: The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has reopened the comment period for an October 4, 2016, proposed rule to list the western glacier stonefly and the meltwater lednian stonefly as threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. The comment period is being reopened to accept additional comments on new information about the range of the species.
October 3, 2016: The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is proposing a rule to list the meltwater lednian stonefly and western glacier stonefly as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. A threatened listing means the stoneflies are likely to become in danger of extinction in the foreseeable future.
December 16, 2011: The Service completed a 90-day finding on a petition to list the western glacier stonefly under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). After evaluating all of the scientific information described or cited in the petition and information readily available in our files, we concluded that the petitioners provided substantial information indicating that protecting the species under the ESA may be warranted. Therefore, we are initiating a full biological status review to determine if listing the species is warranted.