The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has a long tradition of scientific excellence and always uses the best-available science to inform its work to conserve fish, wildlife, plants, and their habitat for the benefit of the American public.
Created in 1903 by President Theodore Roosevelt, today's National Wildlife Refuge System protects habitats and wildlife across the country, from the Alaskan tundra to subtropical wetlands. Managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Refuge System's 560-plus refuges cover more than 150 million acres and protect nearly 1,400 species of birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and fish.
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The Mountain-Prairie Region's Office of Ecological Services (ES) works to restore and protect healthy populations of fish, wildlife, and plants and the environments upon which they depend. Using the best available science, ES personnel work with Federal, State, Tribal, local, and non-profit stakeholders, as well as private land owners, to avoid, minimize, and mitigate threats to our Nation's natural resources.
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Species description: The mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) is a migratory bird slightly smaller than an American robin and is native to short-grass prairie and shrub-steppe landscapes. It breeds in the western Great Plains and Rocky Mountain States from the Canadian border to northern Mexico. Within the United States, most breeding occurs in Colorado, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, and Wyoming; fewer breeding birds occur in Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, and Utah.
Mountain plover winter mostly in California, southern Arizona, Texas and Mexico. While California’s Sacramento, San Joaquin, and Imperial Valleys support many wintering mountain plover, relatively little is known about their winter range use in other areas. Unlike other plovers, mountain plover are not found near water, and will only inhabit areas with sparse vegetation or bare ground.
The mountain plover is light brown above, with a lighter-colored breast, but lacks the contrasting dark breastbelt common to many other plovers. During the breeding season, it has a white forehead and a dark line between the beak and eye which contrasts with the dark crown.
May 11, 2011: After a thorough review of all available scientific and commercial information, the Fish and Wildlife Service has determined that the mountain plover is not threatened or endangered throughout all or a significant portion of its range.
We originally proposed to list the mountain plover as a threatened or endangered species under the Endangered Species Act in February 1999 and amended that proposal in December 2002. Subsequently, we withdrew the listing proposal in September 2003 based on the conclusion that information available at that time did not indicate the threats to the mountain plover and its habitat were likely to endanger the species in the foreseeable future. In June 2010, we reinstated the 2002 proposed rule to list the mountain plover as a threatened species and invited public comments. The current finding is based on a thorough review of all information and comments received regarding the reinstated proposal.
We estimate the current mountain plover breeding population to be over 20,000 birds, more than double the estimate cited in our 2002 proposal. An analysis of the potential threats to the mountain plover does not indicate the species is in danger of extinction or likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future.
The mountain plover’s geographically widespread breeding and wintering distribution and ability to use a variety of habitats contribute to its security. During breeding, mountain plover use short- and mixed-grass prairie, prairie dog colonies, agricultural lands, and semi-desert habitats. Threats affecting one habitat type may not appreciably affect others or substantially increase the mountain plover’s vulnerability to extinction. Mountain plover have proven to be adaptable to many human activities, using crop fields for breeding and wintering, and often benefitting from cattle grazing. We conclude that human land use changes, alone or in combination with climate change, are not likely to result in significant population-level impacts to the mountain plover in the foreseeable future.
For more information contact:
Peter Plage in Colorado at 303-236-4750
Shawn Sartorius in Montana at 406-449-5225 extension 208
Pat Diebert in Wyoming at 307-772-7367 extension 226
Janine Lackey in Nebraska at 308-382-6468
Dan Mulhern in Kansas at 505-761-4718
On June 29, 2010 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service reinstated a proposal to list the mountain plover as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. The Service sought scientific information regarding the reinstated proposal and the newly available information regarding the status of the mountain plover. Information was accepted through August 30, 2010.
Additional References (IQA Disclaimer: The following documents range from peer reviewed journal articles to reports, information, and emails submitted to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Some represent the views of the authors. The Service is providing these documents for the convenience of the public but, does not endorse or sponsor the information in these documents for the purposes of the Information Quality Act - Public Law 106-554.)
In 1999 and again in 2002, the Service proposed to list the mountain plover as a threatened species. On September 9, 2003 the Service withdrew its proposal based on the conclusion that the threats to the mountain plover were not as significant as previously believed. In 2006, Forest Guardians and the Biological Conversation Alliance filed a complaint in the District court for the Southern District of California challenging the withdrawal of the proposal. A settlement agreement between the plaintiffs and the Federal defendants was filed on August 8, 2009, in which the Service agreed to reconsider its 2003 decision to withdraw the proposed listing of the mountain plover. The Service agreed to submit to the Federal Register by July 31, 2010, a notice reopening our 2002 proposal to list the mountain plover and providing for public comment. It was agreed that upon publication of the notice, the 2003 withdrawal of the proposed listing would be vacated. The Service further agreed to submit a final listing determination for the mountain plover to the Federal Register no later than May 1, 2011.