The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has a long tradition of scientific excellence and always uses the best-available science to inform its work to conserve fish, wildlife, plants, and their habitat for the benefit of the American public.
Created in 1903 by President Theodore Roosevelt, today's National Wildlife Refuge System protects habitats and wildlife across the country, from the Alaskan tundra to subtropical wetlands. Managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Refuge System's 560-plus refuges cover more than 150 million acres and protect nearly 1,400 species of birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and fish.
While national wildlife refuges were created to protect wildlife, they are for people too. Refuges are ideal places for people of all ages to explore and connect with the natural world. We invite you to learn more about and visit the national wildlife refuges and wetland management districts in Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming.
The Mountain-Prairie Region's Office of Ecological Services (ES) works to restore and protect healthy populations of fish, wildlife, and plants and the environments upon which they depend. Using the best available science, ES personnel work with Federal, State, Tribal, local, and non-profit stakeholders, as well as private land owners, to avoid, minimize, and mitigate threats to our Nation's natural resources.
Providing leadership in the conservation of migratory bird habitat through partnerships, grants, and outreach for present and future generations. The Migratory Bird Program is responsible for maintaining healthy migratory bird populations for the benefit of the American people.
The U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Fish and Aquatic Conservation Program in the Mountain-Prairie Region helps conserve, protect, and enhance aquatic resources and provides economically valuable recreational fishing to anglers across the country. The program comprises 12 National Fish Hatcheries.
Law enforcement is essential to virtually every aspect of wildlife conservation. The Office of Law Enforcement contributes to Service efforts to manage ecosystems, save endangered species, conserve migratory birds, preserve wildlife habitat, restore fisheries, combat invasive species, and promote international wildlife conservation.
External Affairs staff in the Mountain-Prairie Region of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service provides support to the regional office and field stations to communicate and facilitate information about the Service's programs to the public, media, Congress, Tribes, partners, and other stakeholders in the 8-state region.
The meltwater lednian stonefly (Lednia tumana) is a species of insect in the taxonomic order Plecoptera, also known as the stonefly order. Immature meltwater lednian stoneflies (nymphs) are aquatic and emerge from streams at specific times to complete their development into adults. Meltwater lednian stonefly adults are generally brown in color, possess two sets of translucent wings and are very small; ranging from 0.16 to 0.24 inches in body length.
Meltwater lednian stoneflies are known to occur in 113 streams; 109 in Glacier National Park, Montana, 2 in the Bob Marshall and Great Bear Wilderness, Montana, 1 on the Flathead Indian Reservation, Montana, and 1 in Waterton Lakes National Park in Alberta, Canada. All occupied streams are high-elevation, alpine streams originating from cold water sources, including glaciers and small icefields, permanent and seasonal snowpack, alpine springs, and glacial lake outlets. Meltwater lednian stonefly are known from streams where mean and maximum water temperatures do not exceed 50°F and 64°F, respectively, although the species can withstand higher water temperatures (~68°F) for short periods of time.
Meltwater lednian stoneflies occupy the most upstream reaches of alpine streams, typically occurring within the first one half mile of stream, starting at the meltwater source. Therefore, they are sensitive to temperature changes and are considered to be a barometer for the effects of climate change in the alpine environment.
October 31, 2017: The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has reopened the comment period for an October 4, 2016, proposed rule to list the western glacier stonefly and the meltwater lednian stonefly as threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. The comment period is being reopened to accept additional comments on new information about the range of the species.
October 3, 2016: The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is proposing a rule to list the meltwater lednian stonefly and western glacier stonefly as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. A threatened listing means the stoneflies are likely to become in danger of extinction in the foreseeable future. The public is invited to comment on this proposal until December 5, 2016.
August 18, 2009: After an initial review of a petition submitted by the WildEarth Guardians, the Service determined that the Bearmouth mountainsnail, Byrne Resort mountainsnail, and meltwater lednian stonefly may be warranted for listing under the Endangered Species Act. With that determination, the Service commenced status reviews for the three species.
Status Review Results
April 5, 2011: The Service completed a 12-month status review of the meltwater lednian stonefly and determined that the meltwater lednian stonefly is warranted for listing, but is precluded by higher priority actions. The species listing priority number (LPN) is 4, meaning the identified threats to the species are high in magnitude but the immediacy of the threats is non-imminent.
In the same 12-month finding, we also found that the Bearmouth and Byrne Resort mountainsnails do not warrant protection under the Act. The Bearmouth mountainsnail and Byrne Resort mountainsnail are terrestrial mollusks commonly called “mountainsnails.” Because these mountainsnails are not recognized as species by the scientific community, they are not listable entities as defined by the ESA. Since we have concluded that the two petitioned mountainsnails are not listable entities, an analysis of threats is not required under the ESA. Therefore, we will take no further action with these species at this time.