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Conserving the Nature of America
The mission of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is working with others to conserve, protect, and enhance fish, wildlife, plants, and their habitats for the continuing benefit of the American people.
Lower Fox River/GreenBay
Natural Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration
The Fox River Natural Resource Trustees have completed an Update to the Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for the Lower Fox River/Green Bay Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA). The Restoration Plan Update will guide future NRDA restoration in the Lower Fox River/Green Bay restoration area, building upon the goals set forth in the 2003 Restoration Plan Update and Environmental Assessment.
The Trustees have also released a Restoration Progress Report, a compilation of all restoration projects implemented by the Trustees in the Lower Fox River/Green Bay area, through June 30, 2012.
Restoration Progress Report (17.1 MB pdf)
For more about the Fox River Natural Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration
The Lower Fox River, located in northeastern Wisconsin, begins at the Menasha and Neenah channels leading from Lake Winnebago and flows northeast for 39 miles where it discharges into Green Bay and Lake Michigan. Paper companies using polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to make carbonless copy paper discharged nearly 700,000 pounds of these chemicals into the Fox River, between about 1954 and 1971. The dangers posed by PCBs were unknown until the early ´70s, but their use and discharge into the environment were outlawed by federal environmental regulations in 1976. The ban was successful, but because PCBs bind to dirt and break down very slowly, they are still found today in the sediment of the Lower Fox River and Green Bay.
A Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) of the Fox River and Green Bay identified companies that were historically responsible for the release of PCBs into the Fox River. Several of these companies have made agreements, through the NRDA process, to fund natural resource restoration projects in the Fox River Valley and surrounding areas. These projects include preserving habitat for wildlife, constructing environmental education centers and nature trails, and studying the feasibility of reintroducing wild rice in certain areas of the state.
If you have any questions concerning information found in any of these reports or any other comments related to the Fox River and Green Bay NRDA, contact us by email or telephone:
Betsy Galbraith, Restoration Coordinator, 920-866-1753
Annette Trowbridge, Interim Natural Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration Coordinator, 612-713-5104
News and Activities
Fox River Current: a periodic newsletter on the remediation and restoration of the Lower Fox River and Green Bay, Wisconsin, by U.S. EPA on behalf of the intergovernmental parties.
Fox River Natural Resource Restoration Information
Fox River/Green Bay Cleanup Project (has links to restoration projects) - Wisconsin DNR
Fox River/Green Bay Natural Resource Trustee Council - Wisconsin DNR
Indices of Documents Received or Produced and Publically Available in the Reading Room
FWS Ecological Services Office,
2661 Scott Tower Drive, New Franken, Wisconsin 54229
(contact Betsy Galbraith 920-866-1753)
Documents prior to July 31, 2000 (3.5MB) Index is 819 pages for over 28,000 documents - PDF
These documents are available as paper copies only. Contact Green Bay Field Office for access.
Documents from July 31, 2000 to September 14, 2001 (316KB) Scanned documents are available on CD - PDF
Documents from September 15, 2001 to June 16, 2003 (644KB) Scanned documents are available on CD - PDF
Update of 104e Request February 24, 2004 (204KB) Scanned documents are available on CD - PDF
Final Joint Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for the Lower Fox River and Green Bay Area (June 3, 2003); and accompanying FONSI (Finding of No Significant Impact; June 3, 2003) - PDF
Federal Register Notice (September 19, 2002) for Public Comment Period on DRAFT Restoration Plan (comment period was September 19 through October 21, 2002) - PDF
Draft Joint Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for the Lower Fox River and Green Bay Area (Released as Final Plan (see above) after revisions based on public comments) - PDF
Natural Resource Damage Assessment Reports
Restoration and Compensation Determination Plan (4.9 MB pdf)
Plan with no tables and appendices (1.3 MB pdf)
Fish Injury Report (2.3 MB pdf)
Water and Sediment Injury Report (700k pdf):
Pathways Report (1.4 MB pdf)
Bird Injury Report with Appendix A (2.4 MB pdf)
Appendices B and C (1.3 MB pdf)
Walleye Injury Report (629k pdf)
Assessment Plan (1MB pdf)
Assessment Plan Addendum (27k pdf)