Endangered Species
Midwest Region



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Freshwater Mussels

Endangered, Threatened, Proposed, and Candidates in the Upper Midwest

Mussels collected from a Missouri river during a survey.

Mussels collected from a Missouri river during a survey.

Photo by USFWS; Rick Hanson


About Freshwater Mussels

Tippecanoe River, Indiana


May 17, 2012: Celebrate Endangered Species Day, Learn about Endangered Freshwater Mussels in Ohio


America's Mussels:  Silent Sentinals

Mussels of the St. Croix River


Mussels of the Ohio River


The Exotic Zebra Mussel


Overlooked Gems: The Benefits of Freshwater Mussels in Wings (Fall 2008): Essays on Invertebrate Conservation, a publication of the Xerces Society.


Clubshell(Pleurobema clava)

Clubshell Home


Cracking pearlymussel (Hemistena lata)

Status: Endangered; Listed September 28, 1989 (PDF)


Extirpated from the Upper Midwest


Curtis' pearlymussel (Epioblasma florentina curtisii)

Status: Endangered, listed June 14, 1976


Natural History, Ecology, and Regulatory Information

Fact sheet

Species' Profile linked to National USFWS Endangered Species website



5 Year Review Initiated September 21, 2006


Best Management Practices for the Curtis' Pearlymussel (Missouri Department of Conservation) - PDF


Fanshell (Cyprogenia stegaria)

Status: Endangered, listed June 21, 1990


Fact sheet


Slideshow: Drought and Heat Take Toll on Tippecanoe River’s Endangered Wildlife


News Release (July 12, 2012): Drought, Heat Take toll on Tippecanoe River's Endangered Wildlife


Fat pocketbook (Potamilus capax)

Status: Endangered, listed June 14, 1976


Fact sheet


Higgins eye pearlymussel (Lampsilis higginsii)

Status: Endangered listed June 14, 1976


Higgins eye pearlymussel web page

Neosho mucket (Lampsilis rafinesqueana)

Status: Endangered

Neosho Mucket Home


Northern riffleshell (Epioblasma torulosa rangiana)

Status: Endangered

Northern riffleshell web page


Orange-footed pearlymussel (=pimple back) (Plethobasus cooperianus (p. striatus))

Status: Endangered, listed June 14, 1976

Fact sheet


Pink mucket (Lampsilis orbiculata (=l. abrupta))

Status: Endangered, listed June 14, 1976


Fact sheet


Life History Information (links goes to FWS National Endangered Species website)


Purple cat's paw pearlymussel (Epioblasma obliquata obliquata)

Status: Endangered, listed July 10, 1990 (links to a 5-page PDF)


Purple Cat's Paw Pearlymussel Home


Rabbitsfoot (Quadrula cylindrica cylindrica)

Rabbitsfoot Midwest webpage


Rabbitsfoot Candidate Form (65-page PDF)


Rayed Bean (Villosa fabalis)

Rayed Bean webpage


Ring pink (=golf stick pearly) (Obovaria retusa)

Fact sheet


Rough pigtoe (Pleurobema plenum)

Status: Endangered, listed June 14, 1976


Fact sheet


Scaleshell (Leptodea leptodon)

Status:  Endangered, listed October 9, 2001


Recovery Plans

Final Recovery Plan - February 2010

Scaleshell Mussel Final Recovery Plan

News Release (April 7, 2010): Recovery Plan Outlines Steps to Help Rare Mussel


Draft Recovery Plan - Released August 2004

News Release: Draft Plan Outlines Steps to Help Rare Freshwater Mussel August 6, 2004

Federal Register Notice of Availability of the Draft Recovery Plan for the Scaleshell Mussel for PUblic Review and Comment: August 6, 2004 (PDF)

Scaleshell Mussel Draft Recovery Plan (PDF)



Scaleshell Mussel 5-Year Review: 19-page PDF; 920KB (March 2011)


Natural History, Ecology, and Regulatory Information

Fact Sheet

Species Profile (links to our national endangered species website)

Status Assessment Summary

Status Assessment (.pdf file 173K)


Sheepnose (Plethobasus cyphyus)

Sheepnose webpage


Snuffbox (Epioblasma triquetra)

Snuffbox webpage


Spectaclecase (Cumberlandia monodonta)

Spectaclecase Home


Tubercled-blossom pearlymussel (Epioblasma torulosa torulosa)

Extirpated from the Upper Midwest


Fact sheet


White cat's paw pearlymussel (Epioblasma obliquata perobliqua)

Fact sheet



White Cat's Paw Pearly Mussel 5-Year Review (14-page PDF) - December 2009


Private Stewardship Grant (May 2007): Reforestation and Wetland Restoration for Permanent Native Habitat in the St. Joseph River Watershed – Hillsdale County, Michigan; Defiance and Williams Counties, Ohio; Allen, Dekalb, and Noble Counties, Indiana – ($45,000*)


White wartyback pearlymussel (Plethobasus cicatricosus)

Fact sheet


Winged maple leaf (Quadrula fragosa)

Status: Endangered, listed June 20, 1991


Winged Mapleleaf Home



USFWS Midwest Endangered Species Home


Last updated: October 4, 2017