Twin Cities Ecological Services Field Office

Midwest Region


Twin Cities Field Office

4101 American Boulevard East
Bloomington, MN 55425
Phone: 952-252-0092
Fax: 952-646-2873
TTY: 1-800-877-8339 (Federal Relay)




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Endangered Species in Minnesota

Higgins Eye Pearlymussel


A Higgins eye pearlymussel collected from Pool 6 in the upper Mississippi River.

A Higgins eye pearlymussel collected from Pool 6 in the upper Mississippi River.

Photo by USFWS


Listen to a podcast about Higgins eye pearlymussel captive propagation and restoration!



The Higgins eye is an endangered freshwater mussel found in the upper Mississippi River, St. Croix River between Minnesota and Wisconsin, Wisconsin River, and the lower Rock River between Illinois and Iowa. The species' range was about 50% of its historic distribution when it was first listed, but has declined further because zebra mussels have invaded a number of productive mussel beds.


Along with trying to control the spread of zebra mussels, the Twin Cities Field Office works with many partners to propagate and restock river reaches that are zebra mussel-free.

General Information

Fact Sheet: Higgins eye pearlymussell


Range-wide information on listing, natural history, and recovery efforts


Conservation and Recovery Planning

Mussels Gain Ground in the Twin Cities (May 14, 2013)


Mussels of the St. Croix River


Higgins eye pearlymussel 5 Year Review (May 2006)

Higgins eye pearlymussel recovery plan: first revision - PDF May 2004


Captive Propagation and Restorations

Returning the Higgins Eye Pearlymussel, Nature's Silent Sentinel - Article that summarizes captive propagation and restoration activities


Winter's Landing (Pool 7) Lampsilis higginsii Secondary Habitat Area Monitoring (856 KB) 2010 - - MN DNR Report to the St. Paul District Corps of Engineers


PDF Fact Sheet: Genoa National Fish Hatchery and Native Mussel Restoration


Highlights of the Interagency Mussel Coordination Team


Improving Propagation Techniques for Freshwater Mussels - October 5, 2012

Freshwater mussels are considered key indicators of water quality and contribute to healthy aquatic ecosystems. However, steep population declines due to habitat degradation and pollution, changing agricultural practices, invasive species and impacts of climate change, have presented conservation professionals with challenges to continued conservation of rare and endangered mussels.



Production Year Totals Show Increase in Stockings from Past Years - December 16, 2011

The 2011 Production Year is finally drawing to a close at Genoa National Fish Hatchery. Young of the year fingerlings have been stocked to their wild wintering waters after a season of intense growth, Genoa’s captive wild broodstocks have been stocked into their overwintering ponds, and indoor rearing raceways have been stocked with extended-growout fingerlings until ice-out on lake waters next spring.



Gravid Higgins Eye Mussels Collected from St. Croix River fo Ongoing Propagation Project - April 29, 2011

On April 29, 2011, divers from the Fish and Wildlife Service, the National Park Service, and the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources collected 20 gravid Higgins eye mussels, which are federally endangered, and several gravid plain pocketbook mussels, which are unlisted, from the St. Croix River at Hudson Narrows, near Hudson, Wisconsin.

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Last updated: February 11, 2016