Midwest Region Endangered Species Conserving the nature of America


Endangered Species Program


The mission of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Endangered Species program is conserving and restoring threatened and endangered species and their ecosystems.




U.S. Fish and Wildlife

Service in the Midwest


The Midwest Region includes Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio and Wisconsin. Find a location near you.


The Midwest Region includes Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio and Wisconsin.
Find a location near you »

Hibernating norhtern long-eared bat

Northern long-eared bat

Photo courtesy of Dave Thomas


Indiana Bat and Northern Long-eared Bat

Section 7 Consultation and Conservation Strategy

for the Federal Highway Administration, Federal Railroad Administration and Federal Transit Administration


The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) and Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) have standardized their approach to assessing impacts to Indiana bats and northern long-eared bats from highway construction and expansion projects; then avoiding, minimizing and mitigating those impacts.


Consultation Documents

Biological Opinion revised February 2018


- Addendum to Biological Opinion Feb. 2018


Biological Assessment updated November 2016



Implementation Information


IPaC http://ecos.fws.gov/ipac/



Mitigation Information

Compensatory Mitigation Ratio Percent Forest Cover (by county) Excel spreadsheet: June 2016


Compensatory Mitigation Ratios for Indiana Bat - Table 3 Biological Opinion


Estimated Cost Per Acre Land Values by Service Area - Table 2 of ILF Instrument Exhibit E November 2020 - November 2021


Conservation Focus Area Guidance Sept. 2016


Final In Lieu Fee Instrument



User's Guide updated June 2019


Appendix A: Assisted Determination Key - Process Summary


Appendix B: Project Submittal Form revised June 2019


Appendix C : Avoidance and Minimization Measures updated February 2018


Appendix D:

Bridge/Structure Assessment Guidance updated April 2020

Bridge/Structure Assessment Form updated April 2020


Appendix E: Post Assessment Discovery of Bats Form August 2017


Additional Information


FAQs updated February 2016


Summer Survey Guidance


Bat Research and Monitoring Need May 2016


USFWS Field Office Contacts


Indiana bats, an endangered species listed since 1966, are found over most of the Eastern half of the United States.  Northern long-eared bats, recently listed as threatened (April 2, 2015), are found in 37 states from the Atlantic coast westward to eastern Montana and Wyoming.  Section 7(a)(l) of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) requires federal agencies to use their authorities to conserve listed species. Section 7(a)(2) of act requires federal agencies to consult on any action that may affect a listed species.


Consultation and mitigation approaches for impacts to Indiana bats from federal projects vary greatly across the 22 states of the bat’s range, and those approaches have been rapidly changing in recent years. Consultation approaches are likely to continue to evolve independently in response to the spread of white-nose syndrome across the species’ range. These variations and changes have caused uncertainty, conflict, delays, and large workloads for the Service, FHWA, and state Departments of Transportation (DOTs).


The northern long-eared bat’s range overlaps with the Indiana bat but is even more extensive (all or portions of 37 states), therefore, consultation issues similar to those experienced with the Indiana bat are expected. Consultation approaches for both species are likely to evolve in response to the spread of white-nose syndrome across the species’ ranges.


This landscape-level conservation strategy developed by the FHWA and USFWS encompasses the ranges of both bat species and provides transparency and predictability to FHWA and state DOTs through proactive planning. Information provided by this consultation and conservation strategy will allow these agencies to strategically avoid projects in high impact or high risk areas for the Indiana bat and northern long-eared bat. For projects that cannot avoid impacts, project proponents will have the information they need to design projects to minimize impacts, thus avoiding the need to revise projects later in their development. For large-scale projects or projects with greater impacts, priority conservation areas will be identified to offset and minimize the impacts of the take. This approach will increase the consistency of both project design and review, reduce consultation process timeframes, reduce delays, and contribute meaningfully to conservation of both species.


In summary, the FHWA, FRA, and FTA and Regions 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 of the Service completed a rangewide consultation and conservation strategy for Indiana bats and northern long-eared bats in June of 2016.  The programmatic biological opinion that resulted will help expedite the consultation process related to transportation projects and provide a consistent approach to conservation for the bats. The strategy includes:


  • proactive conservation measures that are most suited and needed for the conservation of the species,
  • priority areas for mitigation measures,
  • standardized effects analyses with avoidance and minimization measures associated with project types,
  • an informal programmatic consultation covering all states; and
  • a limited formal programmatic consultation.


For More Information


Section 7 and the Consultation Process


Endangered Species Act


Endangered Species Act policies


Indiana bat


Northern long-eared bat


Project Contacts:

Catherine Liller, U.S. Fish and Service Catherine_Liller@fws.gov or

Brian Yanchik, Federal Highway Adiminstration Brian.Yanchik@dot.gov.


Midwest Endangered Species Home

Indiana Bat Home

Northern Long-eared Bat Home