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America's National Wildlife Refuge System

Volunteers and Invasive Plants: Learning and Lending a Hand

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Noxious Weeds

Photo of Dalmatian toadflax infestation.
Photo credit: B Nowiersk,

Dalmatian toadflax (Linaria dalmatica) was introduced as an ornamental from the Mediterranean and has pretty yellow flowers that could be mistaken for a snapdragon. Its extensive and deep root system makes it very difficult to control or remove. Toadflax can crowd out native species and take over, which is why it is on several states’ noxious weed lists (1).

In addition to being deep, toadflax roots can produce buds that grow into new plants, so it is not dependent on seeds for dispersal. Toadflax establishes quickly in disturbed areas and does well in a variety of environmental conditions (2).


  1. National Invasive Species Information Center. <http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/plants/toadflax.shtml>.
    Accessed 2006 Nov 6.
  2. Carpenter A, Murray T. 1998. The Nature Conservancy Element Stewardship Abstract for Linaria spp. <http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/linadal.html>. Accessed 2006 Nov 6.