Fish and Aquatic Conservation

Summary of Species Currently Listed as Injurious Wildlife under (18 U.S.C. 42) (Lacey Act)

[Please see 50 CFR §16 for regulations regarding Injurious Wildlife]

NOTES:The summary below shows only wildlife species that are currently listed as injurious and includes updated numbers for taxonomic changes to the species’ names. A few species were originally listed as early as 1900 by Congress (fruit bats and a mongoose), but the Effective Date shown here for those and the other species reflects when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service regulations took effect. Congress listed other species by statute after 1900, shown as “C” under “Effective Date.” The regulations cover only live specimens unless otherwise noted. All species of Salmonidae (salmon, trout, char, grayling, freshwater whitefish) are considered injurious due to risk of carrying pathogens that are harmful to fish, unless the salmonids are imported with a health certification or are dead and eviscerated (see 50 CFR 16.13). Twenty genera of salamanders (live, dead, parts) are considered injurious due to risk of carrying the fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (see 50 CFR 16.14).

MAMMALS (§16.11)
Common Name
Scientific Name Number of Species Effective Date
Bats, fruit (flying foxes; genus) Pteropus spp. 65 August 13, 1952
Dhole (Indian wild dog, red dog) Cuon sp. 1 January 1, 1966
Dog, raccoon Nyctereutes procyonoides 1 January 17, 1983
Mongooses, meerkats Genera: Atilax, Cynictis, Helogale,
Herpestes, Ichneumia,
Mungos, and Suricata
19 January 1, 1966
Possum, brushtail Trichosurus vulpecula 1 July 11, 2002
Rabbit, European Oryctolagus sp. 1 August 13, 1952
Rats (or Mice), multimammate Mastomys spp. 8 January 1, 1966
MAMMALS Subtotal 96  
BIRDS (§16.12)
Common Name
Scientific Name Number of Species Effective Date
Bulbul, red-whiskered Pycnonotus jocosus 1 July 1, 1968
Dioch Quelea quelea 1 July 1, 1968
Sparrow, Java Padda oryzivora 1 July 1, 1968
Starling, pink (rosy pastor) Sturnus roseus 1 January 1, 1966
BIRDS Subtotal 4  
11 Freshwater Species: 10 fish and 1 crayfish (September 30, 2016) - The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service announced a final rule on September 30, 2016, to add 11 nonnative freshwater species to the list of injurious wildlife under the Lacey Act: 10 fish (crucian carp, Eurasian minnow, Prussian carp, roach, stone moroko, Nile perch, Amur sleeper, European perch, zander, wels catfish) and 1 crayfish (common yabby).  The rule went into effect on October 31, 2016.
FISHES (§16.13)
Common Name
Scientific Name Number of Species Effective Date
Carp, bighead Hypophthalmichthys nobilis 1 Dec. 14, 2010 C
Carp, black Mylopharyngodon piceus 1 November 19, 2007
Carp, crucian Carassius carassius 1 October 31, 2016
Carp, largescale silver Hypophthalmichthys harmandi 1 August 9, 2007
Carp, Prussian Carassius gibelio 1 October 31, 2016
Carp, silver Hypophthalmichthys molitrix 1 August 9, 2007

Catfishes, walking
Family Clariidae (genera include Bathyclarias, Channallabes, Clariallabes, Clarias, Dinotopterus, Dolichallabes, Encheloclarias, Gymnallabes, Heterobranchus, Horaglanis, Platyallabes, Platyclarias, Tanganikallabes, Uegitglanis, Xenoclarias) 118 January 1, 1970
Catfish, wels Silurus glanis 1 October 31, 2016
Minnow, Eurasian Phoxinus phoxinus 1 October 31, 2016
Moroko, stone Pseudorasbora parva 1 October 31, 2016
Perch, European Perca fluviatilis 1 October 31, 2016
Perch, Nile Lates niloticus 1 October 31, 2016
Roach Rutilus rutilus 1 October 31, 2016
Salmon family (due to risk of pathogens) Family Salmonidae (genera include Brachymystax, Coregonus, Hucho, Oncorhynchus, Parahucho, Parasalmo, Prosopium, Salmo, Salvelinus, Salvethymus, Stenodus, and Thymallus) 242 July 1, 1968
Sleeper, Amur Perccottus glenii 1 October 31, 2016
Snakehead (family) Family Channidae (genera include Aenigmachanna, Channa, Parachanna) 57 October 4, 2002
Zander Sander lucioperca 1 October 31, 2016
FISHES Subtotal
without Salmon family
Genus Species Number of Species Effective Date
Crabs, mitten (genus) Eriocheir spp. 5 June 22, 1989
Mussel, quagga Dreissena rostriformis or
D. bugensis
1 December 4, 2018 C
Mussel, zebra Dreissena polymorpha 1 January 23, 1990 C
Yabby, common (a crayfish) Cherax destructor 1 October 31, 2016
Listing Salamanders as Injurious Due to Risk of Salamander Chytrid Fungus (January 12, 2016) - To help prevent a deadly fungus from killing native salamanders, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service published an interim rule to list 201 salamander species as injurious wildlife under the Lacey Act. The fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans, also known as Bsal or salamander chytrid, is carried on the skin of various salamander species.
Chytrid Fungus - September 16, 2010 - Petition on Amphibians with chytrid fungus
AMPHIBIANS (§16.14) Genus Species Number of Species Effective Date
Salamanders (due
to risk of Bsal)
Genera: Chioglossa, Cynops, Euproctus, Hydromantes, Hynobius, Ichthyosaura, Lissotriton, Neurergus, Notophthalmus, Onychodactylus, Paramesotriton, Plethodon, Pleurodeles, Salamandra, Salamandrella, Salamandrina, Siren, Taricha, Triturus, and Tylototriton 236* January 28, 2016
*Number does not include Triturus hongkongensis, which is not a valid scientific name but is used in import declarations. It is synonymous with Paramesotriton hongkongensis; both names are covered under the listing.
Large Constrictor Snakes - The South Florida Ecological Services Office is the lead for the Constrictor Snakes Injurious wildlife evaluation and rule.
REPTILES (§16.15) Family, Genus, or Species Number of Species Effective Date
Anaconda, Beni Eunectes beniensis 1 April 9, 2015
Anaconda, DeSchauensee’s Eunectes deschauenseei 1 April 9, 2015
Anaconda, green Eunectes murinus 1 April 9, 2015
Anaconda, yellow Eunectes notaeus 1 March 23, 2012
Python, Burmese Python bivittatus (originally listed
as Python molurus)
1 March 23, 2012
Python, Indian Python molurus 1 March 23, 2012
Python, northern African Python sebae 1 March 23, 2012
Python, reticulated Python reticulatus (or
Broghammerus reticulatus,
or Malayopython
1 April 9, 2015
Python, southern African Python natalensis 1 March 23, 2012
Snake, brown tree Boiga irregularis 1 May 25, 1990;
December 13, 1991 C
REPTILES Subtotal 10  
TOTAL without Salmonidae and salamanders 307

Revised December 2020

pdf icon Available to download