Fish and Aquatic Conservation

Large Constrictor Snakes


Implementation of the D.C. Circuit Court Decision in
United States Association of Reptile Keepers, Inc. v. Zinke, No. 15-5199
(D.C. Cir. April 7, 2017)

Summary of Background and Decision with Q&As (posted July 27, 2017)

The South Florida Ecological Services Office is the lead for the Constrictor Snakes Injurious wildlife evaluation and rule.



Final Rule to list reticulated python and three anacondas as injurious (pdf) March 10, 2015


News release “Service Lists Four Nonnative, Large Constrictor Snakes as Injurious Wildlife” March 6, 2015


Questions and Answers:"Final Rule listing reticulated python and three anacondas as injurious (March 10, 2015)


Final Environmental Assessment 2015 (pdf)


FONSI 2015 (pdf)


Final Economic Analysis 2015 (pdf)


Final Regulatory Flexibility Analysis 2015 (pdf)


ESA Section 7 Intra-Agency Consultation 2015 (pdf) 


Constrictor Snakes as Injurious Wildlife: What It Means for Snake Owners


Exporting Injurious Wildlife: A Guide for Businesses


Reopening of public comment period for five species (pdf) June 24, 2014


Final Rule (pdf) January 23, 2012

Final Environmental Assessment (pdf) and FONSI (pdf)

Final Economic Analysis (pdf) and Regulatory Flexibility Analysis (pdf)

Frequently Asked Questions

News Release "Salazar Announces Ban on Importation and Interstate Transportation of Four Giant Snakes that Threaten Everglades" January 17, 2012

Economic Cost of Large Constrictor Snakes  (pdf)

Effect of Cold Weather on Large Constrictor Snakes (pdf)

USGS Climate Matching Study  (pdf)

4) Reopening of public comment period (pdf), July 1, 2010

5) Proposed Rule (pdf), March 12, 2010

6) January 31, 2008

REPTILES Magazine Industry News SPECIAL: PIJAC (Pet Industry Joint Advisory Council) Interviews U.S. Fish and Wildlife (pdf). Copyright REPTILES magazine; Vol. 16, No. 5; May 2008.

Notice of Inquiry (pdf)

7) June 23, 2006

Petition to list the Burmese python as an injurious species(pdf)




A reticulated python. Credit: Bjorn Lardner / Colorado State University

A reticulated python. Credit: Bjorn Lardner/ Colorado State University




Photo by Sue Jewell, FWS

Burmese Python by Susan Jewell, FWS

Last updated: July 27, 2017