Executive Order 13186, Responsibilities of Federal Agencies to Protect Migratory Birds, was issued by President Clinton on January 10, 2001. The Executive Order directs federal agencies that take actions that either directly or indirectly effect on migratory birds to develop a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), and to work with the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, and other federal agencies to promote the conservation of migratory bird populations. So far, nine agencies have completed a Memorandum of Understanding with the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service under the Executive Order, and several other MOUs are in progress. The Council for the Conservation of Migratory Birds was established to help implement the Executive Order. It is comprised of representatives from various offices within 20 member agencies. The Council meets regularly, and has several subcommittees dedicated to successfully meeting the directives of Executive Order 13186.