Migratory Bird Treaty Act Protected Species (10.13 List)

List of Bird Species to Which the Migratory Bird Treaty Act Does Not Apply

Below is a list of the nonnative bird species that have been introduced by humans into the United States or U.S. territories and to which the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) does not apply, as required under The Migratory Bird Treaty Reform Act (MBTRA) of 2004. This list replaces the one published in 2005.

We made this list as comprehensive as possible by including all nonnative, human-assisted species that belong to any of the families referred to in the four migratory bird treaties and whose occurrence(s) in the United States or U.S. territories have been documented in the scientific literature. It is not, however, an exhaustive list of all the nonnative species that could potentially appear in the United States or U.S. territories as a result of human assistance. New species of nonnative birds are reported annually in the United States, and it is impossible to predict which species might appear in the near future.

The list arranges 122 species by family according to the American Ornithological Society (AOS) (1998, as amended and following taxonomy in the AOS 2019 supplement). Within families, the list arranges species alphabetically by scientific name. Common and scientific names follow Clements et al. (2017); any names occurring differently in the AOS 2019 supplement are in parentheses.

Family Anatidae
Mandarin Duck, Aix galericulata
Egyptian Goose, Alopochen aegyptiaca
Philippine Duck, Anas luzonica
Graylag Goose, Anser anser
Domestic Goose, Anser anser ‘domesticus’
Swan Goose, Anser cygnoides
Bar-headed Goose, Anser indicus
Red-breasted Goose, Branta ruficollis
Ringed Teal, Callonetta leucophrys
Maned Duck, Chenonetta jubata
Coscoroba Swan, Coscoroba coscoroba
Black Swan, Cygnus atratus
Black-necked Swan, Cygnus melancoryphus
Mute Swan, Cygnus olor
White-faced Whistling-Duck, Dendrocygna viduata
Rosy-billed Pochard, Netta peposaca
Red-crested Pochard, Netta rufina
Cotton Pygmy-Goose, Nettapus coromandelianus
Orinoco Goose, Oressochen jubatus (Neochen jubata)
Hottentot Teal, Spatula hottentota
Ruddy Shelduck, Tadorna ferruginea
Common Shelduck, Tadorna tadorna

Family Phoenicopteridae
Lesser Flamingo, Phoeniconaias minor
Chilean Flamingo, Phoenicopterus chilensis

Family Columbidae
Nicobar Pigeon, Caloenas nicobarica
Asian Emerald Dove, Chalcophaps indica
Rock Pigeon, Columba livia
Common Wood-Pigeon, Columba palumbus
Luzon Bleeding-heart, Gallicolumba luzonica
Diamond Dove, Geopelia cuneata
Bar-shouldered Dove, Geopelia humeralis
Zebra Dove, Geopelia striata
Spinifex Pigeon, Geophaps plumifera
Partridge Pigeon, Geophaps smithii
Wonga Pigeon, Leucosarcia melanoleuca
Crested Pigeon, Ocyphaps lophotes
Common Bronzewing, Phaps chalcoptera
Blue-headed Quail-Dove, Starnoenas cyanocephala
Island Collared-Dove, Streptopelia bitorquata
Spotted Dove, Streptopelia chinensis
Eurasian Collared-Dove, Streptopelia decaocto
African Collared-Dove, Streptopelia roseogrisea

Family Trochilidae
Black-throated Mango, Anthracothorax nigricollis

Family Rallidae
Gray-cowled Wood-Rail, Aramides cajaneus

Family Gruiidae
Demoiselle Crane, Anthropoides virgo
Sarus Crane, Antigone antigone
Black Crowned-Crane, Balearica pavonina
Gray Crowned-Crane, Balearica regulorum

Family Charadriidae
Southern Lapwing, Vanellus chilensis
Spur-winged Lapwing, Vanellus spinosus

Family Laridae
Silver Gull, Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae

Family Ciconiidae
Abdim’s Stork, Ciconia abdimii
White Stork, Ciconia ciconia
Woolly-necked Stork, Ciconia episcopus
Black-necked Stork, Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus

Family Phalacrocoracidae
Red-legged Cormorant, Phalacrocorax gaimardi

Family Anhingidae
Oriental Darter, Anhinga melanogaster

Family Pelecanidae
Great White Pelican, Pelecanus onocrotalus
Pink-backed Pelican, Pelecanus rufescens

Family Threskiornithidae
Eurasian Spoonbill, Platalea leucorodia
Sacred Ibis, Threskiornis aethiopicus

Family Cathartidae
King Vulture, Sarcoramphus papa

Family Accipitridae
Variable Hawk, Geranoaetus polyosoma
Griffon-type Old World vulture, Gyps sp.
Bateleur, Terathopius ecaudatus

Family Strigidae
Spectacled Owl, Pulsatrix perspicillata

Family Corvidae
Black-throated Magpie-Jay, Calocitta colliei
White-necked Raven, Corvus albicollis
Carrion Crow, Corvus corone
Cuban Crow, Corvus nasicus
House Crow, Corvus splendens
Azure Jay, Cyanocorax caeruleus
San Blas Jay, Cyanocorax sanblasianus
Rufous Treepie, Dendrocitta vagabunda
Eurasian Jay, Garrulus glandarius
Red-billed Chough, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Red-billed Blue-Magpie, Urocissa erythroryncha

Family Alaudidae
Japanese Skylark, Alauda japonica
Wood Lark, Lullula arborea
Calandra Lark, Melanocorypha calandra
Mongolian Lark, Melanocorypha mongolica

Family Paridae
Eurasian Blue Tit, Cyanistes caeruleus
Great Tit, Parus major
Varied Tit, Sittiparus varius

Family Cinclidae
White-throated Dipper, Cinclus cinclus

Family Sylviidae
Eurasian Blackcap, Sylvia atricapilla

Family Muscicapidae
Indian Robin, Copsychus fulicatus
White-rumped Shama, Copsychus malabaricus
Oriental Magpie-Robin, Copsychus saularis
European Robin, Erithacus rubecula
Japanese Robin, Larvivora akahige
Ryukyu Robin, Larvivora komadori
Common Nightingale, Luscinia megarhynchos

Family Turdidae
Song Thrush, Turdus philomelos
Red-throated Thrush, Turdus ruficollis

Family Prunellidae
Dunnock, Prunella modularis

Family Fringillidae
European Goldfinch, Carduelis carduelis
European Greenfinch, Chloris chloris
White-rumped Seedeater, Crithagra leucopygia
Yellow-fronted Canary, Crithagra mozambica
Eurasian Linnet, Linaria cannabina
Parrot Crossbill, Loxia pytyopsittacus
Island Canary, Serinus canaria
Red Siskin, Spinus cucullatus
Hooded Siskin, Spinus magellanicus

Family Emberizidae
Yellowhammer, Emberiza citrinella

Family Icteridae
Venezuelan Troupial, Icterus icterus
Spot-breasted Oriole, Icterus pectoralis
Montezuma Oropendola, Psarocolius montezuma
Red-breasted Meadowlark, Sturnella militaris

Family Cardinalidae
Orange-breasted Bunting, Passerina leclancherii
Red-hooded Tanager, Piranga rubriceps

Family Thraupidae
Yellow Cardinal, Gubernatrix cristata
Greater Antillean Bullfinch, Loxigilla violacea
Cuban Bullfinch, Melopyrrha nigra
Yellow-billed Cardinal, Paroaria capitata
Red-crested Cardinal, Paroaria coronata
Red-cowled Cardinal, Paroaria dominicana
Red-capped Cardinal, Paroaria gularis
Saffron Finch, Sicalis flaveola
Blue-gray Tanager, Thraupis episcopus
Cuban Grassquit, Tiaris canorus

Note: The Migratory Bird Treaty Act also does not apply to:
(1) Nonnative species introduced into the United States or U.S. territories by means of intentional or unintentional human assistance that belong to families or groups covered by the Canadian, Mexican, or Russian Conventions.

(2) Species native or nonnative to the United States or U.S. territories that either belong to families or groups not referred to in the Canada, Mexico, and Russia Conventions or are not included by species name in the Japan Convention. This includes the Tinamidae (tinamous), Megapodiidae (megapodes), Cracidae (chachalacas), Odontophoridae (New World quail), Phasianidae (grouse, ptarmigan, and turkeys), Pteroclidae (sandgrouse), Heliornithidae (finfoots), Burhinidae (thick-knees), Glareolidae (pratincoles), Todidae (todies), Psittacidae (parrots), Psittaculidae (Old World parrots), Meliphagidae (honeyeaters), Dicruridae (drongos), Monarchidae (monarchs), Pycnonotidae (bulbuls), Scotocercidae (bush warblers and allies), Zosteropidae (white-eyes), Sturnidae (starlings, except as listed in Japanese treaty), Ploceidae (weavers), Estrildidae (estrildid finches), and Passeridae (Old World sparrows, including house or English sparrow), as well as numerous other families not represented in the United States or U.S. territories.

Last Updated: April 15, 2020