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Since 2002, more than $50.1 million in grants.

Grants have supported 451 projects in 36 countries.

Partners have contributed an additional $190.6 million.

More than 3.7 million acres of habitat affected.

Below (Table 1) is presented the list of 386 bird species defined as neotropical migrants under the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Act.  English and scientific names follow the taxonomy of the American Ornithologists’ Union’s Checklist of North American Birds (American Ornithologists’ Union, 1998, The A.O.U. Checklist of North American Birds, seventh edition, American Ornithologists’ Union and Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas; and supplements 42-51).  Also indicated are species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (as of 2010) and those listed on the National Audubon Society/American Bird Conservancy’s Watchlist (2007) or the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s (2008) Birds of Conservation Concern.  Endangered Species Act (ESA) categories include: E - endangered throughout range, (e) - endangered in some portion of range, T – threatened throughout range, and (t) - threatened in some portion of range.  Decision rules on inclusion of species are provided at the end of the list (Table 2).

Birds labeled with an asterisk (*) are species eligible for conservation projects under our pilot program.  Birds marked as Birds of Conservation Concern, Watchlist species or species listed under the Endangered Species Act are eligible for research, monitoring, or assessment focused projects under our pilot program. Please see the application instructions for details.

If you feel there is a species missing that should be included on this list, you can petition for the inclusion of the species by sending relevant justification information to

You can click here for an excel file or here for an Adobe .pdf file of this bird list.

Table 1.  List of bird species.

Order Common name Latin name ESA Watchlist/
Fulvous Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna bicolor     
Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons    
Snow Goose Chen caerulescens     
Ross's Goose Chen rossii     
Brant Branta bernicla     
Cackling Goose Branta hutchinsii    
Canada Goose Branta canadensis     
Wood Duck Aix sponsa    
Gadwall Anas strepera     
American Wigeon Anas americana     
Mallard Anas platyrhynchos     
Blue-winged Teal Anas discors     
Cinnamon Teal Anas cyanoptera     
Northern Shoveler Anas clypeata      
Northern Pintail Anas acuta     
Green-winged Teal Anas crecca      
Canvasback Aythya valisineria     
Redhead Aythya americana     
Ring-necked Duck Aythya collaris     
Lesser Scaup Aythya affinis     
Surf Scoter Melanitta perspicillata     
Bufflehead Bucephala albeola     
Common Goldeneye Bucephala clangula     
Common Merganser Mergus merganser     
Red-breasted Merganser Mergus serrator     
Ruddy Duck Oxyura jamaicensis     
Red-throated Loon Gavia stellata     
Pacific Loon Gavia pacifica     
Common Loon Gavia immer     
Pied-billed Grebe Podilymbus podiceps    
Eared Grebe Podiceps nigricollis     
Western Grebe Aechmophorus occidentalis     
Clark's Grebe Aechmophorus clarkii    X
Leach's Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma leucorhoa     
Ashy Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma homochroa    X
Black Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma melania    X
American White Pelican Pelecanus erythrorhynchos     
Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus     
Anhinga Anhinga anhinga     
American Bittern Botaurus lentiginosus    
Least Bittern Ixobrychus exilis     
Great Blue Heron Ardea herodias     
Great Egret Ardea alba     
Snowy Egret Egretta thula     
Little Blue Heron Egretta caerulea     
Tricolored Heron Egretta tricolor     
Reddish Egret * Egretta rufescens  *   X
Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis     
Green Heron Butorides virescens     
Black-crowned Night-Heron Nycticorax nycticorax     
Yellow-crowned Night-Heron Nyctanassa violacea     
White Ibis Eudocimus albus     
Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus     
White-faced Ibis Plegadis chihi     
Roseate Spoonbill Platalea ajaja     
Wood Stork Mycteria americana  E  
Black Vulture Coragyps atratus     
Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura     
Osprey Pandion haliaetus     
Swallow-tailed Kite Elanoides forficatus    X
Mississippi Kite Ictinia mississippiensis     
Northern Harrier Circus cyaneus     
Sharp-shinned Hawk Accipiter striatus     
Cooper's Hawk Accipiter cooperii     
Common Black-Hawk Buteogallus anthracinus     
Red-shouldered Hawk Buteo lineatus     
Broad-winged Hawk Buteo platypterus     
Gray Hawk Buteo nitidus     
Swainson's Hawk Buteo swainsoni    X
Zone-tailed Hawk Buteo albonotatus     
Red-tailed Hawk Buteo jamaicensis     
Ferruginous Hawk Buteo regalis     
Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos     
American Kestrel Falco sparverius     
Merlin Falco columbarius     
Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus    X
Prairie Falcon Falco mexicanus      
Black Rail Laterallus jamaicensis    X
King Rail Rallus elegans    X
Virginia Rail Rallus limicola     
Sora Porzana carolina     
Purple Gallinule Porphyrio martinica     
Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus     
American Coot Fulica americana     
Sandhill Crane Grus canadensis  (e)  
Black-bellied Plover Pluvialis squatarola     
American Golden-Plover Pluvialis dominica    X
Snowy Plover Charadrius alexandrinus  (t) X
Wilson's Plover Charadrius wilsonia    X
Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus     
Piping Plover Charadrius melodus  T,E  
Killdeer Charadrius vociferus     
Mountain Plover * Charadrius montanus  *   X
American Oystercatcher Haematopus palliatus    X
Black-necked Stilt Himantopus mexicanus     
American Avocet Recurvirostra americana     
Spotted Sandpiper Actitis macularius    
Solitary Sandpiper Tringa solitaria     X
Wandering Tattler Tringa incana    X
Greater Yellowlegs Tringa melanoleuca     
Willet Tringa semipalmata    
Lesser Yellowlegs Tringa flavipes    X
Upland Sandpiper Bartramia longicauda    X
Eskimo Curlew Numenius borealis  E  
Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus    X
Long-billed Curlew * Numenius americanus  *   X
Hudsonian Godwit * Limosa haemastica  *   X
Marbled Godwit Limosa fedoa    X
Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres     
Black Turnstone Arenaria melanocephala    X
Surfbird Aphriza virgata    X
Red Knot * Calidris canutus  *   X
Sanderling Calidris alba    X
Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla    X
Western Sandpiper Calidris mauri    X
Least Sandpiper Calidris minutilla     
White-rumped Sandpiper Calidris fuscicollis    X
Baird's Sandpiper Calidris bairdii     
Pectoral Sandpiper Calidris melanotos     
Dunlin Calidris alpina    X
Stilt Sandpiper Calidris himantopus    X
Buff-breasted Sandpiper * Tryngites subruficollis  *   X
Short-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus griseus    X
Long-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus scolopaceus     
Wilson's Snipe Gallinago delicata     
Wilson's Phalarope Phalaropus tricolor     
Red-necked Phalarope Phalaropus lobatus     
Red Phalarope Phalaropus fulicarius     
Laughing Gull Larus atricilla     
Franklin's Gull Larus pipixcan     
Bonaparte's Gull Larus philadelphia     
Ring-billed Gull Larus delawarensis     
California Gull Larus californicus     
Herring Gull Larus argentatus     
Western Gull Larus occidentalis     
Glaucous-winged Gull Larus glaucescens     
Sabine's Gull Xema sabini     
Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla     
Least Tern Sternula antillarum  (e) X
Gull-billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica   X
Caspian Tern Hydroprogne caspia    
Black Tern Chlidonias niger     
Roseate Tern Sterna dougallii  T,E  
Common Tern Sterna hirundo     
Arctic Tern Sterna paradisaea     
Forster's Tern Sterna forsteri     
Royal Tern Thalasseus maximus    
Sandwich Tern Thalasseus sandvicensis     
Elegant Tern Thalasseus elegans    X
Black Skimmer Rynchops niger    X
Pomarine Jaeger Stercorarius pomarinus     
Parasitic Jaeger Stercorarius parasiticus     
Long-tailed Jaeger Stercorarius longicaudus     
Xantus's Murrelet Synthliboramphus hypoleucus    X
Rhinoceros Auklet Cerorhinca monocerata     
White-crowned Pigeon Patagioenas leucocephala    X
Red-billed Pigeon Patagioenas flavirostris     
Band-tailed Pigeon Patagioenas fasciata     
White-winged Dove Zenaida asiatica     
Mourning Dove Zenaida macroura     
Yellow-billed Cuckoo Coccyzus americanus    X
Mangrove Cuckoo Coccyzus minor    X
Black-billed Cuckoo Coccyzus erythropthalmus     
Flammulated Owl Otus flammeolus    X
Elf Owl Micrathene whitneyi    X
Burrowing Owl Athene cunicularia     
Long-eared Owl Asio otus     
Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus    X
Lesser Nighthawk Chordeiles acutipennis     
Common Nighthawk Chordeiles minor     
Antillean Nighthawk Chordeiles gundlachii    X
Common Poorwill Phalaenoptilus nuttallii     
Chuck-will's-widow Caprimulgus carolinensis     
Buff-collared Nighjar Caprimulgus ridgwayi    
Eastern Whip-poor-will Caprimulgus vociferus     
Mexican Whip-poor-will Caprimulgus arizonae    
Black Swift Cypseloides niger    X
Chimney Swift Chaetura pelagica     
Vaux's Swift Chaetura vauxi     
White-throated Swift Aeronautes saxatalis     
Broad-billed Hummingbird Cynanthus latirostris     
Buff-bellied Hummingbird Amazilia yucatanensis     
Violet-crowned Hummingbird Amazilia violiceps     
Blue-throated Hummingbird Lampornis clemenciae    X
Magnificent Hummingbird Eugenes fulgens     
Lucifer Hummingbird Calothorax lucifer     
Ruby-throated Hummingbird Archilochus colubris     
Black-chinned Hummingbird Archilochus alexandri     
Anna's Hummingbird Calypte anna     
Costa's Hummingbird Calypte costae    X
Calliope Hummingbird Stellula calliope    X
Broad-tailed Hummingbird Selasphorus platycercus     
Rufous Hummingbird Selasphorus rufus    X
Allen's Hummingbird Selasphorus sasin    X
Elegant Trogon Trogon elegans    X
Belted Kingfisher Megaceryle alcyon     
Williamson's Sapsucker Sphyrapicus thyroideus    X
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker Sphyrapicus varius     
Red-naped Sapsucker Sphyrapicus nuchalis     
Red-breasted Sapsucker Sphyrapicus ruber     
Northern Flicker Colaptes auratus     
Northern Beardless-Tyrannulet Camptostoma imberbe     
Olive-sided Flycatcher Contopus cooperi    X
Greater Pewee Contopus pertinax     
Western Wood-Pewee Contopus sordidulus     
Eastern Wood-Pewee Contopus virens     
Yellow-bellied Flycatcher Empidonax flaviventris     
Acadian Flycatcher Empidonax virescens     
Alder Flycatcher Empidonax alnorum     
Willow Flycatcher Empidonax traillii  (e) X
Least Flycatcher Empidonax minimus     
Hammond's Flycatcher Empidonax hammondii     
Gray Flycatcher Empidonax wrightii     
Dusky Flycatcher Empidonax oberholseri     
Pacific-slope Flycatcher Empidonax difficilis     
Cordilleran Flycatcher Empidonax occidentalis     
Buff-breasted Flycatcher Empidonax fulvifrons     
Eastern Phoebe Sayornis phoebe     
Say's Phoebe Sayornis saya     
Vermilion Flycatcher Pyrocephalus rubinus     
Dusky-capped Flycatcher Myiarchus tuberculifer     
Ash-throated Flycatcher Myiarchus cinerascens     
Great Crested Flycatcher Myiarchus crinitus     
Brown-crested Flycatcher Myiarchus tyrannulus     
Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher Myiodynastes luteiventris     
Tropical Kingbird Tyrannus melancholicus     
Couch's Kingbird Tyrannus couchii     
Cassin's Kingbird Tyrannus vociferans     
Thick-billed Kingbird Tyrannus crassirostris    X
Western Kingbird Tyrannus verticalis     
Eastern Kingbird Tyrannus tyrannus     
Gray Kingbird Tyrannus dominicensis     
Scissor-tailed Flycatcher Tyrannus forficatus     
Rose-throated Becard Pachyramphus aglaiae    
Loggerhead Shrike Lanius ludovicianus  (e) X
White-eyed Vireo Vireo griseus     
Bell's Vireo Vireo bellii  (e) X
Black-capped Vireo Vireo atricapilla E  
Gray Vireo Vireo vicinior    X
Yellow-throated Vireo Vireo flavifrons     
Plumbeous Vireo Vireo plumbeus     
Cassin's Vireo Vireo cassinii     
Blue-headed Vireo Vireo solitarius     
Warbling Vireo Vireo gilvus     
Philadelphia Vireo Vireo philadelphicus     
Red-eyed Vireo Vireo olivaceus     
Yellow-green Vireo Vireo flavoviridis     
Black-whiskered Vireo Vireo altiloquus     
Purple Martin Progne subis     
Tree Swallow Tachycineta bicolor     
Violet-green Swallow Tachycineta thalassina     
Northern Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx serripennis     
Bank Swallow Riparia riparia     
Cliff Swallow Petrochelidon pyrrhonota     
Cave Swallow Petrochelidon fulva     
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica     
House Wren Troglodytes aedon     
Sedge Wren Cistothorus platensis     
Marsh Wren Cistothorus palustris     
Golden-crowned Kinglet Regulus satrapa     
Ruby-crowned Kinglet Regulus calendula     
Blue-gray Gnatcatcher Polioptila caerulea     
Eastern Bluebird Sialia sialis     
Western Bluebird Sialia mexicana     
Mountain Bluebird Sialia currucoides     
Townsend's Solitaire Myadestes townsendi     
Veery Catharus fuscescens     
Gray-cheeked Thrush Catharus minimus     
Bicknell's Thrush * Catharus bicknelli  *   X
Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus     
Hermit Thrush Catharus guttatus     
Wood Thrush Hylocichla mustelina    X
American Robin Turdus migratorius     
Gray Catbird Dumetella carolinensis     
Sage Thrasher Oreoscoptes montanus     
Bendire's Thrasher Toxostoma bendirei    X
American Pipit Anthus rubescens     
Sprague's Pipit * Anthus spragueii  *   X
Cedar Waxwing Bombycilla cedrorum     
Phainopepla Phainopepla nitens     
Bachman's Warbler Vermivora bachmanii   E  
Blue-winged Warbler Vermivora pinus    X
Golden-winged Warbler * Vermivora chrysoptera  *   X
Tennessee Warbler Vermivora peregrina     
Orange-crowned Warbler Vermivora celata     
Nashville Warbler Vermivora ruficapilla     
Virginia's Warbler Vermivora virginiae    X
Colima Warbler Vermivora crissalis    X
Lucy's Warbler Vermivora luciae     X
Northern Parula Parula americana     
Tropical Parula Parula pitiayumi     
Yellow Warbler Dendroica petechia     
Chestnut-sided Warbler Dendroica pensylvanica     
Magnolia Warbler Dendroica magnolia     
Cape May Warbler Dendroica tigrina     
Black-throated Blue Warbler Dendroica caerulescens     
Yellow-rumped Warbler Dendroica coronata     
Black-throated Gray Warbler Dendroica nigrescens     
Golden-cheeked Warbler * Dendroica chrysoparia  * E  
Black-throated Green Warbler Dendroica virens     
Townsend's Warbler Dendroica townsendi     
Hermit Warbler Dendroica occidentalis    X
Blackburnian Warbler Dendroica fusca     
Yellow-throated Warbler Dendroica dominica     
Grace's Warbler Dendroica graciae    X
Pine Warbler Dendroica pinus     
Kirtland's Warbler * Dendroica kirtlandii  * E  
Prairie Warbler Dendroica discolor    X
Palm Warbler Dendroica palmarum     
Bay-breasted Warbler Dendroica castanea    X
Blackpoll Warbler Dendroica striata     
Cerulean Warbler * Dendroica cerulea  *   X
Black-and-white Warbler Mniotilta varia     
American Redstart Setophaga ruticilla     
Prothonotary Warbler Protonotaria citrea    X
Worm-eating Warbler Helmitheros vermivorum   X
Swainson's Warbler Limnothlypis swainsonii    X
Ovenbird Seiurus aurocapilla    
Northern Waterthrush Seiurus noveboracensis     
Louisiana Waterthrush Seiurus motacilla     
Kentucky Warbler Oporornis formosus    X
Connecticut Warbler Oporornis agilis     
Mourning Warbler Oporornis philadelphia     
MacGillivray's Warbler Oporornis tolmiei     
Common Yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas     
Hooded Warbler Wilsonia citrina     
Wilson's Warbler Wilsonia pusilla     
Canada Warbler Wilsonia canadensis    X
Red-faced Warbler Cardellina rubrifrons    X
Painted Redstart Myioborus pictus     
Yellow-breasted Chat Icteria virens     
Hepatic Tanager Piranga flava    
Summer Tanager Piranga rubra    
Scarlet Tanager Piranga olivacea    
Western Tanager Piranga ludoviciana    
Green-tailed Towhee Pipilo chlorurus     
Spotted Towhee Pipilo maculatus     
Cassin's Sparrow Aimophila cassinii     
Chipping Sparrow Spizella passerina     
Clay-colored Sparrow Spizella pallida     
Brewer's Sparrow Spizella breweri    X
Field Sparrow Spizella pusilla     
Black-chinned Sparrow Spizella atrogularis    X
Vesper Sparrow Pooecetes gramineus     
Lark Sparrow Chondestes grammacus     
Black-throated Sparrow Amphispiza bilineata     
Sage Sparrow Amphispiza belli  (t) X
Lark Bunting Calamospiza melanocorys    X
Savannah Sparrow Passerculus sandwichensis     
Grasshopper Sparrow Ammodramus savannarum  (e)  
Baird's Sparrow Ammodramus bairdii    X
Fox Sparrow Passerella iliaca     
Song Sparrow Melospiza melodia     
Lincoln's Sparrow Melospiza lincolnii     
Swamp Sparrow Melospiza georgiana     
White-crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia leucophrys     
Golden-crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia atricapilla     
Dark-eyed Junco Junco hyemalis     
McCown's Longspur Calcarius mccownii    X
Chestnut-collared Longspur Calcarius ornatus   X
Rose-breasted Grosbeak Pheucticus ludovicianus     
Black-headed Grosbeak Pheucticus melanocephalus     
Blue Grosbeak Passerina caerulea     
Lazuli Bunting Passerina amoena     
Indigo Bunting Passerina cyanea     
Varied Bunting Passerina versicolor    X
Painted Bunting * Passerina ciris  *   X
Dickcissel Spiza americana    X
Bobolink Dolichonyx oryzivorus     
Red-winged Blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus     
Eastern Meadowlark Sturnella magna     
Western Meadowlark Sturnella neglecta     
Yellow-headed Blackbird Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus     
Brewer's Blackbird Euphagus cyanocephalus     
Bronzed Cowbird Molothrus aeneus     
Brown-headed Cowbird Molothrus ater     
Orchard Oriole Icterus spurius     
Hooded Oriole Icterus cucullatus     
Bullock's Oriole Icterus bullockii     
Baltimore Oriole Icterus galbula     
Scott's Oriole Icterus parisorum     
Cassin's Finch Carpodacus cassinii     
Pine Siskin Carduelis pinus     
Lesser Goldfinch Carduelis psaltria     
Lawrence's Goldfinch Carduelis lawrencei    X
American Goldfinch Carduelis tristis     

Table 2. Decision rules to include species as neotropical migrants.

Decision Rules for Defining a “Neotropical Migratory Bird” for the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Act
Rule Decision Description Action
1A Species is listed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 50 CFR Part 10, which is the list of species covered under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. This eliminates introduced species and restricts the list to families covered in conventions with Canada, Japan, Mexico, and Russia. Go to #2
1B Species NOT listed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 50 CFR Part 10 (e.g., grouse, turkeys, quail, thick-knees, parrots, todies, Wrentit, Banaquit) Not Included
2A Species breeds regularly (i.e. every year) in the continental U.S. or Canada. Go to #3
2B Species breeds irregularly (i.e. not every year) in the continental U.S. or Canada or breeds outside of the continental U.S. or Canada (e.g., Hawaii, Caribbean and Pacific Islands) Not Included
3A Most individuals of the species breeding in the continental U.S. and Canada spend the boreal winter in the continental U.S. or Canada (95-100% of their boreal winter distribution) Not Included
3B Some individuals of the species can be found in Mexico, Caribbean Basin, Central America or South America during the boreal winter (≥5% of their boreal winter distribution) Included
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