U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service

Landbirds

Overview

Alaska supports a great diversity of landbird species, or birds that rely principally on terrestrial habitats.  The whole of the the Alaska landbird avifauna is composed of 260 species, 135 breeding species, and a wide variety of bird groups such as raptors, ptarmigan, woodpeckers, swallows, chickadees, thrushes, warblers, and sparrows. Raptors and eagles are discussed more in-depth here. Landbirds are found in all terrestrial habitats that occur in Alaska.  Because of the unique geographic position of Alaska, many of the state's landbirds are found nowhere else in the United States or North America.

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Landbird Species

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For example:

  • The entire world's population of McKay's Buntings resides in Alaska.
  • North American breeding populations of Gray-headed Chickadee, Arctic Warbler, Bluethroat, Yellow and White wagtail, and Red-throated Pipit nest entirely or almost entirely within Alaska.
  • Alaska supports the the entire U.S. breeding population of the Willow and Rock ptarmigan, Northern Shrike, Northern Wheatear, Gray-cheeked Thrush, Bohemian Waxwing, American Tree and Golden-crowned sparrows, Smith's and Lapland longspur, Snow Bunting, and Common and Horry redpoll.
  • Within the U.S, more than 75% of the breeding populations of Alder Flycatcher, Northwestern Crow, Boreal Chickadee, Blackpoll Warbler, and Rusty Blackbird occur in Alaska.
A Hermit Thrush taking flight from the hands of a volunteer

Approximately 50% of the landbirds breeding in Alaska migrate outside of Alaska to spend the winter.  Many of these migrant landbirds travel great distances to and from their wintering grounds in either the Old World (e.g., southeast Asia, Africa) or New World (Mexico and Central and South America) tropics.  For example, the tiny Blackpoll Warbler (which weighs as much as a pair of 25 ¢ coins) travels up to 5,000 miles from Alaska to the Amazonian basin of Brazil to send the winter!  Because Alaska's assemblage of landbird species collectively occupy a vast portion of the globe over the annual cycle, their conservation requires considerable cooperation and planning among biologists both within Alaska and among states, countries, and continents.

Conservation

Partners in Flight Conservation Plans have been developed for landbirds in most of the physiographic regions and states in the US and make up the foundation for securing the health of our countries landbirds populations through partnerships, cooperative science, and habitat conservation and management.

Boreal Partners in Flight

Boreal Partners in Flight is a coalition of individuals who are working together to help conserve landbird populations throughout boreal regions of North America. Boreal Partners in Flight is the official Alaska state working group of the international Partners in Flight program. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service plays a leading role in Boreal Partners in Flight which has over 100 members, including representatives from all the major federal land and resource managers in Alaska and Canada, state and provincial agencies, universities, Alaska Native corporations, and local environmental consulting firms. Nongovernmental organizations such as the Alaska Bird ObservatoryAlaska Natural Heritage Program, and local chapters of the National Audubon Society play key roles. The foundation of the program, however, relies on the commitment of individuals. Boreal Partners in Flight includes biologists, land managers, teachers, and birders—a diverse, active, and dedicated group.

Tree swallow in silhouette against an orange sky as the sun sets
Beautiful photograph taken at sunset on the tree swallows favorite spot. Photo Credit: Nathan Graff/USFWS

Migration

Species that share the same breeding habitat in central Alaska travel to markedly different wintering grounds:

  • Blackpoll Warblers fly south to the western Amazon Basin;
  • Arctic Warblers migrate to Southeast Asia;
  • White-crowned Sparrows pass the winter in the southwestern United States; and
  • Willow Ptarmigan stay in Alaska all winter.

Like many landbirds that breed in North America, 69 species, or 51%, of landbirds that breed in Alaska migrate to Mexico, Caribbean islands, or Central and South America. No other group of birds that breed in Alaska, including shorebirds, contains as many species that travel outside of the United States to spend the winter.  The Bank Swallow and Peregrine Falcon, for example, will travel as far south as Argentina.

Nine species of landbirds (7%) that nest in Alaska and migrate to Asia in the winter breed nowhere else in the United States.  These include the Bluethroat, White Wagtail, and Northern Wheatear. Most of these species are more widespread in Europe and Russia. Little is known about their biology in Alaska.

Some landbird species (19%) that leave Alaska for the winter end their migration when they reach the lower 48 states. Many of these species will spend the winter in the coastal forests of the Pacific Northwest (e.g., Northern Saw-whet Owl, Varied Thrush, Red Crossbill). In years of short food supplies, large numbers of Bohemian Waxwings, Northern Hawk Owls, and White-winged Crossbills will invade the lower 48 states from Alaska.

Surprisingly, 31 landbird species (23%) choose to spend their winter in Alaska. As you might expect, most of Alaska's winter landbird residents are grouse, owls and woodpeckers (18 species). Away from the coast, however, birds are often hard to find. Christmas Bird Counts in central Alaska seldom reach 20 species and are dominated by Common Ravens, Black-capped and Boreal chickadees, and Common Redpolls. The only species unique to Alaska, the McKay's Bunting, leaves its breeding sites on islands in the Bering Sea to pass the winter on the mainland coast of western Alaska.

Reports

To receive a copy of a publication or report listed here, please contact:
Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service
1011 E. Tudor Road, Anchorage, Alaska 99503
or call 907-786-3443

Publications

Stralberg, D., S. M. Matsuoka, A. Hamann, E. M. Bayne, P. Sólymos, F. K. A. Schmiegelow, X. Wang, S. G. Cumming, and S. J. Song. 2015. Projecting boreal bird responses to climate change: the signal exceeds the noise. Ecological Applications 25:52–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/13-2289.

Mahon, C. L., E. M. Bayne, P. Sólymos, S. M. Matsuoka, M. Carlson, E. Dzus, F. K. A. Schmiegelow, S. G. Cumming, and S. J. Song. 2014. Does expected future landscape condition support proposed population objectives for boreal birds? Forest Ecology and Management 312:28–39.

Matsuoka, S. M., C. L. Mahon, C. M. Handel, P. Sólymos, E. M. Bayne, P. C. Fontaine, and C. J. Ralph. 2014. Reviving common standards in point-count surveys for broad inference across studies. The Condor: Ornithological Applications 116:599–608.

Sólymos, P., S. M. Matsuoka, E. M. Bayne, S. R. Lele, P. Fontaine, S. G. Cumming, D. Stralberg, F. K. A. Schmiegelow, and S. J. Song. 2013. Calibrating indices of avian density from non-standardized survey data: making the most of a messy situation. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 4:1047–1058.

Johnson, J. A., L. H. DeCicco, S. M. Matsuoka, and A. L. Sowls. 2013. Nesting ecology of McKay’s Buntings on St. Matthew Island, Alaska. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 125:376–384.

Johnson, J. A., S. M. Matsuoka, D. F. Tessler, R. Greenberg, and J. W. Fox. 2012. Tracking annual movements by Rusty Blackbirds breeding in south-central Alaska. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 124:698–703.

Matsuoka, S. M., E. M. Bayne, P. Sólymos, P. C. Fontaine, S. G. Cumming, F. K. A. Schmiegelow, and S. J. Song. 2012. Using binomial distance-sampling models to estimate the effective detection radius of point-count surveys across boreal Canada. Auk 129:268–282.

Matsuoka, S. M., J. A. Johnson, and D. A. DellaSala. 2012. Succession of bird communities in young-temperate rainforests following thinning. Journal of Wildlife Management 76:919–931.

Greenberg, R., D. W. Demarest, S. M. Matsuoka, C. Mettke-Hofmann, M. L. Avery, P. J. Blancher, D. Evers, P. B. Hamel, K. A. Hobson, J. Luscier, D. K. Niven, L. L. Powell, and D. Shaw. 2011. Understanding declines in Rusty Blackbirds. Studies in Avian Biology 41:107–125.

Barnard, W. H., C. Mettke-Hofmann, and S. M. Matsuoka. 2010. Prevalence of hematozoa infections among breeding and wintering Rusty Blackbirds. Condor 112:849–853.

Greenberg, R., and S. M. Matsuoka. 2010. Rusty Blackbird: mysteries of a species in decline. Condor 112:770–777.

Handel, C. M., L. M. Pajot, S. M. Matsuoka, C. Van Hermert, J. Terenzi, S. L. Talbot, D. M. Mulcahy, C. U. Meteyer, and K. A. Trust. 2010. Epizootic of bill deformities among wild birds in Alaska: an emerging disease in North America? Auk 127:882–898.

Matsuoka, S. M., and R. Greenberg (editors). 2010. Special section: Range-wide ecology of the declining Rusty Blackbird. Condor 112:770–861.

Matsuoka, S. M., D. Shaw, and J. A. Johnson. 2010. Estimating the abundance of nesting Rusty Blackbirds in relation to wetland habitats in Alaska. Condor 112:825–833.

Matsuoka, S. M., D. Shaw, P. H. Sinclair, J. A. Johnson, R. M. Corcoran, N. C. Dau, P. M. Meyers, and N. A. Rojek. 2010. Nesting ecology of Rusty Blackbirds in Alaska and Canada. Condor 112:810–824.

Handel, C. M., S. D. Swanson, D. A. Nigro, and S. M. Matsuoka. 2009. Estimation of avian population sizes and species richness across a boreal landscape in Alaska. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 21:528–547.

Ip, H. S., P. L. Flint, J. C. Franson, R. J. Dusek, D. V. Derksen, R. E. Gill, Jr., C. R. Ely, J. M. Pearce, R. B. Lanctot, S. M. Matsuoka, D. B. Irons, J. B. Fischer, R. M. Oates, M. R. Petersen, T. F. Fondell, D. A. Rocque, J. C. Pedersen, and T. C. Rothe. 2008. Prevalence of influenza A viruses in wild migratory birds in Alaska: patterns of variation in detection at a crossroads of intercontinental flyways. Virology Journal 5:71.

Matsuoka, S. M., and J. A. Johnson. 2008. Using a multimodel approach to estimate the population size of McKay’s Buntings. Condor 110:371–376.

Berg, E. E., J. D. Henry, C. L. Fastie, A. D. De Volder, and S. M. Matsuoka. 2006. Spruce beetles outbreaks on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska and Kluane National Park and Reserve, Yukon Territory: relationship to summer temperatures and regional differences in disturbance regimes. Forest Ecology and Management 227:219–232.

Matsuoka, S. M., E. H. Holsten, M. E. Shephard, R. A. Werner, and R. E. Burnside (editors). 2006. Spruce beetles in forest ecosystems of south-central Alaska. Forest Ecology and Management 227:193–283.

Matsuoka, S. M., E. H. Holsten, M. E. Shephard, R. A. Werner, and R. E. Burnside. 2006. Preface: Spruce beetles in forest ecosystems of south-central Alaska. Forest Ecology and Management 227:193–194.

Werner, R. A., E. H. Holsten, S. M. Matsuoka, and R. E. Burnside. 2006. Spruce beetles in forest ecosystems of south-central Alaska: a review of 30 years of research. Forest Ecology and Management 227:195–206.

Johnson, J. A., S. M. Matsuoka, D. R. Ruthrauff, M. L. Litzow, and M. N. Dementyev. 2004. Additions to the avifauna of St. Matthew Island, Bering Sea. Western Birds 35:50-52.

2012–2013

Johnson, J. A., L. C. DeCicco, S. M. Matsuoka, and A. L. Sowls. 2013. Nesting ecology of McKay’s Buntings on St. Matthew Island, Alaska. Wilson Journal of Ornithology, in press.

Johnson, J. A., S. M. Matsuoka, D. F. Tessler, R. Greenberg, and J. W. Fox. 2012. Tracking annual movements by Rusty Blackbirds breeding in south-central Alaska. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 124:698–703.

Matsuoka, S. M., E. M. Bayne, P. Sólymos, P. C. Fontaine, S. G. Cumming, F. K. A. Schmiegelow, and S. J. Song. 2012. Using binomial distance-sampling models to estimate the effective detection radius of point-count surveys across boreal Canada. Auk 129:268–282.

Matsuoka, S. M., J. A. Johnson, and D. A. DellaSala. 2012. Succession of bird communities in young-temperate rainforests following thinning. Journal of Wildlife Management 76:919–931.

2011

Booms, T. L., P. F. Schempf, B. J. McCaffery, M. S. Lindberg, and M. R. Fuller. 2011. Detection probability of gyrfalcons and other cliff-nesting raptors during aerial surveys in Alaska. Pages 259–263 in R. T. Watson, T. J. Cade, M. Fuller, G. Hunt, and E. Potapov (eds.). Gyrfalcons and ptarmigan in a changing world. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, Idaho.

Booms, T. L., S. L. Talbot, G. K. Sage, B. J. McCaffery, K. G. McCracken, and P. F. Schempf. 2011. Gyrfalcon nest site fidelity, breeding dispersal, and natal dispersal in Alaska using non-invasive genetic sampling. Pages 291–293 in R. T. Watson, T. J. Cade, M. Fuller, G. Hunt, and E. Potapov (eds.). Gyrfalcons and ptarmigan in a changing world. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, Idaho.

Fuller, M. R., P. F. Schempf, and T. L. Booms. 2011. Developing Gyrfalcon surveys and monitoring for Alaska. Pages 275–282 in R. T. Watson, T. J. Cade, M. Fuller, G. Hunt, and E. Potapov (eds.). Gyrfalcons and Ptarmigan in a Changing World, Volume I. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, Idaho.

Greenberg, R., D. W. Demarest, S. M. Matsuoka, C. Mettke-Hofmann, M. L. Avery, P. J. Blancher, D. Evers, P. B. Hamel, K. A. Hobson, J. Luscier, D. K. Niven, L. L. Powell, and D. Shaw. 2011. Understanding declines in Rusty Blackbirds. Studies in Avian Biology 41:107–125.

2010

Barnard, W., C. Mettke-Hofmann, and S. M. Matsuoka. 2010. Prevalence of hematozoa infections among breeding and wintering Rusty Blackbirds. Condor 112:849–853.

Booms, T. L., F. Huettmann, and P. F. Schempf. 2010. Gyrfalcon nest distribution in Alaska based on a predictive GIS model. Polar Biology 33:347–358.

Greenberg, R., and S. M. Matsuoka. 2010. Rusty Blackbird: mysteries of a species in decline. Condor 112:770–777.

Handel, C. M., L. M. Pajot, S. M. Matsuoka, C. Van Hemert, J. Terenzi, S. L. Talbot, D. M. Mulcahy, C. U. Meteyer, and K. A. Trust. 2010. Epizootic of beak deformities among wild birds in Alaska: an emerging disease in North America? Auk 172:882–898.

Kissling, M. L., S. B. Lewis, and D. Cushing. 2010. Diet of the Western Screech-Owl in southeast Alaska. Western Birds 41.

Kissling, M. L., S. B. Lewis, and G. Pendleton. 2010. Factors influencing the detectability of forest owls in southeastern Alaska. Condor 112:539–548.

Matsuoka, S. M., and R. Greenberg (editors). 2010. Range-wide ecology of declining Rusty Blackbirds. Condor 112:770–861.

Matsuoka, S. M., D. Shaw, and J. A. Johnson. 2010. Estimating the abundance of nesting Rusty Blackbirds in relation to wetland habitats in Alaska. Condor 112:825–833.

Matsuoka, S. M., D. Shaw, P. H. Sinclair, J. A. Johnson, R. M. Corcoran, N. C. Dau, P. M. Meyers, and N. A. Rojek. 2010. Nesting ecology of Rusty Blackbirds in Alaska and Canada. Condor 112:810–824.

2008–2009

Booms, T. L., F. Huettmann, and P. F. Schempf [online]. 2009. Gyrfalcon nest distribution in Alaska based on a predictive GIS model. Polar Biology.

Booms, T. L., B. McCaffery, and P. Schempt. 2008. Molted-feather persistence and aging in a sub-arctic environment: implications for noninvasive genetic sampling. Condor 110:756–762.

Handel, C. M., S. D. Swanson, D. A. Nigro, and S. M. Matsuoka. 2009. Estimation of avian population sizes and species richness across a boreal landscape in Alaska. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 121:528–547.

Ip, H. S., P. L. Flint, J. C. Franson, R. J. Dusek, D. V. Derksen, R. E. Gill, Jr., C. R. Ely, J. M. Pearce, R. B. Lanctot, S. M. Matsuoka, D. B. Irons, J. B. Fischer, R. M. Oates, M. R. Petersen, T. F. Fondell, D. A. Rocque, J. C. Pedersen, and T. C. Rothe. 2008. Prevalence of influenza A viruses in wild migratory birds in Alaska: patterns of variation in detection at a crossroads of intercontinental flyways. Virology Journal.

Johnson, J. A., B. A. Andres, and J. A. Bissonette. 2008. Birds of the major mainland rivers of southeast Alaska. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-GTR-739, Portland, Oregon. 

Lewis, S. B., and M. L. Kissling. 2009. A technique for capturing Western Screech-Owls (Megascops kennicottii) in southeast Alaska. North American Bird Bander 34:179–184.

Matsuoka, S. M., and J. A. Johnson. 2008. Using a multimodel approach to estimate the population size of McKay’s Buntings. Condor 110:371–376.

2006–2007

Benson, A.-M., B. A. Andres, W. N. Johnson, S. Savage, and S. M. Sharbaugh. 2006. Differential timing of Wilson’s Warbler migration in Alaska. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 118:547–551.

Lewis, S. B., K. Titus, and M. R. Fuller. 2006. Northern goshawk diet during the nesting season in Southeast Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management 70:1151–1160.

Matsuoka, S. M., and C. M. Handel. 2007. Nesting ecology of boreal forest birds following a massive forest disturbance by spruce beetles. Journal of Wildlife Management 71:51–63.

Matsuoka, S. M., E. H. Holsten, M. E. Shephard, R. A. Werner, and R. E. Burnside (editors). 2006. Special issue: spruce beetles and forest ecosystems of south-central Alaska. Forest Ecology and Management 227:193–283.

Werner, R. A., E. H. Holsten, S. M. Matsuoka, and R. E. Burnside. 2006. Spruce beetles and forest ecosystems in south-central Alaska: a review of 30 years of research. Forest Ecology and Management 227:195–206.

2004–2005

Andres, B. A., B. T. Browne, and D. L. Brann. 2005. Composition, abundance, and timing of post-breeding migrant landbirds at Yakutat, Alaska. Wilson Bulletin 117:270–279.

Andres, B. A., M. J. Stotts, and J. M. Stotts. 2004. Breeding birds of research natural areas in southeastern Alaska. Northwestern Naturalist 85:95–103.

Johnson, J. A., S. M. Matsuoka, D. R. Ruthrauff, M. A. Litzow, and M. N. Dementyev. 2004. Additions to the avifauna of St. Matthew Islands, Bering Sea. Western Birds 35:50–52.

Lewis, S. B., M. R. Fuller, and K. Titus. 2004. A comparison of three methods for assessing raptor diet during the breeding season. Wildlife Society Bulletin 32:373–385.

Lewis, S. B., P. DeSimone, K. Titus, and M. R. Fuller. 2004. A video surveillance system for monitoring raptor nests in a temperate rainforest environment. Northwest Science 78:70–74.

2000–2003

Cotter, P.A., and B.A. Andres. 2000. Breeding bird habitat associations on the Alaska Breeding Bird Survey. U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division Information and Technology Report USGS/BRD/ITR-2000-0010.

Johnson, J.A. 2003. Breeding bird communities of major mainland rivers of southeastern Alaska. M.S. Thesis. Utah State University.

Lewis, S. B. 2003. Delivery and consumption of a pigeon guillemot by nesting northern goshawks in Southeast Alaska. Wilson Bulletin 115:483–485.

Matsuoka, S.M., C.M. Handel, and D.R. Ruthrauff. 2001. Densities of breeding birds and changes in vegetation in an Alaskan boreal forest following a massive disturbance by spruce beetles. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79:1678–1690.

Smith, W.P., M.J. Stotts, B.A. Andres, J.M. Melton, A. Garibaldi, and K. Boggs. 2001. Bird, mammal, and vegetation community survey of Research Natural Areas in the Tongass National Forest. USDA Forest Service Research Paper PNW-RP-535, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland OR.

1998–1999

Ayers, L.W., P.F. Schempf, and S. H. Anderson. Strategies for monitoring merlin (Falco columbarius) populations in North America. p. 56., 1999, Special Issue:

Abstracts of the Raptor Research Foundation Annual Meeting Raptor Research Foundation Annual Meeting, November 3–7, 1999, La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. 

Bowman, T.D, and P.F. Schempf. 1999. Detection of bald eagles during aerial surveys in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Journal of Raptor Research, 33(4): 299–304.

Gende, S.M., M.F. Willson, B.H. Marston, M.J. Jacobson, and W.P. Smith. 1998. Bald eagle nesting density and success in relation to distance from clearcut logging in southeast Alaska. Biological Conservation, 83(2): 121–126.

Handel, C.M., S.M. Matsuoka, and D.C. Douglas. 1998. The Alaska Landbird Resources Information System, Version 98.1. USGS Alaska Biological Science Center, Anchorage, Alaska. (http://alaska.usgs.gov/science/biology/bpif/index.php).

Jacobson, M.J., and J.I. Hodges. 1999. Population trend of adult bald eagles in southeast Alaska, 1967–97. Journal of Raptor Research, 33(4): 295–298.

Swem, T., T. Woods, and P. Schempf. 1998. The Queen Charlotte goshawk (Accipiter gentilis laingi) and the Endangered Species Act. Raptor Research Foundation Annual Meeting 31–32. Abstract only.

Wright, A.L., G.D. Hayward, S.M. Matsuoka, and P.H. Hayward. 1998. The Townsend's Warbler (Dendroica townsendi). In Birds of North America, No. 333 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.
1996–1997

Bernatowicz, J.A., P.F. Schempf, and T.D. Bowman. 1996. Bald Eagle productivity in south-central Alaska in 1989 and 1990 after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. 1996. Amer. Fish. Soc. Sym. 18:785–797.

Bowman, T.D, P.F. Schempf, and J.I. Hodges. 1997. Bald eagle population in Prince William Sound after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Journal of Wildlife Management, 61(3): 962–967.

Gende, S.M., M. F. Willson, and M. Jacobson. 1997. Reproductive success of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and its association with habitat or landscape features and weather in southeast Alaska. Canadian Journal of Zoology 75(10):1595–1604.

Matsuoka, S.M. 1996. Habitat selection and nestling ecology of Townsend's Warblers (Dendroica townsendi) in southcoastal Alaska. M.S. Thesis. University of Alaska Fairbanks.

Matsuoka, S.M., C.M. Handel, and D.D. Roby. 1997. Nesting ecology of Townsend's Warblers in relation to habitat characteristics in a mature boreal forest. Condor 99:271–281.

Matsuoka, S.M., C.M. Handel, D.D. Roby, and D.L. Thomas. 1997. The relative importance of nesting and foraging sites in selection of breeding territories by Townsend's Warblers. Auk 114:657–667. 

Schempf, P.F. 1997. Bald eagle longevity record from southeastern Alaska. Journal of Field Ornithology, 68(1): 150–151.
1994–1995

Bowman, T.D., P.F. Schempf, and J.A. Bernatowicz 1995. Bald eagle survival and population dynamics in Alaska after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. 1995. Journal of Wildlife Management 59: 317–324. 

Garcelon, D.K., E.G. Lobkov, M.J. McGrady, M.R. Fuller, I. Utekhina, P. Schempf, E.R. Potapov, and H. Nakagawa. 1994. Preliminary report on the status of Steller's sea eagles in Russia. Journal of Raptor Research, 28(1): 57. 1994. Abstract only. 

Jacobson, M.J. 1995. Bald eagle surveys in Alaska's Chilkat Valley, 1984–94. Journal of Raptor Research, 29(1): 58–59. Abstract only. 

Schempf, P.F. 1994. Bald eagle nesting chronology and implications for surveys. Journal of Raptor Research, 28(1): 65. 1994. Abstract only. 

1992–1993

Blakely, K.L., J.A. Crawford, and R.M. Oates. 1993. Temporal variation in the diets of California quail in western Oregon. Great Basin Naturalist 53:305–309.

Bloom, P.H., J.L. Henckel, E.H. Henckel, J.K. Schmutz, B. Woodbridge, J.R. Bryan, R.L. Anderson, P.J. Detrich, T.L. Maechtle, J.O. McKinley, M.D. McCrary, K. Titus, and P.F. Schempf. 1992. The dho-gasa with great-horned owl lure: an analysis of its effectiveness in capturing raptors. Journal of Raptor Research, 26(3): 167–178.

Henny, C.J., B. Conant, and D.W. Anderson. 1993. Recent distribution and status of nesting bald eagles in Baja California, Mexico. Journal of Raptor Research 27:203–209. 

Jacobson, M.J. 1993. A review of the bald eagle translocation projects in Alaska. Journal of Raptor Research, 27(1):74.

Kralovec, M.L., M.R. Fuller, P.F. Schempf, and M.R. Vaughan. 1993. Use of satellite telemetry in monitoring bald eagle movements. Journal of Raptor Research, 27(1): 76. 1993. Abstract only.

1980s

Ambrose, R.E., R.J. Ritchie, P.F. Schempf, T. Swem, and R. Dittrick. 1985. Status of peregrine populations in Alaska since 1965. Raptor Research Foundation Symposium on the Management of Birds of Prey. International Meeting. Session 4. International Peregrine Conference Twenty-year Anniversary Meeting. p. 1. 1985. Abstract only.

Ambrose, R.E., R. J. Ritchie, C.M. White, P.F. Schempf, T. Swem, and R. Dittrick. 1988. Changes in the status of peregrine falcon populations in Alaska. Pages 73–82 In Peregrine Falcon Populations. Their Management and Recovery (T.J. Cade, J.H. Enderson, C.G. Thelander and C.M. White, eds).

Blakely, K.L., J.A. Crawford, R.M. Oates and K.M. Kilbride. 1988. Invertebrate matter in the diet of California quail in western Oregon. Murrelet 69:75–78. 

Conant, B., A.N. Novara, and C.J. Henny. 1984. Monitoring bald eagle nesting in Baja California, Mexico. Journal of Raptor Research 18:36–37.

Crawford, J.A. and R.M. Oates. 1986. Sex and age ratios of shot and trapped California quail. Wildlife Society Bulletin 14:380–382.

Curtis, P.D., P.D. Doerr, P.D., R.M. Oates, and K.H. Pollock. 1989. Whistling-cock indices as a measure of northern bobwhite harvest in North Carolina. Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Conference Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies 43:253–259.

Hansen, A.J. and J.I. Hodges. 1985. High rates of nonbreeding adult bald eagles in southeastern Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management 49:454–458. 

Hodges, J.I. 1982. Bald eagle nesting studies in Seymour Canal, southeast Alaska. Condor 84: 125–127. 

Hodges, J.I., E.L. Boeker, and A.J. Hansen, 1987. Movements of radio-tagged bald eagles, Haliaeetus leucocephalus in and from southeastern Alaska. Canadian Field-Naturalist 101:136–140. 

Hodges, J.I., J.G. King, and R. Davies. 1984. Bald eagle breeding population survey of coastal British Columbia. Journal of Wildlife Management 48:993–998. 

Oates, R.M. and J.A. Crawford 1983. Effects of habitat manipulation on California quail in western Oregon. Journal of Wildlife Management 47:229–234. 

Schempf, P.F. 1989. Raptors in Alaska. National Wildlife Federation Scientific Technical Series. 12:144–154.

1970s

Crawford, J. A., R.M. Oates, and D.H. Helfer. 1979. Avian pox in California quail from Oregon. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 15: 447–449. 

Dau, C.P. and J. Paniyak. 1977. Hoopoe, a first record for North America. Auk 94:601. 

Dau, C.P., and D.D. Gibson. 1974. Common rosefinch, a first record for North America. Auk 91:185–186.

Hodges, J.I., J.G. King, and F.C. Robards. 1979. Resurvey of the bald eagle breeding population in southeast Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management 43:219–221.

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