USFWS
Marine Mammals Management
Alaska Region

 

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Polar Bear Deterrence Training Manual

Student Guide

MODULE

Page No.

1.0

INTRODUCTION

i

2.0

LAWS GUIDING DETERRENCE

S2-1

3.0

INTRODUCTION TO DETERRENCE

S3-1

4.0

DETERRENTS INTRODUCTION

S4-1

4.1

Visual / Auditory Introduction

S4-1

4.1.1

Humans

S4-2

4.1.2

Vehicles

S4-4

4.1.3

Helicopters

S4-8

4.1.4

Lighting

S4-14

4.1.5

Horns & Sirens

S4-16

4.1.6

Dogs

S4-18

4.2

PYROTECHNICAL DETERRENTS INTRODUCTION

S4-20

4.2.1

Pencil Launched Pyrotechnics

S4-21

4.2.2

Pistol Type Launchers

S4-29

4.2.3

Pistol Type Pyrotechnics

S4-35

4.2.4

12 Gauge Shotgun

S4-42

4.2.5

Shotgun Pyrotechnics

S4-50

4.3

DIRECT CONTACT DETERRENTS

S4-57

4.3.1

Rubber Projectiles

S4-58

4.3.2

Beanbag Projectiles

S4-64

4.3.3

Oleoresin Capsicum

S4-68

4.3.4

Paintballs Projectiles

S4-72

4.4.1

Deterrent Range Chart

S4-77

5.0

LETHAL ACTION

S5-1

6.0

POLAR BEAR ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR

S6-1

6.1

SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION

S6-8

6.2

BEAR / HUMAN INTERACTIONS

S6-16

6.3

POLAR BEAR APPROACHES

S6-20

7.0

DETERRENT PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES

S7-1

8.0

LIVE FIRE RANGE EXCERCISE

S8-1

8.1

TARGET TEMPLATES

S8-8

8.2

TARGET STANDS

S8-12

8.3

LAUNCHER AND FIREARM – PRACTICAL EVALUATION

1

9.0

TRAINER GUIDELINES

S9-1

 

Last updated: February 2017